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University of California • Berkeley 


JVNC 15^72 






Published Monthly 

The California^ Publishing Co. 

London 450 Strand, Los Angeles. Paris 224 Rue de Rivou 

wT-w-mT Xi 

¥> 'm'Kfr*tc*nr\ I wt 







4^ Cor. Market and Fourth Streets ^& 


Capital Stock, 
I*aicl lip in Csissili, 
Subject to Call, . 
Hvii'pliiw F'ixikI, 
Untiiviclecl IProiitw, 





Married Women and Children may deposit money subject to their control. 

AD accounts confidential, interest credited twice a year and commences with 
date of deposit. 

Open from 9.00 a. m. to 3.00 p. m. on weeic days and on Monday and Saturday 
evenings from 6.30 to 8.30. 

Any one/nterested in finance does not fail to find 
the study of the stamp system of savings one in which 
there is nmcli food for thought. Undoubtedly it is the 
best system in the world to encourage 
small savings. 

In Germany it has resulted in the 
hoarding up of millions of mnrks 
by the poor people, who call down 
blessings npon its originator. 

The 5-cent stamp sy.s'em is iti full 
operation at the P'.ople's Home 
Savings Bank, and those who have 
investigated it are convinced of its 

About 9,000 stamp-saving books 
have been issued by the bank to 
People's Home Stamp, the people of ftan Francisco. In 
each book are ten or fifteen deposit cards, and when 
enoiigh stamps have been purchased from time to time 
to fill one of the cards, that card is worth a dollar at 
the People's Home Savings Bank, Sos Market Street, 
corner 4th. As an object lesson in saving to the youth 
of the land the stamp system is invaluable. 

The People's Home Savings Bank has adopted a 
verj' effective plan for accumulatingagoodsum of money 
by 'small savings. The bank has a large number of 
stnall nickel-plated safes, oblong in shape and about 

half the size of an ordinary 
cigar-box. These will each 
hold about $33 In silver coin, 
and their use is becoming 
general in San Francisco. To 
get a safe, you simply deposit 
a dollar with the People's 
Home cashier and take it 
home, where yo\i drop in an 
occasional dime or more, ami 
wake up .some morning to 
find that you have $35 of 
- s\irplus coin on hand. The 
only way v '' this is to take the little .safe 

to the People's Home Savings Bank, where the key is 
kept and there unlock it. The dime-savers then deposit 
the money in the People's Home Savings Bank, and 
thus lay the foundation for a fortune. — .SVjw Jiannsco 


A -.pedal feature of the r^opleN Home Savings Bank '^ the Safe Deposit V^^^^^^ 
exception on the Coast: easy of access, being on the ground floor of the Bank, bnlliami> iitmtu «un »re 
incande.scent lights, and secure and convenient for the inspection of valuables. < 

I.„llv.,.UHl .Steel Safes, inside the Vaults, may be «^-c"red at rentals of from $4^00 to f^^-J^l^^r annum T h J^ 
smallest safe is large enough f"r your Insurance Policies, your Will, Stocks. Bonds, a gooil deal o! coin, anu quuo- 

" 'uolfrnt Jrc^fimmhed the depositors for the private inspection of valuables, where they can lock themselves in 

from all intrusion. . , . . . , r .•).._-_,„ — 

l)own stairs arc absolutely fire-proof and bi.rglar-proof vaiiUs with capacity for storing amounts of silverware 

trunks and boxes containing furs, laces, clothing and other valuables 


Manaccr and Sccretary. 






June to November, 1892 

Vol. II 



),' t '^ 

Copyright, 1892, by Thb Californian Publishing Company. 

from the press of 

The San Francisco Printing Company, 

411 Market Street, 8. F. 

2. -2-66 ^ 

Bancroft Library 



The Californian Illustrated 




Administration of James A. Garfield, The — III Ex-Gov. Lionel A. Sheldon 782 

Aloiia. Poem Louis Carl Ehle 173 

Among the Redwoods. Poem H. L. Neal 328 

An' the YellowtaUvS a-Bitin' 1 Poem Charles A. Gardner 646 

Around Lake Taiioe Anna C. Murphy 48 

Fully illustrated from photographs and paintings. 

Art in Japanese Swords Helen E. Greqory-Flesher, M. A. 14 

Illustrated by specimens from famous cc^l&tidtW; and by sketches by Breuer. 

Aunt Milly's Love Letter Helen Eachael Hobb 220 

Australian Ballot Law Questions of the day 591 

Ballad of the Summer Sun. Poem Charlotte Perkins Stetson 151 

Baptists in California Rev. Frank Dixon 442 

Fully illustrated by Latour, Dahlgren and from photographs. 

Basket Makers, Among the Jeanne C. Carr 597 

Fully illustrated by H. n. Sherk and photographs of famous collections by Crandall. 

Black Art in Hawaii, The Rev. A. N. Fisher, D. D 496 

Fully illustrated by Dahlgren, Denslow and fine photographs. 

Black-Tailed Deer, Following the Donald Mason 787 

Book Reviews. (See New Books). 

Brunhilde. Poem . Frank Norris 61 

Illustrated by the author. 

California : 

Baptists in Rev. Frank Dixon 442 

Fully illustrated by Latour, Dahlgren and from photographs. 

Growth of Questions of the Day 464 

Loan Exhibition— I, II Auguste Wey 335, 504 

Illustrated by courtesy of the Pasadena Loan Association. 

Missions of Laura Bride Powers 647 

Illustrated by W. J. Fenn. 

Marketing Fruits Wm. H. Mills 703 

Riverside An Englishman 790 

Southern, Mountain Railroad (Pasadena) Olaf Ellison 259 

Fully illustrated from photographs made especially for the Califoknian. 

Dream of. Poem Wm. T. Bumstead 789 

California Gulf, Pe.vrl Divers of the C. H. Townsend 116 

Illustrated by photographs of famous pearl and sketches of La Paz by Denslow. 

Oalifornians, Political Duty of Richard H. McDonald, Jr 673 

Can a Chinaman Become a Christian? Rev. Frederic J. Masters, D. D.622 

Illustrated by photographs of eminent Chinese divines. 

Can Ghosts be Photographed? Prof. Elliot Coues 467 

Illustrated from original photogrraphs by various " spirit photographers." 

Can we Communicate with Mabs? Questions of the Day 721 

iv INDEX. 


Caemenita, Thb Dancinq Gibl Ella Higginson 101 

Charity Questions of the Day 330 

Chinaman, Can (he) Become a Christian? Rev. Frederic J. Masters, D. D. .622 

Coffee m Guatemala Emelie T. Y. Parkhurst 742 

Conqueror Worm, The. Poem Rose M. David 814 

Coral Reef, On a Charles Frederick Holder 61 1 

Illustrated from rare specimens in the collection of Thomas Crawford Jonnston, at the 
Academy of Sciences. 

"Crown of the Gabriel Valley, The (Pasadena) . ..Charles Frederick Holder 418 

Illustrated from photographs by Crandall, Jarvis and Hill. 

Cupid Afloat. Poem M. Imlay Taylor 211 

Desert, The. Poem J. W. Wood 364 

Illustrated by Denslow. 

Diaz, The Rise of JosS Gonzales 669 


Did the Phcenicians Discover America? — I Thomas Crawford Johnston 753 

Dr. Masters and the Chinese Question Questions of the Day 167 

Dream of California. Poem Wm. T. Bumstead 789 

Dry Tortuqas During the War, At the A Lady's Joumal..l02, 206, 388, 557 

Election of James A. Garfield, The — II Ex-Gov. Lionel A. Sheldon 687 

English Poets, The Florence of the Grace Ellery Channing 165 

Illustrated by Constance Snow and from photographs. 

English Slumber Song. Poem Jean La Rue Burnett 644 

Episode at Fiddler's. A Story George Charles Brooke 684 

Famine in Russia, The. Poem Flora Macdonald Shearer 708 

Fellow Feeling, A. A Story George Charles Brooke 126 

Fishes of the Pacific Coast, Game Henry T. Payton 226 

Full-page illustration of hooking the Yellowtail. 

Florence op the English Poets, The Grace Ellery Channing 165 

Illustrated by Constance Snow and from photographs. 

Following the Black-Tailed Dbee Donald Mason 787 

Frau Lizel. a Story Jean Porter Rudd 396 

Illustrated by Denslow from sketches by Constance Bnow. 

Fur-Seal Controversy, Review of the J. C. Cantwell 64 

Illustrated by maps and sketches by Denslow. 

Game Fishes of the Pacific Henry T. Payton 226 

Full-page illustration of hooking the Yellowtail. 

Garfield, James A Ex-Gov. 

Nomination of — I " 

Election of — II " 

Administration of — III " 

Ghosts, Can (They) be Photographed? Prof. Elliot Coues 467 

Illustrated from original photographs by various " spirit photographers." 

Glaciers, American — II Charles R. Ames 136 

Fully illustrated by photographs and paintings of famous glaciers. 

Glimpse of Two Presidents, A William F. Channing, M. D. . .382 

Good Government, How to Secure Questions of the Day 692 

Growing City, A Questions of the Day 329 

Guatemala, Coffee in Emelie T. Y. Parkhurst 742 

Haunted. Poem Carrie Blake Morgan 87 

Haunts of the Pacific Jew Fish, The Charles Frederick Holder 129 

Illustrated by jihotographs from nature. 

Hawaii, The Black Art m Rev. A. N. Either, D. D 496 

Fully illustrated by Dahlgrcn, Denslow and fine photographs. 

High Tide. Poem Amy Elizabeth Leigh 777 

Hope. Poem Hon. Nestor A. Young 78, 347 


I A. Slieldon. . 

, , 












Ip thb Shadows Fell Not. Poem Mary Emelyn McClure 741 

In Memoeiam — Emelie T. Y. Parkhckbt. Poem Emily Browne Powell 128 

India, An American in Joseph Simms, M. D ^26 

Illustrated by Dahlgren, Arronlz and Denslow from sketches by the author. 

Influence. Poem Charlotte Bromley Shuey 521 

Italy. Poem Grace Ellery Channing 237 

Japanese Raid, The Questions of the Day 330 

Japanese Swords, Art in Helen E. Gregory-FUsher, M. A. 14 

Illustrated by specimens from famous collections and by sketches by Breuer. 

Jew Fisn, The Haunts of the Pacific Charles Frederick Uolder 129 

Illustrated by photographs from nature. 

Jim Barker. A Tavern Idyl Major W. A. Elderkin, U. S.A. . 384 

Jimmy The Guide. A Story Walter B. Cooke 633 

Lake County in a Six-in-Hand, Through George Charles Brooke 315 

Illustrated by Denslow and Dahlgren. 

Lake Tahoe, Around Anna C. Murphy 48 

Fully illustrated from photographs and paintings. 

Last Defeat, The. A Story Adele A. Gleason 95 

Les Autkes of Nice Fannie C. W. Barbour 3 

Fully illustrated. 

'' Liz." a Story Adele Gleason 414 

Illustrated by Denslow. 

Loan Exhibition, A California — I Auguste Wey 335 

Illustrated by courtesy of the Pasadena Loan Association. 

Loan Exhibition, A California — II Auguste Wey 504 

Fully illustrated from photographs of the Pasadena Loan Association. 

Los Angeles, New James R. Henderson 645 

Fully Illustrated by Breuer and from photographs. 

Love's Regret. Poem Alice F Anson 109 

Lowe, Prof. T. S. C. — Men op The Day Jamts Spencer Brainhard 436 

Lower California Questions of the Day 156 

Machine Politics, Shall (They) Rule? MajorWm.H. Bonsall, President 

of the Council of Los Angeles. 714 
Marketing California Fruits Wm. H. Mills 703 

Mars, Signaling Wm. M. Pierson, President of 

the Astronomical Society of 
the Pacific 678 

Men op the Day — Prof. T. S. 0. Lowe J. S. Brainhard 435 

Millionaires Dr. Lyman Allen 772 

Miss Sabrina's Scheme. A Story Dorothea Lummis, M.D 517 

Mississippi Valley, The Pre-Columbians op James M. Carson 692 

Fully illustrated from specimens in the National Museum. 

Missions and the World's Fair, The Questions of the Day 160 

Missions op California, The J^aura Bride Powers 547 

Illustrated by W. J. Fenn. 

Missions, Preservation of Questions of the Day 592 

Monterey, My Studio at Paul Vandyke 303 

Illustrated by photographic studies. 

Monument to Cabrillo, A Questions of the Day 721 

Morning. Poem Geraldine Meyrick 677 

MuiR, John Jeanne C. Carr 88 

Full-page Illustration. 

Municipal Government, How to Secure Good Richard H. McDonald, Jr 522 

My Studio at ]\Ionterey Paul Vandyke 303 

Illustrated by photographic studies. 

Mystic Journey, A. A Dream I. L. O 152 

Natitb Abt Questions of the Day 722 

vi INDEX. 


New Books 161,331,693, 723 

New British Government, The Questions of the Day 720 

New Los Angeles James R. Henderson 645 

Fully illustrated by Breuer and from photographs. 

NicAKAGUA Canal, The William Lawrence Merry 579 

Nice, Les Autees op Fannie C. W. Barbour 3 

Fully illustrated. 

Night. Poem Robert Beverly Hale 781 

Nocturnes. Poem Grace Ellery Channing 556 

Nomination op James A. Garpield, The — I Ex-Gov. Lionel A. Sheldon . . . .585 

Observatory op the Mountain, The. Poem Lillian H. Shuey 230 

Old Xavier's Mortgage. A Story Julia H. S. Bugeia 536 

Oregon Hon. M. C. George 718 

Our Commercial Growth and the Tarifp : 

From the Republican Standpoint Richard H. McDonald, Jr 808 

From the Democratic Standpoint Stephen M. White 815 

Pacipic Coast and the Nation, The Questions of the Day 156 

Pacipic Coast Cities Questions of the Day 722 

Pacipic, Game Fishes of the Henry T. Payton 226 

Full-page illustration. 

Pacific Jew Fish, The Haunts op the Charles Frederick Holder 129 

Illustrated by photographs from nature. 

Padre Felipe and the Buried Treasure. A Story George F. Weeks 110 

Pagan Temples in San Francisco Frederic J. Masters, D. D 727 


Parkhurst, Emelie T. Y. In Memortam. A Poem Emily Browne Powell 128 

Pearl Divers op the California Gulp C. H. Townsend 1 16 

Illustrated by photographs of famous pearl and sketches of La Paz by Deuslow. 

Phcentcians, Did (they) Discover America? — I Thomas Craivford Johnston 753 

Phcenlx, Arizona E. S. Gill 238 

Fully illustrated by Harris and from photographs. 

Political Duty of Californians /diehard H. McDonald, Jr 673 

Political Strategy Ex-Gov. Lionel A. Sheldon 146 

Politicians, Shall We Educate Cue? — ^I, 11 Casper T. Hopkins 79, 212 

Pomona, The City op H. J. Hall 561 


PoMPEH /. /. Peatfield 190 

Fully illustrated by recent photographs. 

Practical Temperance Laura Bride Powers 456 

Illustrated by Dahlgren. 

Pre-Columbians of the Mississippi Valley James M. Carson 692 

Fully illustrated from specimens In the National Museum. 

Pre-Columbians op the Southwest /. J. Peatfield 839 

Fully illustrated from specimens in the National Museum. 

Presidential Curiosities Questions of the Day 169 

Presidents, A Glimpse op Tnvo William F. Channing, M. D.. .382 

Physical Science Congress Questions of the Day 158 

Pure Politics Questions of the Day 722 

Railroad, A Southern California Mountain Olaf Ellison 259 

Fully illustrated from photographs made especially for the Californian. 

Ranching for Feathers M. C. Frederick 637 

Illustrated by Denslow. 

Re-election op a President Questions of the Day 462 

Review op the Fur-Seal Controversy /. C. Cantwell 64 

Illustrated by maps and sketches by Denslow. 

Reviews (See New Books.) 

RrvEEsiDK, California By an Englishman 790 

INDEX. vii 


San Fbancisco : 

- City of Richard H, McDonald, Jr 365 

Fully illustrated from photographs by Taber. 

Pagan Tkmples in Frederic J. Masters, D. D 727 

Schools of Fred II. Uackett 281 

Fully illustrated. 

Yachting Around Charles O. Yale 484 

Illustrated from instantaneous photographs by Taber. 

^ San Gabriel Valley, The Crown of the Charles Frederick Holder 418 

Illustrated from photographs by Crandall, Jarvis and Hill. 

V Schools op San Francisco, The Fred H. Ilackett 281 

Fully illustrated. 

Selection in Emigrants Questions of the Day 158 

Shall Machine Politics Rule? MajorWm. II. Bonsall, President 

oj the Council of Los Angeles. 714 
Shall we Educate our Politicians? — I, II Casper T. Hopkins 79, 212 

Signaling Mars Wm. M. Pierson, President of the 

Astronomical Society of the 
Pacific 678 

Some American Glaciers — II Charles R. Ames 135 

Fully illustrated by photographs and paintings of famous glaciers. 

Story of Rotiienstein, The William H. Carpenter 764 

Strange Warning, A. A true Story Lieut. J. C. Cantwell 231 

Summer Resorts Questions of the Day 330 

Superstition Bettie Lowenberg 709 

Temperance, Practical Laura Bride Powers 456 

Illustrated by Dahlgren. 

TnoRWALDSEN CM. Waage 32 

Fully illustrated. 

Three Minstrels. Poem Anna M. Reed 383 

Three Mysteries. Poem Alice I. Eaton 691 

-»Throop University, Pasadena Jeanne C. Carr 565 

Fully illustrated. 

Through Lake County in a Six-in-Hand George Charles Brooke 315 

Illustrated by Denslow and Dahlgren. 

^Too Late. Poem Emma Playter Seabury 686 

Traffic in White Girls M. O. C. Edholm 825 

Two Thanksgivings. A Story Francis Peyton 778 

Unforgotten Love. Poem Pauline Bryant 31 

University, Throop, Pasadena Jeanne C. Carr 565 

Fully illustrated. 

Urban Population, The Growth of Questions of the Day 463 

Vacation. Poem Alfred I. Townsend 621 

Illustrated by Dahlgren. 

Wheat of San Joaquin, The. Poem Madge Morris 560 

White Girls, Traffic in M. O. C. Edholm 825 

Wonderland, The Pacific Coast Questions of the Day 156 

World's Fair, The Questions of the Day 592, 722 

Yachting Around San Francisco Charles G. Yale 484 

Illustrated from instantaneous photographs by Taber. 

Yellowstone Park, In the James Carson Fennell 348 

Fully illustrated by full-page and other cuts, by Thor, Dahlgren, Harris, Dolmer, etc. 

Yosemite, In the Charles T. Gordon 174 

Illustrated from paintings by Thor, Dahlgren, Brown, and from photographs by Taber. 

Yoseshte Valley, The. ., Questions of the Day 329 

viii INDEX. 



Aloha Louis Carl Ehle 173 

Among the Redwoods //. L. Neall 328 

An' the Yellowtails a-Bitin' Charles A. Gardner 545 

Ballad of the Summer Son Charlotte Perkins Stetson 151 

Brunhilde Frank Norris 61 

Illustrated by the author. 

Cupid Afloat M. Tmlay Taylor 211 

Desert, The J. W. Wood 364 

Illustrated by Denslow. 

Dream of California Wm. T. Bumstead 789 

English Slumber Song Jean La Rue Burnett 644 

Famine in Russia. The Flora Macdonald Shearer 708 

Haunted Carrie Blake Morgan 87 

Hope Hon. Nestor A. Young 78, 347 

If the Shadows Fell Not Mary Emelyn McClure 741 

In Me.moriam — Emelie Tracy Y. Parkhurst Emily Browne Powell 128 

Influence Charlotte Bromley Shuey 621 

Italy Grace Ellery Channing 237 

Jim B.uiKER Major W. A. Elderkin, U. S. A. 384 

Love's Regret Alice I' Anson 109 

Morning .Geraldine Meyrick 677 

Night Robert Beverly Ilale 781 

Nocturnes Grace Ellery t hanning 556 

The Conqueror Worm Rose M. David 814 

Three Minstrels Anna M. Reed 383 

Three Mysteries Alice I. Eaton 691 

Too Late Emma Playter Seabury 686 

Unforgotten Love Pauline Bryant 31 

Vacation Alfred I. Townsend 621 

Illustrated by Dahlgren. 
Wheat of San Joaquin, The Madge Morris 560 


Australian Ballot Law, The 591 

Can we Communicate With Mars? 721 

Charity 330 

Chinese Question, The 167 

Dr. ^Masters and the Chinese Question 167 

Gone, Yet with Us 851 

Growing City, A 329 

Growth of Urban Population, The 463 

How to Secure Good Government 592 

Japanese Raid, The 330 

Lower California 156 

Missions and the AVorld's Fair, The 160 

Monument to Cabrillo, A 721 

Native Art 722 

New British Government 720 

Notable Convention, A 863 

Pacific Coast and the Nation, The 156 

Pacific Coast Cities 722 

Pacific Coast Wonderland, The 156 

Preservation of the Missions 592 

Presidential Curiosities 159 

Physical Science Congress 158 

Pure Politics 722 

Recent Strikes, The 851 

Re-election ok a President 462 

Selection in Emigrants 158 

Signaling Mars 853 

BuMMEK Rehouts 330 

World's Fair, Thk 692 



j-^^ THE 


Castlk f.AKK, ni:ak Taikh-: 


1mi11\- Illuslr.-iUd. 

lUustrakd by spfcinitns frniii fami»i^ ci)lltclioii>. ami 

l)y skctclu-s by Brciu--. 

l-iilly Il'.ii.stratKl. 

I'lilly Illiislratid friini i>hotograpli.'; and paintinps. 
BRUNHII,DE: Poem ..... 

Tllu^tiatKl by tl.i.' author. 

Illuslratcil by inajis and .-kclclus 1i\ Dcnslow. 
HOPE: Poem . . 


l'\ill ])am- Illustration. 

I,OVE'S REGRET ..... Ai.icr I axson 

PADRE FEI/IPE: A Story Gkorc-.f. F. Wekks 


Illustrated b\ photograph of famous pearl and sketches of the l'. S. Fish Commission, 

of La Paz by Denslow. 

Illustrated b\- i)hotoii;raph- from nature. 

h'ully Illustrated by phot' grajjlis and paintings of famous 
POI^ITICAI, STRATEGY .... Kx i.oveknok Lioxki. A. Sheldon 

BALLAD OF THE SUMMER SUN Chakt.ottf Pkrkixs Stktsox 

A MYSTIC JOURNEY: A Dream ... I. I.. <.. .... 


Lower California The P.acilic Coast and the Nation - 
The Pacific Coast Wonder Land — Dr. Masters and the 
Chinese Question — Selection in Kmigrants — Presiden- 
tial Ciiriosities. 

NEW BOOKS ............ 

Copyright iSoi by The Californian Pi;blishing Co. Kntered ,Tt San Francisco postoflfice as second-class mail matter. 


The Californian 

The May issue of The Californian, if we may judge from the reviews of the press, 
attracted unusual attention and was received with especial favor from Canada to the 
republic of Nicaragua. The Boston Herald remarks, in referring to its plienonienal 
success: " We do not know of an American magazine that has more quickly found its 
place than this. It cannot avoid securing a large recognition throughout the country. 
One is surprised to find that so much can be said aljout things in California that have not 
before received treatment." Tlie literary editor of the Advocate writes : " The Californian 
for May is a si)lcnilid number. The article on 'The Underground Opium Dens of San 
Francisco,' illustrated l)y tlashliglit, is a real literary novelty, and would be sufficient in 
itself to establish u reixitation for enterprise and originality for tlie Magazine.'' Regard- 
ing the pictorial features of The Californian, the Toledo Blade says: "The Californian 
Illustrated Mac;azine is superbly illustrated." The San Francisco Report is one of the 
best judges of what success means and how it can be acc(miplished. It says: "The 
Magazine has been a success from a literary and artistic standjioint from the start. * * 
The first number of Thk Camfokmax was so good that it was generally believed that its 
excellence was due to especial etl'ort and could not be maintained. Each subsecjuent issue 
has, however, proved better than its predecessor and the Magazine is one of which Cali- 
fornia may feel proud." The Mitmouri World, of Chillicothe, says: "The Californian 
Illustuatim) Ma(;azixk has attained the i)henomenal success of the age. * * In six 
months the Magazine lias l)een j)laced on a plane with Harpers' and the Century." The 
literary editor of the New York J'Jreitin;/ Telec/ravi says: "It is but tlie fifth issue, yet it 
compares favorably with an issue on the Atlantic Slope, both typographically and pictori- 
ally. Its contents are sufficiently varied to make it intei'esting to every section of the 
country and it has undoubted signs of long life within it." The Xe)vs Letter, of San 
Francisco, says: "It is an excellent i)ublication fully up to the standard of the leading 
monthly magazines of the country." The literary editor of the Arcjiis writes : " The present 
issue is a credit to tiie State." A greater compliment could not l)e paid The Californian 
than this short sentence. The Harrisburg, Pa. Telegram says : " The issue is a veritable 
hijou of excellence from a typographical, artistic and literary standpoint." The Appeal, of 
Marysville, says : " Such clever work deserves recognition by every thorough Californian." 
The Messenger, of San Iauh Obispo, writes: " It is one of the best literary ventures of the 
day." These expressions of o])inion are a few taken at random from hundreds; and are 
republished here to show that tlu' efibrts of the publishers to give Western North America 
an illustrated monthly which will compare favorably with those of the East are being 


Advertisers in the East will find Tin; Californian a valuable medium, as having the 
largest circulation of any illustrated magazine of the first class west of New York it 
finds its way to a money spending constituency, and is read by at least one iiundred and 
twenty-five thousand people a month. Local advertisers, who desire to phu'C their lands 
and ranches l)efore the i)eople of the East and Europe, will find it equally valual)le. The 
publishers projjose to circulate it in every town, city and luunU.'t in this country, and every 
time the golden cover of The Californian flashes in the sunlight of the Eastern States it 
means a word spoken for California, Oregon, Washingt(m and Western North America, 
towards which the eyes of this country and p;uroi)e are turned. 


Tiik Californian will send, on receipt of price, fifty cents, a specially designed binder. 
Bound volumes will be exchanged for sets returned in good condition on receipt of price, 
inclu<ling ])ostage, thirty cents. 


The Californian for .Inly will be an especially interesting issue. It will contain 
richly illustrated articles on the Yosi'iuite Valley, Monterey, Father Junijiero, The .\nci»'nt 
(Jity of I'ompeii, lilack Art in Hawaii, (iame Fishes of the l*acific, Florenci', Tlie City of 
the Poets, The Mountains of California, etc. ; with short stories, poems, political articles, 

The£ Caliiornian Iixlistrathi) Magazine, 


Los Angi;i,i:s, Cai.. 

Hn'soii it IlfjiK-Lraki- Hlock 

UA'A . V( 7/ OFFICES : 



ToUcr lluiKHii){ 

















117-123 Geary St. San Francisco 

The Virginia 






The 0pen Courts facing South jnsure 
Sunlight and Perfect \^entilation. 










Tourists and Health Seekers 




Hotel del Monte 


Only 3 1-2 hours from San Francisco by Express Trains of the Southern Pacific Company 

KATKS l-'OK IJOAIJI): Hy llic day, $;vO<) and upward. I'arlore, IVoiii Si.oo to $2.50 per day oxlta. CliiUlreii, in 
children's diiiintc-rooiii, ;>'. oil per (lav. 

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The extra tost of a trij) to California is more than counterbalanced by the dilTerence between rales ol varion.s Winter 
Re.sorts and of the ineomparalile IIotki, i>i;l Monti;. 

liitt-iDliiiK ViHilor.H to (iilifoiiiia and the II()Ti:i, DEL MONTI-; have the choice of the " SlNSl"!", " "OC.DhN 
or "SHASTA " Koutes. These three routes, the three main arni.s of the great railway system ol lheS(H'THl';KN I'ACIMC 
COMPANY, carry the travelers throuKli the best .sections of California, and anv oneof them will reveal wonders ot chinatc, 
products and scenery that no other part of the world can duplicate. I'or illustrated descriptive panii)hlet ol the hotel 
and for information as to njutes and travel, rates for tickets, etc., call upon or address 1\. ll.\\\I.hV. Assistant I'.etieral 
Traffic Manager. So\ilhern Pacific Comi>aiiy, .^.f Itroadway, New York, or \V. C. NEIMVIK. C.eueral Western Agent, 
204 Clark street, Cliicago, 111. I'"or further information, .address 

tiKOUOK .SCII0M:\V.\I,I», MmiUK.i llol.-l .Id >l<>iit<> 

<)ri;N .\i.i. Till; ^l;\l: i;<MM> >ioiii.r.\ . raiifomi:* 

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The Californian 

Vol. II 

J UNI-:, 1892 




MONG the gay and 
happy throng of 
wealthy visitors 
who flock to this 
most attractive 
spot on the French 
Riviera, in search of recreation, 
climate or health, very little is known 
of nous autres, as they call themselves. 
These are the other classes of those 
less fortunate ones who have to work 
hard for their daily bread. 

Nice is pre-eminently a city of 
gaiety, light-heartedness and distrac- 
tion, with its enchanting sunshine and 
beautiful scener}^ over-shadowed by 
skies of unfathomable blue, no wonder 
that, in this almost cloudless atmos- 
phere, one forgets for the moment that 
here there are many lives, whose 
dullness is seldom brightened by any 
ray of joy, and whose daily existence 
is over-clou(k'd l)y the shadows of care, 
and the hard toil of a never-ending 
struggle for the mere necessaries of life. 
Side by side, in strong contrast, lie 
the new part of the cit\- — the vStrangers' 
quarter — and the old town or vicUe 
villc, just the river. The 
one pos.sesses its open squares and its 
Casino with a most enchanting winter 
garden, which resembles fairyland, 
when it is illuminated for the nightly 
concert, or frequent evening /('tcs. 
The beautiful Jardin Publique, filled 
every day with a crowd of fashionable 
visitors, lies at the beginning of the 

Promenade des Anglais, that broad, 
villa-lined avenue, which .stretches 
along for two miles, a magnificent, 
palm-bordered roadway, to the 
crescent shore of the sea. The newly 
completed Jctce Promenade, jutting 
out into the deep blue Mediterranean, 
with its foundation of iron trestle 
work, lapped by the spray of the 
rolling surf, offers a most attractive 
place of rendezvous for this amu.sement 
.surfeited crowd of etegantes. Here 
they walk on its terrace, which, 
overhanging the water, reminds one 
of the deck of an ocean steamer ; and 
here they congregate everj- afternoon 
to listen to exquisite strains of music, 
rendered by a orchestra. 
Here they flirt and chat and even 
gamble a little, while sipping afternoon 
tea. coffee, or absinthe, according to 
their nationality, and the main object 
in life .seems to be to while away the 
hours in the most charming manner 

Now let us look upon the other side 
of the picture — across the river in the 
old town with its dark, narrow streets, 
into some of which no solitary ray of 
God's sunlight, so free to all, ever 
penetrates. Here the scene differs 
widely from the first. All are at work. 
not with that woe-begone, crushed 
liearing. which characterizes the 
hopelessly poor in our own large 
cities, but with a spirit and a will, 
with many a iong and jest. 







Queer liUle shops whose darkness 
is ahnost unfath(jiiiable, offer eurious 
wares to the passer-by. One contains 
cheese and nothing btit cheese. Here 
are gJiiycrc, pannvsan, 7'ocqiiefort , 
brie and calombcrt, in all stages and 
ages, with their accompanying odors. 
Here is a pleasant-faced old LVencli 
woman with snowy cap, who offers us 
casseroles. vSuch a collection, all of 
earthenware ! Jugs, pannikins pots, 
chestnut roasters, marmites and 
pitchers, some of which are so artistic 
in form and coloring that we are 
tempted to invest in one at the price 
of a few sons, to fill with flowers for 
our salon tables. Then we come across 
an arcade where hang rabbits and 
game for sale. The former are sus- 
pended alive by their hind legs, which 
are tied tightly together, while their 
fore feet trail on the ground. As the}- 
5end frightened, beseeching glances at 
us from their large pathetic eyes, we 
should like to the whole 
stock for the fun of .seeing them 
scamper joyfully down the narrow 

The other game consists of pigeons 
which have been shot the day before 
at the Monte Carlo .shooting matches ; 
poor little larks, whose bony bodies 
show that their song is worth far more 
than their flesh ; hares, skinned and 
sold in portions or by the joint ; and 
sad looking chickens, yellow, 
dried-up .skins .suggest the experience 
of a long journey hither, with third- accommodations. Further on 
are all .sorts of dried fi.sli ; salt codfish 
soaking in casseroles of fresh water ; 
herrings, niarinced, smoked and 
salted, with sardines and tunny in oil. 

Now, we find a most curious bazaar 
where they sell ever^-thing ; a dimin- 
utive Macy's in the shadow. Here is 
a tailor .shop where the men sit cross- 
legged close to the window which has 
no glass in order to get a ray of light. 
There are some interesting old jewelry 
.shops where one can occasionally find 
a good piece of fine work done hy the 
celebrated goldsmiths of old Nice. In 
all of these places much bargaining is 

necessary if only to buy two saris'" 
worth of cheese or an ^ZZ- ^ o^ must 
always cheapen the first price or you 
will be considered by the .seller to be 
slightly outre. 

A singular sight now presents itself 
and we almost cry aloud in amazement. 
From out a steep and narrow side 
street appear three women carrying a 
piano on their heads. They have 
taken an old apron rolled it into a 
thick round wad and placed it on the 
crown of the head. There they go 
with slow and measured tread, swing- 
ing their hands to balance them.selves 
while they carry a load which in our 
own "land of the free" it requires 
four men, a pair of horses and a cart 
to transport. For this work they will 
earn a half i\ fratic apiece, or possibly 
:x franc, with which latter sum they 
will go home radiantly con;^nt. 

We meet women coming in to the 
town market riding on small donkeys 
which are so laden with vegetables 
bulging out on either side that it is 
rather difficult to pass and we must 
crowd into a doorway. The laiiilrcs 
or women who sell milk excite our 
curiosity. Tliej' sit by the roadside 
and knit while they deal out in small 
portions rather blue-looking milk to 
any who are fortunate enough to be 
able to afford it ; for milk is an expen- 
sive beverage here, where cows are 
kept in the .stables from one year's end 
to the other, brought up and fed by 
hand, as it were. Wine is much 
cheaper than milk, and many a little 
one in parts is fed upon diluted 
wine (from its infancy) instead of 
wholesome nourishing milk. 

A poor old woman toiling up the 
steps with a heavy basket of newly 
washed linen on lier head suggests 
another occupation of many of the 
A^/fo/sc. Down below all this narrow- 
ness and steepness runs the River 
Paillon which forms another most 
striking contrast to the darkness 
above. Wide and open is its bed and 
sunny are its banks. Here we see the 
poor engaged in quite a different em- 
ployment and a peculiar picture pre- 




sents itself before vis. There are 
numbers of women and girls kneeling 
on the cold stones which form little 
islands between its streams when the 
ri\-er is low. What are they doing 
there, hundreds of them, bending over 
the water so attentively ? Ah ! here 
is a life of toil ! 

There are the lavayidiires of Nice. 
Not alone on a Monday, but on 
any day of every week, one can see 
long lines of these women, stretching 
far away under the consecutive 
bridges, scrul), scrub, scrubbing ; 
wringing, rolling, rinsing, and then 
hanging out the clothes to dry, until 
the river-bed resembles one huge 
laundry. As this clothing is washed 
in cold water, and is vigorously 
rubbed on some large, flat stone in 
the river, one would imagine that the 
general aspect of the inhabitants and 
visitors in Nice would be rather grimy 
as to linen. I have never dared to 
question my blaiichisseusc too clo.sely 
about the environs of her laundrj-, but 
I have a growing conviction that we 
are not made an exception to the gen- 
eral rule, which is one of the penalties 
of living in this otherwise charming 
place. Still, our washing is brought 
home every week so spotlessly pure, 
that we cannot complain. Judging, 
however, from its present condition, 
although quite new three months ago, 
as it now seems suddenly to be fall- 
ing to pieces, I opine that the strong 
scrubbing on the rocks by the river 
side is not the only injury inflicted 
upon these same garments, but that 
they are cleansed and whitened after- 
ward b}' some more artilicial and 
harmful process. 

However, we all know that when 
one is in Rome, there is really no sage to pursue, except to follow tlie 
illustrious example of the Romans, iu 
even the smallest particiilars. And 
so in this place, one must do as the 
Ni^oisc do. And how cheaply the 
washing is done here. No one thinks 
of keeping a laundress in the house, 
for it really would not pay. One is 
not charged so nmch a dozen as in our 

country, but each garment has its own 
price, according to the work. A 
laandkerchief, for example, is laun- 
dried for one cent, while a man's 
linen shirt costs eight, and a collar 
only two cents. 

These poor washerwomen do not 
pursue their humble avocation with- 
out danger. For there are times in 
the spring when the snow is melting 
on the mountains and the freshets 
occur, that the river rises so suddenly 
they have barely time to escape. It 
has even .sometimes occurred, as it 
did last spring, that the .sea rose with 
a storm at the same time, and, meet- 
ing the fre.shets half-way, several lav- 
audihrs were overtaken, and before 
they could be rescued were swept out 
to .sea and lost. 

And now how do these people live ? 
What do the}^ eat and how much do 
they earn ? I was invited the other 
day to visit one of their apartments in 
the old town. This was on the 
ground floor, and consisted of three 
rooms. The front one, on the street, 
was the shop, with a door but no win- 
dow, and as I groped my way into the 
middle or sleeping-room, I could not 
see. Here they sleep in a room with 
a cold stone floor and no carpet ; with 
no fireplace and hardly any daylight. 
The third or back room, which had 
one window, was the kitchen, eating 
and living room, also with a stone 
floor. As wood and coal are dear, 
the strictest economy is practiced 
about kindling a fire in the curious 
little French range. When they do 
have meat to roast, which is very 
rarely, they take it to the baker, and 
have it cooked there for a few sous, as 
an amount of heat sufficient to roast 
anything would require a ex- 
travagant quantity of fuel for such 
poor folk. Everything is bought in 
very small quantities, and even of 
staple articles, such as salt, pepper, 
flour and sugar, just enough for the 
day is purchased. Ready money is 
not i^lenty enough to lay in a stock of 
such tilings. 

The daih" waire here is verv low 

A Street in Nice— Vegetable Seller 


and i)rofits are small. vSlill, as I have 
said, one does not fnid the abject 
misery among the poor which is to 
be seen among the lower classes in 
many a larger city, like lyondon, Paris, 
or New York. An ordinary carpen- 
ter, plnniber, or mechanic receives 
from two to two and a half fraiics, or 
fifty cents for a day's work of nine 
hours, while a boss pluml)er has ten 
ftancs, or two dollars. A gardener 
earns from twelve to fifteen dollars a 
month. A first-class seamstress who 
works for a dressmaker gets two francs 
a day, or if xcxy well advanced toward 
theheadoftlie Iine,threey0'a;/r5, orsixty 
cents ; and a lady can have her gowns 
well made and artistically- fini.shed at 
a good dressmaker's for from five to 
ten dollars. The wages of domestics 
range from five to twelve dollars a 
month, but the latter price is only paid 
for xQxy superior work, or a large 
family. The cabmen ask onl}- fifteen 
cents a course — within the city limits, 
or forty cents an hour. Tlicn there 
is the army of porters ; comiuissioii- 
aires, who carry packages and letters, 
or do any errands required, and the 
portciiscs, who cany your purchases 
home from the market, all of whom 
earn from ten to twenty cents a da}-. 

Fortunately for themselves, the 
lower classes are satisfied with verj- 
little. Give them a piece of hard, dry 
bread and a cup of black coffee with 
sugar for tlieir breakfast ; a bowl of 
.soup and bread for their dinner, accom- 
panied b}- the inevitable vin ordinaire 
at seven cents per quart ; and bread 
and cheese, a penny salad or a dish of 
maccaroni for their supper, and they 
are quite content. They seem to 
thrive well, although they may not 
know the ta.ste of meat for weeks. 

They pass their existence out of 
doors m front of their shops. No 
wonder that the children congregate 
there to escape from their homes, ' ' black holes of Calcutta, ' " whose 
darkness and chill seem tomb-like. 
The mother places her chair outside 
the door in the .street and sits there 
all day ^vitll her knitting, chatting 

.sociably with her neighbors who are 
engaged in the same occupation. A 
walk through the old town of Nice 
always brings to m}- mind tlie grim 
picture of the Lefarge woman, 
character Dickens has depicted in so 
masterly a manner, and who, during 
the terrible .scenes of the Revolution, 
sat in her doorway and knitted away 
.so many lives. 

The helpless poor and the sick are 
well cared for in Nice. There are 
many charitable people here and .some 
.societies especially formed for their 
benefit, .so that .soliciting alms is not 
necessary. Ev-ery year, at Carnival 
time, a Kcrmcss is given here by repi- 
re.sentative ladies of all nationalities, 
for the benefit of the poor. Begging 
is deprecated by the authorities, 
though the French citizens themselves 
encourage it. You rarely see moiisicu) 
or inadame refuse a few sous to a poor 
vialheureusc, and I have frequently 
.seen the poor give to the poor, for 
theirs is the heart soft with pity for 
the sufferings of others. 

Thus, side by side they walk, these 
.sons and daughters of toil, with the 
fashionable, the w-ealthy and the 
prosperous, on the .streets and prom- 
enades. And the .same cloudless sky 
and the same sunshine is over them 
all, while the deep blue .sea, with its 
changing hues, the .setting sun gild- 
ing the snow peaks with shadings of 
glorious red, and the pale lustre of 
silvery moonlight touching the Bay 
of Angels, are free alike to the rich 
and the poor of Nice, for ks atitrcs 
can have their .share in the heavenh* 
beauty of the whole. 

Much of the domestic life of Ics 
autres goes on out of doors in Nice. 
One sees on every side, bright eyes 
and rosy cheeks among the young 
ones, and even the old w-omen are 
rosy, though wrinkled. The bright 
sunshine, clear air and wholesome 
though ofttimes scant food account for 
these evidences of health and the 
laughter and chatter going on all 
about as one passes the groups, about 
the doors of the dwellings evi- 








dences a cheerful contentment that 
to one accustomed to poverty in 
American or Ivn^lish cities, is a 
very pleasant contrast, and i)rov^es 
that contentment after all does not 
depend upon eillier riches or hij^her 
education, for here are a class whose 
lives are one continual toil from the 
cradle to the grave, none of whom 
know any greater degree of wealth 
than the possession of their modest 

chattels evi- 

dences, or 
whose mental 
acquirements go 
farther than a 
very limited ac- 
quaintance with 
their brevda- 
ries, and yet life 
to them has 
none of that 
black hopeless- 
ness we see writ- 
ten in the ex- 
pression le ss 
faces of our own 
les autre s. They 
seem indeed to 
have solved the 
vexed question 
of "Is life 
worth living?" 
very much in 
the affirmative, 
to their own 
satisfaction at 
least, and one 
of the pleasant- 
est memories of 
a close ac- 
quaintance with 
the Ni^oise is 
the many bright 
comes I have read 
friends among Ics auires. 

The Ni^oise in common with the 
others of their class in France, are of 
the soil, seldom or never emigrating. 
Hard and toilsome as is their life in 
their ow^n land they prefer it to a more 
prosperous one in any other. They 
love the blue skies, the meagre soil 

Ni>;oise and ChiM 

and smiling wel- 
in the faces of mv 

her patron saint, and nowhere, save 
in isolated does one find them in 
foreign lands. 

Any country might count itself 
fortunate, indeed though, could it 
attract them as immigrants, for the 
experience of Canada, with its habi- 
ta7is, prov^es that they carry their 
ha]:)its of industry, thrift and cheerful- 
ness with them. Many times in trav- 
eling through French Canada I have 

been reminded 
of my friends 
among les, 
aiitrcs for there 
one frequently 
comes across 
scenes in which 
the surround- 
ings and the 
drajnatis per- 
sona; are dis- 
tinctively rem- 
i n i s c e n t of 
France. The 
same types are 
here, the same 
costumes, the 
same household 
gods, the same 
gentle piety, 
and, above all, 
the same smil- 
i n g ^ heartfelt 
courtesy to ma- 
dame ox VI sieiir 
that has glad- 
dened one's 
heart at the 
market place or 
the fountain in 
the vielle ville 
The types are exactly repro- 

of Nice 

duced — the sturdy, brown skinned, rud- 
dy-cheeked, bright-eyed youngsters, 
the sweetly pensive, shy-eyed girls, 
and, above all, the white-capped, 
wrinkled old women. These last are 
as \oluble as their younger sisters are 
chary of talk with the stranger and 
love to chatter to anyone who will 
listen, of their ills, of course, but 
and the bright sunlight as a rcligieiise thej' never omit to wind up with a 



tlaanks<T^iving' to the ben Dieii for some 
small blessing at least. 

The bitterest time for Ics autres is 
during the spring when the mistral or 
tramontane blows ; these bitter winds 
are from the west and northwest and 
while the}' blow at least, the Ni^oise 
are miserable. The air is full of dust 
whirled about into one's eyes, nose and 

are forced under cover even of such 
miserable holes as they call home. 

The poetic side of Ics autres is shown 
in their piety ; they are Catholic, of 
course, and their faith is very touch- 
ing and beautiful to one accustomed 
to the hard pessimism of the poorer 
classes of Anglo-Saxon origin. They 
have each and every one some patron 

Nijoise Lavandi^re 

mouth and even sifted through one's 
clothing until the sensation is unbear- 
able. The mistral blows from a per- 
fectly clear sky and altliough the 
sunlight falls bright and sharp u])on 
the white walls and pavements it gives 
no warmth and the keen wind cuts 
like a knife ; at such times the streets 
are deserted of even les aidres, thev 

saint to whom they make their 
petitions, burn their votive candles 
and upon whom they cast all the 
trouljlcs and cares of their very work- 
aday li\es willi the most utter con- 
fidence lliat Ihf l)urdcu whatever vt 
may be will be lightened. 

They steal away to the churches at 
all hours for prayer, meditation and 



consolation, and no matter how tri\-ial 
or of what moment tlie matter ma}' be 
they take it there and find comfort. 
Their faith is the childlike trustin,t( 
confidence of the southern peo])le's in 
" le bon Dicu " and the Virj^in Mother 
and is a very beautiful side of the 
Ni^oise character, they never nej.(lect 

la mere dc famille and the younger 
members appear in their best and 
all meet about the family board iu 
innocent mirth or joy of the festi- 

The good-heartedness aud gener- 
osity of these poor people to one 
another was a constant source of sur- 


NiQoise Laitiere 

observance of their fast or feast da>s, 
and no matter how poor the people 
nor how humble the home no Easter 
or Christmastide passes but is remem- 
bered by some little family festival, 
meat is seen on the table and the 
highly prized necklace of amber or 
coral, or mayhap a brightly-colored 
kerchief or lace scarf is donned by 

prise to me, and often and often have I 
seen the poor give to the poor out of 
their scanty store oisous\ even the chil- 
dren share any bit of sweetmeat or 
fruit they may have given them with 
one another with a cheerful alacritj' 
that is as charming as it is rare among 
folk who are better off in this world's 
gear than are Ics autres. 


A GLITTERING halo of golden 
legend and brilliant romance 
surrounds the Japanese sword. 
Ill no other country in the world has 
this weapon been held in such esteem. 
Almost superhuman qualities were 
ascribed to it, and it was credited with 
attachment to its owner. 

To the nobleman or the samicrai, 
the sword was his most cherished 
possession, not even excepting his 
wife, who was held a little lower than 
his sword. vSelf-denial and depriva- 
tion, that one might have a fine 
weapon, was regarded natural and 

"The sword is the living soul of 
the samurai,'' wrote, the 
founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate. 
This saying, rendered in his own 
words on tlie title page, was written 
in the sixteenth century, and gives 
some idea of the regard in which this 
weapon was held. Famous sword- 
smiths could sign after their names 
such titles as baronet or marquis. 
Ivmperors did not disdain to patronize 
the art, but even to while away their 
leisure hours, sword-forging. Gotoba- 
No-In, a Mikado who lived A. D. 
iiS6, sent every monlli for a different 
maker who worked under his patron- 
age. The swords he made him.self he 
marked w illi a chry.santhemum and a 
stroke underneath it, the chrysanthe- 
mum l)eing the official Imjierial crest. 
In mediai'val days, llie fiinous 
Damascus blades were rivaled b\- 

those from Japan. Weapons that 
with unturned edge halved copper 
coins were not uncommon. 

The great value attached to swords 
and the impulse given to armor- 
making was in great part due to the 
fierce civil wars that for so long con- 
vuLsed the whole country. The great 
daimyo or lords maintained and were 
expected to contribute when called 
upon so many fighting men to their 
superiors, the kuge. This meant, of, an immense force of skilled 
warriors, business in life was 
war. men were called samu- 
rai, when attached to a feudal lord 
and rouius, literally "wave men," 
when owning allegiance to no lord, 
but wandering like the "waves" of 
the .sea, and who, for a monetary con- 
sideration, fought under any .stand- 
ard. The kuge and dainno formed 
tlie nobility, the sauiiirai and ro)ii}is 
the gentry of Japan. vSo, as it often 
happened that the very life of a 
Samurai depended upon the keenness 
of his blade, it is not .surprising that 
he regarded it as his most valued pos- 

Sword etiquette was governed by 
certain well-defined rules and cere- 
monies, and \iolalion of these often 
cost not onl\' lioiior, luil lite itself, 
and the offender's woilil thought liim 
well served. 

Swords 1)y famous makers brought 
enormous sums. A Japanese noble 
fre<|uentl>- jiaid from Qiie thou-sand to 




fifteen hundred dollars for a blade 
alone, and as much more for the 
furnishings, the guard, ornaments and 
scabbard. vSuch weapons were handed 
down from father to son, from genera- 
tion to generation. Kven children 
wore miniature swords or dirks, and 
the presentation to the little heir of 
his first weapon was a ceremony of 

On the fifth day of the eleventh 
month of the child's fourth year, the 
family council, the chosen spon 
sors and intimate friends as- 
sembled and the boy was 
invested with the kamcshi- 
moliakama, the loose, flowing 
trousers and sleeveless jacket 
worn l)y the sainurai. This 
dress was presented by the 
sponsors, and was em- 
broidered with storks and 
tortoises. The emblems of 
longevity for the first, 
is reputed to live one 
thousand and the .sec- 
ond ten thousand 
years. Bamboo 
and fir trees 
must also be 
worked up- 
on it, t h e 
bamboo t o 
signify a 
hope t li a t 
he may have 
a straight- 
forward and upright 
disposition, a n d 
the evergreen, an 
unchanging and stable tem- 
per. The little boy was 
placed standing upon a go 
board (a go is a Japanese 
game not unlike chess), with his face 
to a lucky quarter of the room ; then 
the dress was put on, and a little 
sword, a model of the real one he 
would receive when fifteen years of 
age, was given him. Three wine 
cups were brought on a tray, and 
filling all three, the sponsor drank 
from each in turn. He then offered 
them to the godchild, who pretended 

to drink, too. The sponsor produced 
a present, and the child again pre- 
tended to drink. This was repeated 
three times, and the ceremony ended. 
The most famotis swords are still 
known by names. lyeyasu, who drew 
\\\) the rtiles governing sword eti- 
qtiette, owned a magnificent blade 
forged by Naga-Mit/.a A. D. 1279, 
called Adziiki-Naga-Mitza, because it 
cotild cut a bear {Adzuki) thrown into 
the air in half before it fell to the 

All artizans and tradespeople were 
looked down upon except the ar- 
morer. Btit he held a social position 
and rank varying only in proportion 
to his fame. At a certain stage in the 
forging, he was privileged to assume 
the cotirt robes of a noble. The 
ceremony was invested with a 
religious character and the sa- 
cred straw rope, like those seen 
before temples, hung across 
the front of the forge 
to keep out evil 
•Spirits. Like the 
alchemist. the 
smith retired in- 
to privacy and 
secrecy d u r- 
i n g this 
time. This 
was still 
kept u p 
by old- 
smiths as 
late as 


I — Showing .MoJe uf Wearing SworJ 

The sa- 
m u r a i 
wore two swords — a long one, katatia, 
and a short one, tanto. This curious 
fashion dates from the fourteenth cen- 
tury, and prevailed tuitil a few years 
ago. How close the ctistom la\' to 
their hearts may be judged from the 
iollowing extract, written by Mitford. 

" The statesman who shall enact a 
law forbidding the carr\-ing of this 
weapon will indeed have deser\-ed well 



of his country; but it will be a task dif- edict prohibiting them altogether was 
ficult to undertake and a dangerous issued, the decree to take effect the ist 
one. I would not give much for that ofJanuar}^ A. d. 1877. Thosewhoknew 
man's life. The hand of ever>^ swash- how cherished the privilege of wear- 
buckler in the Empire would be against iug the sword was expected violent 
him." disturbances, riots and bloodshed, but 

Artistic Bronze GuarJs nt Japanoso S 

This was written in A. D. 1 87 1. Only the Japanese are a wonderfully sub- 

:a year or so later the government issued missive race, nothing hajipened and 

« request to the .^awz^r^z asking them swords became things of the past — 

to refrain from wearing their swords weapons that a few years before their 

;andon the2StliofMarch, A.n. 1876, an owners could not have been induced 



to part with even at the most fabulous 
prices would not fetch half their 
former price and lay neglected and 
dust covered in the second-hand shops. 
The ancient sword called tsiiguri 
or ken was a straight double-edged 
heavy weapon about three feet long, 
the width varying from two to two 
and a half inches. It was to be swung 
with both hands and was carried cross- 
wise over the back. The best blades 
were made and the most noted smiths 

than the shinto blade. I have seen and 
held in my hand a dirk-shaped extraor- 
dinarily light blade. The quaint 
inscription upon it being, " Made iii 
the time of God," which means that 
it is so old that the date of its making 
has been forgotten. Its age is not a 
mere tradition, but is proved not only 
by a well-kept record, but by internal 
evidence such as the strange crude 

Japan-^e Woman, Gidiyo-Assadi, with Sword Nobleman In Hamashimohakama — Swords in Place 

flourished over a thousand years ago 
during the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. All swords made later 
than A. D. 1570 and inferior blades of 
older make are styled shinto. Nero 
Horikawa Kunihiro who lived A. d. 
1600 is the best of the shinto makers. 
The old swords are much lighter than 
the new. Weight is one of the tests 
applied by connoisseurs. A fine old 
weapon is proportionately much lighter 

manner in which the handle is finished 
and the peculiar color of the steel. 
This particular weapon belongs to a 
Japanese gentleman and is cared for 
most solicitously. It is set in a plain 
wooden handle with a sheath of the 
same undecorated material ; it is 
slipped, sheath and all, into a silk bro- 
cade muslin-lined bag. and in order that 
no vestige of moisture may get in, the 
spacfc between the outside and the lin- 



ing is filled with perfumed rice powder. 
In the same bag is a little crepe hand- 
kerchief with which to wipe the blade 
before it is put away. 

In the temples in Japan there are 
celebrated swords known to be older 
than this one but man}' of them un- 
fortunatel}- are not in a good state of 

In mediaeval times the katana was 
evolved ; it was more convenient than 

made in the seventeenth century by 
Kore Hiro. Number two which is 
about the same age, made A. D. 1630, is 
also ornamented in silver and was 
forged by Tada Yoshi. Number three 
in the same collection is in that style 
called shin-no-tatchi so named because 
the owner's crest is repeated at least 
seventy-five times. The scabbard is of 
aventurine lac. The sword is a re- 
markably beautiful one and was made 

Forging the Sword 

the tsugtiri being shorter and lighter. 
It has a single edge and is slightly 
curved at the point. In modern days 
the wakizashi, often called the hara- 
kiri knife, was replaced by the tanto 
worn with the kata?ia. Numbers one 
and two belonging to collection of Mr. 
Henry Molineux of San Francisco are 
good examples. The ornamentations 
on the hilt and scal)bard of numl^er 
one are of silver and represents the 
seven gods of good fortune. It was 

b}' Kuni Sada six hundred and three 
years ago for the prince of Sendai. 

The most important part of the 
Japanese imperial regalia is Cloud- 
chistcr, a famous sword the origin of 
which is in a myth. 

vSosanoo was sent on a mission to the 
food goddess l)y Amaterasu the moon 
god, who during the reign of the sun 
goddess wandered in exile upon the 
earth, was appealed to by the people to 
rid them of a terrible eight-headed 

Carxt'J Ivory SworJ — Made in the year 986. A. D. 
The blatlc of the swonl was made by Munechika, one of the most celebrated Japanese smiths of his time. 

In tlie Marsh Collection 
Vol. II.— 2 



dragon which was devastating the kind 
and devouring their most beautiful 
maidens. When the time came for the 
monster's periodical visitation Sosanoo 

set out on the sea- 
shore eight huge 
tubs of sake. The 
dragon attracted 
b y the smell 
plunged his eight 
heads into the 
tubs and soon was 
intoxicated a n d 
Sosanoo found 
little difficulty in slaying him, but try 
as he would he could not cut through 
the tail, something offered a firm re- 
sistance. Carefully splitting it open 
the astonished god found it contained 
a magnificent sword, this was the fa- 
mous Cloud-cluster which, with the 
sacred mirror and the ball, was car- 
ried before the Emperor 
when he opened the Diet 
A. D. 1890. 

During the Askihaga 
Shogunate, in the four- 
teenth century, it l^ecame 
the custom to commit hara- 
kiri or seppzikii when defeat 
or disgrace was encoun- 
tered. Not only the noble- 
man but his retainers with 
him committed suicide, but it was not 
until the Tokugawa dynasty that it 
was raised to the status of an official 
punishment. And at this period it 
became the fashion to wear two 
swords, the long one for enemies and 
the short for hara-kiri. 

The most elab- 
orate ceremony 
^^^^^^^^ attended its per- 
/ ^ V ^n^^^^^^^^ formance, an eti- 
quette that 
scended to 
most minute 
tails, such 
"the witnesses 
may hitch their 
trousers, if the ceremony is performed 
in a garden, but if it is performed in 
the house, they must on no account 
do .so." It was (|iiite common for a 



statesman to disembowel himself, if 
his advice were not taken, as a sort 
of guarantee of good faith and to 
prove that he was in earnest. 

Every Japanese 
boy was taught 
from his earliest 
infancy to regard 
hara-kiri as his 
plain duty and 
only honorable 
recourse, if dis- 
grace attached to 
h im. In olden 
days when a nobleman died, his wife 
and a few of his most faithful servants 
committed the ' ' happy despatch ' ' in 
order that they might accompany their 
lord to the other world. 

Hara-kiri is not entirely out of 
vogue even in the nineteenth century. 
When Count Mori was assassinated, a 
few years ago, the man who 
attacked h i m attempted 
ha?a-ka?i immediately, and 
but for the prompt action 
of the police, would have 
been successful. 

Many swords have a place 
in the .scabbard, for either 
a jxiir of camp chopsticks 
or in (A(\ weapons for the 
koq-ai or skewer, .sometimes 

called the " hair 


? On the field 


of battle when an enemy was slain, 
his head was cut off, the kogai thrust 
through the top knot, and the ghastly 
trophy suspended from the victor's 

In the opposite side of the hilt an 
opening was left 
for the ko-katana 
or little knife, gen- 
erally called the 
Kodzuka, a n a r- 
row, rough little 
blade with an cni- 
l)ellished handle. ' 

Most of the wea- 
pons in Mr. Henry 
Molineux's collection 
knife. Xuinl)ei" four 
shark skin hiU and 
sh'tan wood, ornamented with lacquer 

lia\'e this little 

a sword with a 

a .scabbard of 



and mother - of - pearl, was 
made five hundred and sixty- 
seven years ago, and has the 
kodc7iko, and so has number 
five, whicli is a court sword, 
a beautiful weapon with a 
scabbard of polished lac, 
fi e c k e d with malachite. 
Number six of the same col- 
lection is remarkable for its 
beautiful polished and lac- 
quered shark skin hilt and 
scabbard. The process of 
lacquering shark skin is dif- 
ficult and tedious. The skin 
nuist be carefully ground 
down and the little inter- 
stices filled with lacquer, the 
larger the nodules of the skin 
the more valuable it is. This 
sword (number six) is over 
four hundred years old. 

The kodziika has some- 
times mistakenly been called 
the hara-kiri knife, but a mo- 
ment's consideration will cor- 
rect this error, as the blade 
is so poor and rough that it 
would be almost impossible 
to put it to such service. 
Its uses were \-arious. Xo 
true samurai would degrade 
so noble a weapon as a sword 
by employing it for anything 
but defense or attack, so this 
little knife occupied some- 
thing the same place that a 
penknife does with us, but 
its principal use was as a 
means of identification or 
card. When a sa)}ii<rai .suc- 

ceeded in killing his enemy, 
he drew the kodziika from his 
own weapon and thrust it in- 
to the ear of his dead foeman, 
and as it always bore the 
owner's name or crest or 
both, all the world knew to vengeance to attribute 
the deed. 

Among Western nations, 
when one man kills another, 
the slayer is not generally 
over anxious for publicity, 
nor desirous of proclaiming 
his identity to the winds, 
but in Japan the vendetta 
prevailed in full force and 
burned with a fiercer flame 
than in Corsica itself. 

Mr. G. T. Marsh of vSan 
has an unusually 
fine collection of 
Number eleven 
in his collection has a bronze 
handle with an elaborate de- 
s i g n depicting Asatsima 
Hime, the Goddess of Music, 
seated in a boat playing the 
biwa. Number fourteen, also 
of bronze, shows a badger 
sitting on his hind legs, 
drumming on his stomach 
with his forepaws. The sub- 
ject upon number thirteen 
represents two of the Gods 
of Plenty, Jure Jin, the God 
of Longevity, and Fako- 
roku Jin, God of Wisdom. 
The design of number four- 
teen shows an incident in the 
practice of the vendetta. 

large and 

Ornaments on Japanese Swords 



Two brothers, Jin-No-Suke Nan and 
Goro Toki Nemi are about to attack 
Suketsune Kudo, who assassinated 
their father. 

In addition to a name, the sword 
often had applied to it the endearing 
term marji, little or dear, which 
Chamberlain thinks is a corruption of 
maro. When a gentleman called 
upon a friend, if he wore two swords 
upon entering the house, he removed 
the long sword with his right hand, 
from the left to the right side, as in that 
position it would not be easy to draw, 
and, therefore, gave a more friendly 
appearance to the visit. Svich matters 
of importance as the occasions upon 
which to wear a short, long or single 
sword were regulated by strict eti- 
quette. To touch or come into col 
lision with another's weapon, to 
enter a friend's house without 
removing it, to turn the 
blade in the sheath as 
though aboiit to draw 
or to lay it upon the 
floor and kick 
the g u a r d 
toward an\ 
one, all 
or any 

who received it in a silk napkin, never 
in his bare hand. Ever}' gentleman 
carried these little silk uapkins or soft 
paper, made especiall}^ for this purpose. 
It was always held with the hilt to 
the left, and the blade to the owner 
himself. Inch by inch, and with the 
repeated apologies on one 
side and urging on the 
other, the sword was 
drawn and exam- 
ined, l)ut only 
after earnest 
w a s it 
acts were 
d e a d 1 3' in- 
sults, to be 
wiped out by 
blood alone. 
To turn Ijack to l)ack 
and strike scabbards was 
a challenge equal to tlic 
throwing down and acceptance 
of the gauntlet among Kuropean 
knights. To exhibit a naked weapon 
was an affront, unless, indeed, the 
blade was a \"ery famous one, and the 
fortunate possessor was much pressed 
to show it. After man\- apologies the 
owner would hand it to his friend, 

from the 
'^'' scabbard, 
all the time 
->^''' carefully held 
a w a y from the 
other guests. It was 
then delicatel}' wiped 
lest a breath or a finger- 
mark should mar its brilliancy, 
'7^' sheathed and returned to its 

Unless the visit were a prolonged 
one both host and guest retained the 
short sword in the girdle, but the long 
one was always laid aside. 

If the guest was a man of means a 
bearer went with him to carry the 
long sword, l)ul if the gentlemen came 
alone, when he removed it his host's 
servant took it with a napkin and put 
it in the sword rack in a place of honor. 
Indeed it was treated almost like a 
.sentient lacing. The jiniacJii, or two- 
handed war-sword, was always carried 
by a bearer. 

As :i rule, women did not wear 
.swords, except when tra\xling, l)ut the 
ladies of the Imperial Palace always 
armed them.selves during fires. To 
fence skillfulh- with the halbred was 
regarded as an elegant and almost 



necessary accomplishment for young 
ladies of good family. 

The first Japanese expedition to, 
and conquest of, foreign lands, which, 
to the phrase of the native his- 
torians, cau.sed "her arms to shine 
beyond the .seas," was commanded by 
a woman. In the third century the 
pious warrior. Empress Jingu, l)cing 
inspired by the gods, j)roceeded against 
and conquered Korea. To conceal 
from her enemies the fact that she was 
a woman the Kmpress wore male attire. 
Jingu also has a claim to fame as the 
mother of Ojin, who was deified in the 
fourth century under the name of 
Hachiman, and is worshipped as the 
God of War. Strange to say, Jingu 
is exalted as a model, not for her own 
.sex, but for boys. At the children's 
festival in May she is always placed 
in the male group. Of the nine 
empresses, who at one time or 
another ruled the land of 
the Rising Sun, Jingu 
is the distin- 

The two old- 
est known 

rust and decay. It has always been 
the custom in Japan to present the 
temples of the Ciod of War with cele- 
brated blades. 

Soto Yugo was the father (>[ a long 
line of makers descendants yet 
live. The work of this family is 
called lyborl. Soto him.self was bom 
in the fifteenth century. 

Swords are of various lengths and 
.styles and each has its dis- 
tinctive name. 

The katana and the 
< I ' akizashl we re 
w o r n together 
until more 
VA ode rn 








now i n 
are Ama - Kuni 
and Shinsoku. The 
latter was the first 
r.iaker to cut his name on 
the blade. A. D. 806 Heizie 
Ten O, the Mikado ordered Shin- 
soku to forge a sword for his son, 
the Imperial Prince. Rui Jin, the old 
r.ian of the .sea, who lives in the Dragon 
Shrine under the ocean, in the 
making of this sword. Though Shin- 
.soku made nearly a hundred lilades he 
put his name to only eight, which are 
n >w in the different Hachiman Shrines, 
and though highly valued by their 
owners, are little more than masses of 

w hen 
the waki- 
zas/ii was re- 
^^. placed bv the 

fanto. The length 
of the katana is about 
two feet and a fraction : 
the ivakizashi, a little over 
a foot ; the chisa-katana, from 
two to two and a half feet long 
and lighter than the ordinary blade, 
was worn with haga-hakama, or cere- 
monial, of which there were no 
less than eighteen varieties. The 
Iiakama was the badge of gentle 
birth, though on very special occa- 
sions, such as births, weddings, or 
deaths, tradesmen wore it. W^hen 
the occasion demanded ultra-cere- 
moniousness the kanicshivio was as- 
sumed a wing-like, sleeveless jacket, 
usually i>f hempen cloth, stiffened 
so as to stand out beyond the 
shoulders. On the back and .shoul- 
ders was stamped either the personal 
crest of the owner or that of his feudal 
lord. This dress was worn by officials 
until the introduction of European 
costume. Officials of the fourth and 
fifth rank wore with it the aikucJii, a 
dirk without a guard, which was also 



used by doctors and artists. The 
hunting sword called the nodatcJii 
was of medium length. 

A samurai in full dress fairly bris- 
tled with swords, for beside the tanto 
and Katauo he frequently wore the 
metczashi siViOk. in his girdle behind, 
to be used with the right hand and if 
the owner were thrown so that he 
could not draw the others. 

The ycpH nodatchi was a gaudy 
affair, with a laccjuered and gilt .scab- 
bard called sayamaki, when a portion 
of the .scabbard was bound with silk. 

The mountings of a blade are ar- 
ranged and spoken of in a certain 
technical order., the kashira or 
top of the hilt and the flat ring l)ehind 
the guard that holds it in place ; then 
the iiicnuki, the little ornaments 
found into the sides of the hilt, which 
ser\-e the double purpose of riding the 
rivets and giving a firmer gra.sp. 
Third, the kodzuka and kogai, the 
knife and hairpin ; these are called 
the articles of three places. All these 
and the guard were generally made in 
sets to match. In the Marsh collec- 
tion, there are .so many fine pieces 
that it is difficult to know which to 
mention. Number seventeen is a 
kashira oi shibinch, one of the strange 
Japanese alloys of silver and copper. 
It presents a beautiful silver-gra}', 
satiny surface, and has worked upon 
it the favorite design of one of the 
Seven (k)ds of Good Luck — Daikoku, 
the god of plenty. Number eighteen 
is of iron inlaid with silver, and rep- 
resents a hylirid, whose exi.stence is 
solely in the ingenious brain of the 
artist. It is called a Kappa, and is 
the suppo.sed offspring of the frog and 
the tnrlk'. A wonderfnl bit of inlay- 
ing in silver shows the moon 
emerging from behind a cloud. Num- 
ber sixteen is ihe/uc/ii, or metal ring, 
made to match number seventeen. 
Daikoku appears upon it also, and 
Hotel, another of the seven, the God 
of Pleasure and the lyOver of Children, 
who might very properly be called 
the Santa Claus. It is of 
shibinchi, too, and magnificentl}- in- 

laid with gold, copper and bronzes. 
Number fifteen is another fiichi, and 
has a legendary animal worked upon 
it called a kinu'o, a hybrid of the 
horse and the dragon. 

After these pieces comes the scia or 
sheath, generally of Ho-No-Ki (mag- 
nolia wood), varnished a dark color. 
Bright colors were usually affected 
only by a class of roving adventurers, 
whose fortunes depended more upon 
their swords than upon a regu- 
lar means of livelihood. Some- 
times the scabbard and hilt are of 
exquisitely carved ivory. Ntimber 
seven of Mr. Molineux's collection is 
an example of this sort. The carv- 
ing represents one of the fete da^-s 
devoted to children, and the whole 
sheath is a mass of close carving in 
sunk relief — basso-relieves. 

Mr. G. T. Marsh has a most unique 
and beautiful ivory sword, with a 
blade forged l)y one of the greatest of 
all the famous smiths, Munechika, 
who flourished 986 A. D., so that it is 
nearly a thousand years old. The 
carving on the sheath is simply mar- 
velous. The design on the hilt, 
w^hich is also of ivory, represents a 
Rakan. The Jui roku rakan were 
the sixteen most learned and devout 
disciples of Sliaka or Buddha. The 
Rakan are always depicted with im- 
mense bush}^ eyebrows, which in these 
little figures are .so excjnisitely carved 
that they stand ovit from the head as 
fine as a piece of white thread. 

Below the guard on the .scabbai^d is 
another Rakan, and under that again 
is the figure of Benten, the Goddess 
of Purity and of L,ove in its highest 
form . She is riding the Cloud dragon, 
and l)ears a salver in her hand with 
lotus flowers, the emblem of purit}-, 
for though they grow in stagnant 
water, yoX. no other plant has leaves 
and flowers so pure and unblemi.shed. 

Beneath Benten is carved a repre- 
sentation of one- of the most ]>ious 
Rakans, with an attendant called 
Diba. T)il)a was once a very evil, 
wicked man, heart, like those 
of all sinful people, became perfectly 



square, but through the teachings of 
Buddha, he became purified, and is 
now offering his changed, well- 
rounded heart to the Kakan. The 
end of the scabbard shows the lotus 
flower again, with the stems cut in 

On the reverse side is depicted Oto- 
hime, the Sea Goddess, riding with 
two of her attendants upon the Sea 
dragon. In her hand, she bears a 
tray with three dragon hearts. The 
dragon is reputed to have seven hearts, 
and Oto-himc is handing three evil 
ones taken from it to her Keeper of 
the Dragons' Hearts. The enormous 
amount of carving, as fine as lace 
work, and the delicacy and beauty of 
the workmanship of these two ivory 
swords, is beyond description. 

The ysiiba or guard is a very im- 
portant piece, and is often verj- 
elaborately inlaid. metal 
worker was an artist as the painter 
on canvas, so he in metal reproduced 
a scene in nature or an historical or 
mythological incident. Number nine- 
teen, in the Marsh collection, is a 
tsuba or guard of wrought iron heav- 
ily inlaid with gold. The subject is 
an event in the early life of Yoritomo, 
the great vShogun. It shows his ene- 
mies searching for him after his 
defeat at the Battle of Islii Bashi 
Yama (Stone Bridge Mountain), where 
he barely escaped with his life by 
hiding in a hollow tree. Number 
twenty is the mate, and shows Yori- 
moto's successful attack upon Ilaike's 
Castle. Both guards, which are 
for a pair of swords, are by Soten, a 
Buddhist monk and a celebrated 
maker, for many of these pious men 
employed their time in armor forging. 
Number twenty-one, of wrought iron, 
siher and gold, shows the seven wise 
men meeting in tlie l:)aml)oo grove for 
stud\' and philosophical research. In 
number twentj'-two, the subject of the 
design is Chinese. It is an incident 
in the life of a nciblcman famous for 
his .strategic skill. He is seated in 
his balcony listening to the excellent 
playing of liis musicians, whiK' a 

party of rebels approach to attack 
him. So undisturbed is his demeanor 
that they hope that they are unper- 
ceived, and so may , him, but 
when they reach a certain spot, a 
mine explodes, and they are blown 
into the air. Number twenty-three is 
a representation of Akechi, a Japanese 
hero, taking olxservations before at- 
tacking Hideyoshi. For this purpose, 
he climbed into an overhanging live- 
oak tree, carrying his under his 
arm. Carefully letting the animal 
down inside the wall, he followed 
himself and entered the ver}- court of 
tlie Castle. 

The vicnuki, the little ornaments 
u.sed to cover the rivets, are generally 
very pretty little pieces of work ; the 
word means literall}- eye-covering. 
The mcniiki at the top left corner of 
the page belongs to the .same as the 
kashira and fiichi depicting the seven 
household gods ; it is the mallet and 
rats, the emblem of Daikoku, the god 
of wealth. 

The mate in tlic middle of the page 
.shows Yebisu, the god of good living, 
who is always represented as a fisher- 
man. He holds a rod and line with a on it and beside him is a creel. 
The nicnuki at the upper right corner 
is a of Okame, sometimes called 
Uzume, the goddess of laughter and 
plea.sure, as indicated by her fat dim- 
pled cheeks. Below her is a mcniiki 
shaped like the daikon, a huge native 
radish with an over-powering smell, 
of which the Ja])anese are inordinately 
fond — -one family has adopted it for 
their crest. The next is a pine tree 
tied in a piece of paper, significant of 
longevity and ]n-esented in this form 
to a newly born male child as an ex- 
])ression of a kindly wish that it may 
live many }ears. On the lell side of 
the i')age just l)elow the mallet antl 
rats is a viomki (le]Meling Dliaruma, 
a di.sciple (»f lUuldlia, who came to 
China about the sixth centur\ . The 
Dioiuki innne(liatel\- under Dharuma 
was made eitlier for or under tlie ]>at- 
ronageofthe imjierial famil\' as it bears 
their crest, \\\v llower of the pawhmia. 







Of the two mcnuki at the bottom of 
the page one is a Chinese subject 
showing Chiy-rio, a student, walking 
with his teacher, Koseki. 

The other vicnuki is simply a horse 
man and has no special interest except 
as a fine piece of work. 

The base of a great deal of metal 
work is iron, the soft southern sort, 
called )ia)iba)i . Japanese and western 
ideas of suitable material differ very 
widely. The former never used bright 
sil\-er or gold except to produce some 
particular effect as the sun or moon or 
the teeth of animals. But iron appar- 
ently so hard and unyielding a metal, 
the native artist molded as though it 
were wax and his knowledge of 
patinas seemed mdimited. The most 
flourishing pe- 
riod of this sort 
ofwork was dur- 
ing the Ashika- 
ga Shogunate in 
the fifteenth and 
sixteenth cen- 
turies. Then 
it was that 
it reached 
the high e s t 
state of perfec- 
tion though 
ever since the 
sixth century 
the Japanese 

were well versed in the art. Undoubt- 
edly the civil wars between the Taira 
and Minamota families gave armor 
forging a great impetus. 

Among the relics of the prehistoric 
age are found ])n)ii/.e knives, arrow- 
heads and Ijells. 

One of the oldest pieces of lacquer 
in existence is a sword scabbard now 
in the Todaiji temple at Naraand said 
to have belonged to the Mikado 
Shonni who lived during the first half 
of the eighth century. 

The hilt is usually of wood or iron 
covered with sharkskin and bomul 
with silk cord in open geometrical 

The kalana-kaji or armorer un- 
dertook the forging a blade almost as 

Small Knives from 

though it were a religious ceremony. 
He began by reducing magnetic iron 
in the shape of ferruginous sand in a 
small smelting charcoal furnace. A 
slow process requiring at three 
days which may yet be seen at Ane- 
gawa. The back of the blade is of 
this soft elastic metal and the edge of 
steel. In order to obtain such a re- 
sult the sides and back were protected 
with fire clay and only the edge left 
exposed for placing in the furnace 
after wdiicli it is cooled in cold water. 
By this method the steel edge is always 
distinguishable by color and luster. 

The peculiar marking is called 
Yakiba or burnt head. Every maker 
had his own form and method of weld- 
ing and in deciding the age and maker 

of a weapon 
these are the 
tests applied. 
Each style has 
i t s distinctive 
n a m e . A 

straight edge 
was called Sic- 
gtiba. Large 
irregular wa\^ 
Oomidere. The 
Choja is like 
cloves laid side 
by side and the 
Jiuka like over- 
1 a i (1 flower 
petals. The Onotare is a wav}^ line 
common to all makers. Hitatszira is 
the vSoshiu st>'le and has cloudy spots. 
These arc a few of varieties too num- 
erous to mention. 

All Japanese gentleman were sup- 
posed to understand and to ])e thor- 
oughly versed in the )'akib(i, and the 
Tokugawa governniLiil 1 bought it of 
.so much importance that they pen- 
sioned experts called Ifor Afaini to 
teach the youth of the countr}' to dis- 
tinguish l)etween the true and counter- 
ft^'il marks. 

One of the most celel)ratcd smiths is 
Muramasa, who lived in the fourteenth 
century ; the common eulogy applied 
to his blades is that "they cut hard 
iron as though it were a melon." Vet 

Scabbards of Swords 






the}' are unpopular on account of a hanging up a sacred straw rope to 
curious superstition concerning them. keep out evil spirits. A fox assuming 
So many noblemen and Saiuiirai com- human shai)e, helped him until the 
mitted /^ar«-^'^; 2 with these weapon was finished, then assuming 
;:)articular blades that they his natural shape, the emissary of the 
ire supposed to yearn for beneficent god disappeared in a cloud, 
blood and to exercise some On the obverse of the blade is cut 

Munechika and on the reverse Ko Kit 
siuic, the little fox. 

One of the most celebrated sword 
makers was Masamuna, who was born 
in 1326. His blades have an exquisite 
golden tinge and he folded and 
refolded the metal from four sides in a 
curious manner. 

Muramasa's blades, though repeat- 
edly unlucky, were of so keen a temper 
that if a sheet of paper were floated 
down a stream so as to come against 

the edge they 
cut it fairly in 

Some swords 
have grooves 
called kirimons 
hollowed in the 
side near the 
back and filled 
in with crimson 
lacquer and em- 
bellished with 
dragons or 
some s i m i 1 a r 
ornament, or 
inscribed with 
Chinese or vSanscrit characters setting 
forth a r.ioral .saying or boast of keen- 
ness, as, ' ' with this good blade the 
honest man need fear nothing 'twixt 
Heaven and Karth." \'cry often the 
sentiment is poetical. 

The curve of most blades is about 
one-quarter of an inch from the 
straight line. 

Another important item of .sword 
furniture is the sagc-zvo. the broad, 
plaited silk cord, five feet 
in length, for a Unig 
and two and a half for a 
.short one, which served jo 

to tie l^ack the flowing 
sleeves when i)reparing for combat. 
W'hik' traveling, the .sword-bearer 
curicd his master's \wapon in a 

• ^5 

fatal fascination over their 

owners. The sole end and aim of a 
sword should be to protect the in- 
nocent and punish the guilt}-, but 
Muramasa's blades yielded so evil an 
influence that their j^ossessors .seem 
impelled as by a wicked spirit to slay 
wantonly and for the mere pleasure 
of killing. So soon as a man obtained 
one of these swords, he became so 
anxious to test its keenness and .so 
filled with mad pride that he forgot all 
restraint. The 
Muramasa wea- 
pons are reput- 
ed to be partic- 
ularly unlucky, 
for the Toku- 
gawa family 
because T y e - 
yasusho owned 
a spear made 
by this famous 
smith, CO n- 
.stantly cut him- 
self accidently 
with it. 

The forging 
of the Ko h'itsiun or Little Kox 
forms one of the .subjects of the 
Wo dance. In the eleventh century 
Tehijo Mikado ordered ISIunechika to 
make him a sword. The smith felt 
overwhelmed at receiving such an 
august order, particularly as he knew 
no one .sufficiently skillful to 
him, and in his perplexity called u])on 
his patron god, Tuari-Sami, the god 
of the Foxes, who innnediately 
appeared before Munechika in the 
form of a young man and comforted 
him by telling him that a blade sliould 
be made that would be worthv the 
' ' .son of Heaven. ' ' Tlie smith 
taking heart of grace, began his prep- 
arations by placing images of the god 
at tlu' four conitTs of tlu- aiuil .rid 

Small Knives from Scabbards of Swords 
Marsh Collection 



leather case marked with tlie (nvuer's 

The cities where sword -forging was 
most extensively carried on were 
Kyoto (the Mikado's capital), Kama- 
Kiira and Osaka. lyiving in great 
castles, patronized by wealthy noble- 
men, who cared only for quality and 
to whom (|uantit}- seemed a draw- 

Ijack rather than an advantage, the 
Katana-Kazi worked out with the 
patience of genius these masterpieces 
which are the delight and wonder of 
all who see them. 

The decree which forbade the wear- 
ing of the sword .struck a death blow to 
this art and these weapons are now worn 
<^nly l)y army officers and the police. 



Forget thee, dear ? 

God knows how in the silence of the night, 
Forgetful of how tired I am, 
I think of thee, till, like u soothing balm, 

Sleep, dropping on my lids, puts thought to flight. 

Forget thee, dear ? 

God knows I have no longer any choice ! 
lyOve's .seal is .set upon me, nor can I, 
With placid-beating heart again deny 

The master}' and magic of thy voice. 

Forget thee, dear ? 

God knows I would \w\. if I could. 

For sweeter far to me has been the pain 
Of love unsatisfied than all the vain 

And ill -spent years I lived l)efore we met. 

Forget thee, dear ? 

God knows, if I were l>ing dead to-day, 
To ashes turned in a forgotten grave, 
And to \\\\ dust He mercifully gave 

The power to speak one word — thy name I'd say. 

Bessborotigh Gardens, Vauxhall, London. 


3» ■ 




What the child admired 

The youth endeavored and the man acquired. — Dryden. 

ALMOvST ill the center of the 
/A Danish capital stands the build- 
ing known as Thorwaldsen's 

It reminds one of the houses, shown 
in the excavations of Pompeii, built in 
two stories, the lower one very lofty, 
the upper a mezzanine. The jambs of 
the openings taper towards the top 
and the lintel above lies straight across 
as in a Grecian temple. The lower 
floor is raised considerably abov^e the 
level of the street, with granite steps 
the whole length of the front. The 
doors have large glass panels, which 
permit a view of the lofty halls within 
and of the colossal statuary. vSur- 
mounting the front is Victory, her 
robe flying in the wind, driving a 

The side and rear walls, in which 
there are no doors, form the most 
unique feature of the Imilding. They 
are frescoed, in illustration ot the tri- 
unii)lial return of Thorwaldsen. The 
Danish man-of-war. Rota, is coming 
to anchor, and all the greatest and 
distingui.shed ones of Denmark arc 
come to bid him welcome. 

The building is planned in a square, 
the four sides forming a courtyard, 
with the apartments arranged about it. 
Some of these apartments are large 
halls, othcTs luerelv small iodiiis con- 

taining a solitary marble placed in the 
exact light or position to impress one 
wdtli all its grace and beauty. In the 
larger halls are the larger casts, and 
in the front hall of all arc found the 
colossal figures. In the basement of 
the buildings are numerous models, 
some of them broken, and seldom 
noticed save b}' some lover of the 
IMaster. The upper .stor}' contains a 
number of rooms, filled with curios 
and bric-a-brac that once belonged to 
the great artist. Then there are the 
rooms he occupied, furnished as he 
left them — his picture gallery and the 
last work, to which he gave his 
genius — a chalk outline of the Olym- 
pian Jove. 

When the visitor has seen the many 
statues below, the bas-reliefs and the 
medallions and the rare collections 
above, there still remains one other 
shrine. It stands in the center of the 
little s(|uare court\ar(l. 

Why do men uncover their heads 
when they approach that place ? What 
does that raised plain stone corbel in- 
dicate? Why are there always fresh 
and bcruitiful llowcrson that slal) save 
wIkii iIr' snow wreaths co\er it ? 

' rill n imc of llic Rrcat .sculptor has been spelled 
tlui>iii^lii Hit t!\is article with a rr. allh iijjh it will be 
seen that lie sijclt it with a ?• himself. This has been 
done because it is ^jcnerally so s]Klt in Ivn^lish. The 
riason why, in later years, he would spell it as he diil 
need not here be explained. C. M. \V. 




Because there in the ceuter of it all ents people of humble station and 
sleeps the Master, dreams his true small means. His father was a wood 
dream of immortality, while the gods carver and found employment in the 


of Parnassus, created by his own genius royal dockyards, carving figureheads 

watch over him. and other naval ornaments, introduced 

Thorwaldsen was born on the i8th in the old-fashioned men-of-war. lie 

of Noveml)cr, A. D. 1770. His par- was far from an artist, and as he could 



ill afford to ^\vc his son much school- 
ing, he took the boy at an carh' age to 
work at his own trade. 

Young Thorwaldsen displayed great 
skill in liandling car\-ing tools and was 

palace of Charlottenborg had been con- 
verted int(j a royal academy of fine arts, 
and from that time to the present, arch- 
itecture, painting and sculpture have 
been studied there undei competent 


soon able to teach his father, whose 

lines were by no means always correct. 

During the reign of King Frederick 

the fifth (A. D. 1746-66) the roval 

Vol. II—:; 

masters not onl>- by native Danes but 
by numerous students from neighbor- 
ing countries. 

To this school young Thor\vald.sen 



was sent at the early age of eleven subjects treated at the acadeni}-, nearly 

years, and it appears that at that time 
a certain amount of l^ook learning was 
also imparted there — the attendance 
being free of charge. But Thorwaldsen 
seems to have been a remarkably dull 
bo}- as he could not graduate from the 
lowest class of religious instruction and 
he seems to have been entirely averse to 
all kinds of book studv, while he 

all belonged to the Greek school. 
But, beyond reading up what was 
absolutely necessary in order to pro- 
duce such works as his Heliodorus, 
which procured for him the small 
gold medal, or the Legend of Achilles 
and Hector, when he produced his 
" Priam begging Achilles for the 
body of Hector," or any other crea- 

applied himself with great ardor to tion of his, he absolutely refused to 
modelling and carving and after a study. He seemed to be endowed 
short time received as a reward the with the facultv of conceiving the idea 

small siher medal of 
the academy, which so 
much surprised his 
teacher of the Bible 
class, that this worth>' 
man refused for long to 
belic\-e that a boy so 
stupid could gain any 
.such di.stinction. 

This was the first suc- 
cess in the life of the 

The young .student 
made g r c a t progress 
under the tuition of 
Abildgaard, an eminent 
painter and one of the 
professors of the Acad- 
emy. From .step to 
step, he p a s s e d on- 
wards, gaining prize 
after prize, until in 
A. I). 1793 he recei\"ed 
the great gold medal, 
lo which was attached 
a tra\-eling s t i p e n d 
granting him three 
years' study abroad, 
with an annual allow- 
ance, lie luul, however, to wait for 
another three years before the stipend 
became a\ailable, and it was not until 
the year A. 1 ). 1 796 that he ultimately 
received it and embarked for Naples 
on the Danish man-of-war Thetis. 

It is .sonie-whal envious to consider 
that even at that time Thorwaldsen's 
literarj' education was entirely une(iual 
to his calling. Influenced by his 
patrons he had Inrned his attention to 
Greek hi.storical subjects ; indeed, the 


at once. When he com- 
peted for the medal, 
which he gained for his 
' ' Pvxpulsion of Helio- 
dorus from the Tem- 
ple," the young com- 
petitors met on certain 
evenings to read up the 
subject and di.scuss it, 
but it is a curious fact 
that Thorwaldsen had 
modeled in c 1 a y his 
conception of the sub- 
ject, while they were 
yet arguing the various 

On the twentieth of 
May, 1790, Thorwald- 
.sen began his voyage to 
Itah-, and arrived at 
Malta on the sixteenth 
of January, 1791. His 
apparent indolence, 
whilst on l)oard, so 
nmcli surprised the cap- 
tain of the frigate, that 
he made mention of it 
in .several letters home. 
It was nine months 
aficr leaving Copenhagen that Thor- 
waldsen reached Rome. Unsophisti- 
cated as he was, without pretentions, 
not even claiming to be anything or 
any1x)dy in ]')articular, he .set foot in 
the Internal City with a few letters of 
introduction and lhn.\v hinisc'lf into 
that arena, where the ininii>ilal Canova 
was the champion. 

.Slowly the genius of Thorwaldsen 
de\eloi)ed. He knew his own .short- 
comings, and threw hini--clf vigorously 



into the study of tlic classics, where 
he found unlimited material for treat- 
ment, and, having copied for awhile, 
he bej^an to model for himself. Al- 
though his works of that period are 
exceedingly few, yet they point to the 
progress he was making, and his 
Bacclius and Ariadne decidedly prove 
an advancement. lie was obliged to 
.send every six months a report to 
Copenhagen, giving an account of his 
progress, the same to be ai-comj^anied 
by samples of his work, and this he 
never neglected, 
for which rea.son 
he easih- ol)tained 
an extension of 
time, giving him 
permission to re- 
main six years in 
Italy in place of 
three, during the 
whole of which he 
led a somewhat 
precarious e x i s- 
tence, oftentimes 
barely succeeding 
in making a liv- 

As yet, Thor- 
wald.sen had not 
succeeded in gain- 
ing any degree of 
prominence as an 
artist. It is true 
that he had done 
some work, which 
merited praise and 
secure d h i m 
friends among the 
wealthy and noble, 
but his peculiarly 

affiible personality liad probably a 
good deal to do with this. He had 
formed an intimate friend.ship with a 
German land.scape painter, named 
Jo.seph Kock. The\- lodged together, 
and Thorwald.sen seems to have enter- 
tained the greatest affection for this 
man. At the house of Zoega (a Dan- 
ish residing in Rome), he 
associated with a great man>- artists 
and men of .science and letters, who 
almost nighth- gathered there, and it 

Amor and Psvche 

is fair to as.sume that his extended 
acquaintance with .so many men of 
intellect, genius and learning had a 
healthful influence on him.self, and 
aided in exjjanding his mind and ex- 
tending his knowledge. 

It was during the latter portion of 
his six-years' term that he conceived 
the idea of his "Ja.son." This 
have been a creation, which had 
greatly weighed upon liis mind, for, 
having modeled it first in life size, he 
destroyed it, and gathering the full 

power of his ge- 
nius, remodeled it 
in colossal size, 
and through the 
financial aid of 
Mrs. Frederikka 
Brun, had it cast 
in plaster. Rome 
was astir! Canova 
himself exclaimed: 
' ' Here is a work 
in a new and lofty 
style," and ex- 
pres.sed his regret 
that age was creep- 
ing upon himself 
and checking his 
geniu-^. Even the 
critical Zoega ac- 
knowledged the 
beauty of the work 
but all this time 
the enxl of his tenn 
was drawing near, 
when he would 
have to return 
home, and even 
with the master- 
piece on his hands, 
he saw no way to continue his studies 
in Rome amid the surroundings and 
in.spirations .so accessory- to his artistic 

Already had he bade adiiii to his 
friends, when something happened 
which delayed him for another day, 
and on that very day the rescue 

Thomas Hope, a rich English 
banker, came to his .studio, having 

and, recogniz- 

heard of his ' ' Ja.son, ' 



ing the value of the work, ordered it 
carved in marble. 

"Six hundred sequins,'' said Thor- 
waldsen, who saw a gleam of light 
flooding a hidden future ; but the gen- 

pleted until 1832 ; but the advance of 
inone>- he received for it enabled 
Thorwaldsen to remain in Rome as 
an artist, independent of the Danish 


erous Knglishman told him tlmt his 
price was too low, and agreed to pay 
him eight hundred srquius. It is some- 
what remarkable that tliis figure, which 
was modeled in iSoS. wn-^ not eoin- 

And now, when nearl\- fort\- years 
old, Thorwaldsen entered u]ion a new 
era of his life. His lame had sjiread 
far and wide, and liis whole .><oul 
.seemed to liaxe exp:i:uled, while work 



followed upon work in (|uick succes- 
sion, and liis " Bacchus," 'Apollo," 
• • Ganymede, " " The Abduction of 
Briseis, " " Amor and Psyche ' ' were 
produced, while orders came in freely, 

was alwa>s called Cavaliero Alberto, 
which was far easier for the Italians 
to speak than his somewhat harsh 
Danish name. 

There are two things to be regretted 

ThorwalJien ;> Wnus 

and rich and influential men and in the life of Thorwaldsen after his 

women vied with each other in doing sudden rise to honor and dignity, 

him homage. At this period, the The one is the apparent neglect he 

King of Denmark made him a Knight .showed towards the man who had en- 

of the Dannebrog, and henceforth he abled him to pursue fame, for his 



'Jason " was put aside for other work 
and but rarely touched. The other cir- 
cumstance is the unfortunate connection 
he formed with a woman who was in 
every way his inferior. She was known 
as Anna Maria IMagnana and ^'as at 
one time maid to Madame Zoega at 
whose house he first met her. Thor- 
waldsen fell in lo\e witli the beautiful 
girl and she to some extent recipro- 
cated. Nevertheless she married an- 
other man called d'Uhden, a wealthy 
merchant, soon wearying of him, she 
induced her artist lover to receive her 
into his house and they lived together 
for years after in a manner which was 
anything but conducive to their mutual 
happiness. B}^ her he had a daughter 
of whom he seems to have been very 
fond. But his relation to Madame 
d'Uhden did not prevent him from fall- 
ing deeply in love with two other 
women of more congenial natures. It 
is noticeable that Madame d'Uhden 
seems to have played no part in his 
social relations, not even to have hin- 
dered him in any social inidertaking in 
which, of course, she could not par- 
ticipate. She would undoubtedly 
have seriously checked his career had 
not his master mind rai.sed him above 
the trivialities of an unhapi)y domes- 
tic relation, but he certainly suffered 
under a yoke which nuist often have 
appeared almost unbearable. 

In 1811 Thorwaldsen received a 
letter from the Danish Crown Prince 
Christian Frederick, afterwards Chris- 
tian VIII, inviting him to come home 
offering him a po.sition at the academy 
of which the prince was president, and 
one thing with anotlier more especially 
the pressure brought to bear by per- 
sonal friends in tlie mother country, 
almost persuaded Thorwaldsen to 
return, when he was a.sked to a.ssist in 
ornamenting the Quirinal Palace at 
Rome on tlie occasion of the ap])roach- 
ing visit of the French lynperor and 
he was requested to compose a frieze, 
as a bas-relief in one of the largest 
halls. This put a stop to his ])lans 
for returning liome and became the 
impetus which wrung from his genius 

one of the most wonderful productions 
of art in all the world's hi-storj'. It is 
known as the "Triumph of Alexan- 
der ' ' and represents the Persian 
conqueror entering the fallen city of 

From the pla.ster a cop}- was cast 
and sent to tlie King of Denmark, and 
Napoleon I agreed to pay the artist 
three hundred and twenty thousand 
francs for a marble copy which was 
intended for the Temple of Glory, to 
commemorate his victorious entrance 
into Rome, but onh' half of the 
money was paid as the French Emper- 
or was shortly afterwards exiled to 
Elba and the marble work was never 

The years from 181 2 to 1818 were 
of great consequence to Thorwaldsen. 
During them he executed some of 
his best works, such as his bas-re- 
liefs, "The Workshop of Vulcan," 
' ' Achilles and Priam ' ' and ' ' Night 
and Morning." It was at this period 
also that he remodeled his " Love 
Victorious," The Dancing Girl," 
"Young Shepherd With His Dog," 
Byron's bust, and many other .statues 
and bas-reliefs, among which are 
found some of his finest and most 
graceful productions, which appeared 
to prove a continued development of 
his genius and .skill. Some of his 
figures were suggested by 1 casual 
attitude on the part of .some per.son 
near by ; others were the result of 
more thought, but they all exhibit a 
wonderful power of conception. To 
this period also belongs the restoration 
of the .so-called ^Egina marbles, which 
he inidertook for the King of Bavaria, 
who had bought them after their dis- 
covery. marbles, which now 
form one of the greatest features of the 
Glyi)to-theca of Munich, were un- 
eartlied by Baron \'ou Halleu and 
others on the i.sland of .F^gina, where 
they had been resting under the ruins 
of the temple of the Panhelenian Jove 
for unknown ages. The temple was 
in ruins at the time of Cicero, 
and the statuar\- referred to nmst 
belong to a far remote antiquity, 



Thus we have in the nineteenth cen- conceived over two thousand years 

tury two artist souls blendinj^^ in the aj;o and, undoubtedly, at the time, 

creation and re-creation of the same tlie only man living who could have 

work the one lost in oblivion, per- mastered the task as he did. 

Interior of "Our L.iJv's Church 

haps a contemporary of Pheidon or Again, to this period belongs the 

Myron, the other, a child of the marble statue of the Princess Bar>'- 
present age grappling with an idea atiuska, one of his most exquisite 



works. For some reason it remained 
in his possession and now adorns a 
small chamber in the nuiseum. The 
Princess was a lad}- of exceeding 
beauty and grace, and it is question- 
able whether these properties are 
more forcil)ly expressed in any of 
Thorwaldsen's works tlian tlicy are in 
her life-size statue. 

But during those years other emo- 
tions greatly agitated Thorwaldsen. 
It was during this period that he hap- 
pened to meet Miss Frances McKenzie. 
There is no doubt that this lady, who 
belonged to a prominent Scotch family 
impressed herself deeply upon the 
mind of the artist, so much so that 
had it not been for his unfortunate 
entanglement with Madame d'Uhdcn, 
Miss McKenzie would, no dou]>t, 
have become his wife. But later he 
began to neglect her for another 
Frances, a Viennese lad}'. This so 
grieved Miss McKenzie that she kft 
Rome, after having .sent Thorwaldsen 
a most touching letter, which so much 
affected him that he abandoned his 
Viennese, and even sometime after 
seems to have entirely broken off with 
Madame d'Uhden, who vanishes out 
of existence in connection with his 
own life, as he left Rome for .a lour 
through Denmark in i8iy. 

This journey was one .succession of 
triumphs. Monarchs and princes \ied 
with each other in doing him honor. 
It was on this journey that he met 
the Emperor Alexander of Russia and 
modek(l liis bust, and. on parting 
with him, the lynperor drew from his 
hand a co.stl>' ring and ])laced it on 
Thorwald.sen's finger, at the same lime 
embracing liim affectionalelw II was 
on this journey that he agreed to erect 
the .statue of Copernicus in I'oland 
and to execute the famous v^wiss lion 
at Lucerne. Ivverything was done to 
exalt him, and at one (k-rnian court 
he was ushered into a liall, where all 
the ])romin(.nt artists of the vState, cos- 
tmned in imitation of wliile marble 
casts, welcomed him in exact rejjresen- 
tation ol a number of his greatest con- 
ceptions. In his nali\'eeity. as a mat- 

ter of the di.splay of festivities 
w-as almost unbounded, and here he 
received the orders for decorating Our 
Lady's Church ( Frue Kirke) with the 
figures of Clirist and the twelve 
apostles, and for the "Angel of 
Baptism. ' ' On that journey he became 
personalh' acquainted with most of 
the leading men of that day and 
received a number of orders for statues 
for various purposes and different 
places, and, when in December, 1820, 
he again returned to Rome, he was 
notonlv a famous man but well known 
througliout Europe, and, owing to his 
particularly attractive personality, 
nuich beloved by all who came in 
contact with him. 

From 1820 to 1838 Thorwald.sen 
remained in Rome, with the exception 
ot short excursions of no importance 
here. He had now accumulated con- 
siderable wealth and was continually 
addirtp to it, but he was a man 
generosity knew no bounds. He was 
ever read}- to help the needy both 
with advice and with his purse. The 
poor wood car\'er's son had risen to 
the highest dignity. The Danish 
Crown Prince, while visiting Rome, 
asked permission to be present at one 
of his entertainments. King Louis of 
Bavaria was his firm friend and would 
call through the open studio window, 
to the artist, asking him to come 
home for lunch. The Pope him.self 
did what no other Pope had e\er done 
— Leo XII descended from the \'ati- 
can and visited Thorwaldsen in 
person. Work upon work lelt the 
artist's studio to add to his fame : titles 
and decorations were .showered upon 
liim ; high ])laces of honor wx-re oITered 
liim, and all that the vain glory of the 
world can give, was held out to him. 

But nothing ever unbalanced his 
mind. He had in his ,stndi(^ numer- 
ous ])U])ils. s.'iiiie of them rising to 
become artists of higli degree through 
the inspirations tlK-\- recei\-e(l l)y ex- 
ecuting luN works, l)nt he remained 
always the same .amiable, unpreten- 
tious man. Iliseondiu-t was the same 
to the rich as to the poor, to the high- 



Ijorn as lo the lu\\l>- horn. Althougli 
years had crept upon him, lie did not 
appear to be getting old, and the 
buoyancy of his mind seemed never to 
decrease. The days of jjassion had 
been left behind, and we hear no more 
of love affairs or liaso7is. In 1S26 he 
once more met Miss McKenzie, who 
had returned to Rome, and between 
them exi.sted ever after a true friend 
ship 1)ut nothing more. 

But if passions luul left liim, that 
grand intellect which he ])ossessed 
seemed not to have 
diminished in the 
1 e a s t degree. The 
n a m e of genius 
burned without a flick- 
er, and l)rought to 
light a succession of 
w o n d e r f u 1 works. 
Among the na a n y 
whose friendship he 
gained during that 
p e r i o tl were Felix 
Mendelsohn, Bar- 
tlioldy. and Sir Walter 
Scott, whereas Thor- 
waldsen held Byron in 
supreme contempt be- of the extreme 
affectation which char- 
acterized the 

An anuising story is 
told of the two : 

While Thorwald.sen 
was engaged in model- 
ing Byron's bust, the 
latter allowed his fea- 
tures to assume an ex- 
pression of profound 
melancholy. The poet had a peculiar 
fancy for appearing melancholy, which 
he thought made him look interesting. 

"That is not your natural expres- 
sion," said Thorwald.sen, but as Byron 
did not change it, the .sculptor mod- 
eled his face without it, and every- 
body thought the likeness perfect, 
except Byron, who was disgusted. 

A few more anecdotes of the great 
artist may not here apj^ear out of place. 
Hiram Power, the American .sculptor, 

The D-iiKinj; Girl 

had modeled his famous .statue. The 
Greek .Slave. He was a j'oung man 
at the time, full of ambition, but pos- 
sessed of a high degree of native\\ He was an ardent admirer 
of Thorwald.sen, and would have given 
auN-thing frjr his opinion of his work, 
but not knowing him personally, he 
felt diffident about asking him to come 
to his .studio. Some of his friends, 
who knew the great master, came to 
his rescue and arranged for a visit to 
Power's studi(j. When Thorwaldsen 
had arrived, he .stood 
long before the clay 
w i t h o u t speaking, 
then he turned to the 
artist who was tremb- 
ling with : 

■ ' Vou .say this is 
y o u r first .statue ? ' ' 
interrogated T h o r- 
w a 1(1 sen. 

Power silently 
nodded assent. 

■'Then let me tell 
you," .said Thorwald- 
.sen, "that I would be 
proud to call it my" 

One of the most 
charming stories told 
a b o u 1 Thorwaldsen 
refers to an episode 
which took })lace on 
the occasion of Horace 
Vernet, the great 
French painter, leav- 
ing Rome to go to 
Africa. There existed 
between the two a 
warm friendship of 
long standing and on the eve prior to 
his departure a number of prominent 
artists were banquetting, Vernet. the 
Dani.sli artist being seated on his right. 
As part of the progranniie for the even- 
ing Vernet was to be crowned with a 
silver wreath. The moment arrived 
and on a given signal one of the com- 
pany approached Vernet and prepared 
to place the crown of honor on his 
brow. But the Frenchman imme- 
diately took in the situation and .seizing 



the wreath from the hands of the 
astonished artist lie placed it upon the 
head of Thorwaldsen saying : " None 
of us can wear a crown so long as he 
remains //;/crowued." 

Probably the highest distinction 
conferred upon Thorwaldsen during his 
life was the call he received to the 
presidency of the Academy of St. 
Luke, an office held by Canova at his 
death in 1826, but he never seemed 
to appreciate the honor, which was all 
the greater, as he did not belong to the 

When you knock at the door, the great 

sculptor, like Poussin opens it himself. 

■ ' The furniture of the apartment is 
simple, almost primitive, but a mul- 
titude of fine jxiintings ornament the 

"There are, filled with 
books, rare vases, collections of medals 
and gems of all kinds. All around 
are fine engravings, sketches, portraits 
of princes and artists. In front of 
the is a garden which can 1)e 
reached from the atelier where aloes, 


Church of Rome and was the onl\- 
protestant who had e\-er occupied the 
presidential chair. Nevertheless he 
.seemed pleased when his term was 

As it may be of intcivsi to learn how 
Thorwald.sen lived part of a letter from 
a contemporary is given below : 

"Thorwald.sen lives at Palazzo 
Tomoti, Via Si.stina. The stor\- 
is devoted to his ])rivate a]:)artments, 
the atelier being on the floor above 
and you reach it by a narrow 

wild and other flowers straggle 
over blocks of marble. Thorwaldsen 
is remarkable for his great activit>- 
and the close attention he gives to 
e\er\thing upon which he is engaged. 
\'()U follow the idea in his \\H)rk with 
exceeding His conversation, 
when he is only executing, not ])lan- 
ning or composing, is easy, i)leasant 
and at the same time full of thought 
and shrewdness. Not one among the 
artists takes a keener interest in zeal- 
otis young beginners. Of the men 



who have earned the rij^ht to the 
artist's eiti/.enship in the world he 
is one of the greatest. 

"Art has given liini the highest r;uik 
and a rank which can nowliere be 
ignored not even in (xcnnany — that 
country of hereditary titles. Mis is 
incontestably a mind of the first order. 
To a remarkable energy he adds that 
peculiar versatility which seem to 
belong only to graceful talent. He 
ends his life, commenced among 
peasants, in the first rank of society 

Rome, and Thorwaldsen made his 
will, in which he bequeathed to his 
nati\-e city, Copenhagen, his works 
and his collections of objects of art, 
anticjuity and curiosity, on condition 
that a suitable l^uilding, exclusively 
devoted to them, should be erected 
and i)ri)vi(k(l in' that city. But his 
time had not yet come, and the follow- 
ing year he embarked on board the 
Danish man-of-war Rota, and set .sail 
for Denmark. 

The closing chapter in this remark- 


where he inspires as much interest as 

During this jieriod Thorwald.sen 
was the recipient of a great man}- 
letters and nothing troubled him more 
than to attend to his correspondence. 

He would allow letters to accunui- 
late unopened, until some friend would 
take the matter in hand and repl\- to 
the most important ones, to wliich 
Thorwald.sen would then merely affix 
his signature. 

In 1S37, the cholera was raging in 

able man's career naturally opens 
with his reception in Copenhagen. 
No description caii do justice to the 
occasion when the Rota hove in sight. 
No warrior ever made a more glorious 
entrance into a conquered city than 
did Thonvaldsen into the home of his 
childhood. The laurels that have 
crowned the heads of Alexander, of 
Caesar or Napoleon were no brighter 
than those wliich decked the brow of 
the Danish artist, who now, after 
nianv vears, returned to his native 



land to end his daj's there, while the 
cannon boomed, while flags and 
streamers were flying from yards and 
masts and the placid waters of the 
Sound on that eighteenth day of 
September were white with sails ; 
while thousands of voices greeted him 
welcome home, and processions re- 
ceived him at the landing place. For 
weeks and months he was subjected 
to one continuous ovation, which took 
him away into a whirl of entertain- 
ments l)ut little in keeping with his 
(juiet, unassuming taste. 

His latter years need but brief men- 
tion. His great power of genius 
seemed to burn within with an un- 
quenchable flame, and he was still 
capable of producing .some very fine 
work, such as his genii of .sculpture, 
painting, architecture, poetry and har- 
mony, besides his .statues of King 
Frederik VI and 
Kiiig Chris 
tian \'ITT, 
as well as 
his o w n 
s t a t u e, 
w h i c h 
h e w a s 
ed to exe- 
cute by 

the Baroness Stampe, of Ny.soe. This 
lady was one of his most devoted 
friends, and at her elegant castle she 
had caused to be Ijuilt a studio, in 
which Thorwald.sen did of his 
later works. Among others of his 
intimate friends should be men- 
tioned Professor Thiele, the hi.storian, 
and Hans Christian Ander.sen, the 
poet, dramatist and fairy-tale writer 
who was nuich attached to the old 
man. One more of his closest friends 
must not l)e forgotten — his body 
.servant W'ilkiiis, who, willi his wife, 
kept house for and looked after the 
artist. Wilkins had fnll control of 
Thorwaldsen's affairs, and the latter 
generall\' had his meal^ w illi .Mr. and 
Mrs. Wilkins, when working in his 
Copenhagen Atelier. Tlioiwald-sen 
was particularly fond of the l)la}-, and 

John, the Baptist, Preaching; 

it was often a .sore disappointment to 
him, when .some other engagement 
prevented him from spending the 
evening at the theater. 

In 1.S41, he made a brief tour 
through luirope with the Stampe 
family, during which he beheld many 
statues he had been instrumental 
in raising in various cities, and also 
once more saw Rome and his beloved 
friend, the King of Bavaria, and on 
his return home, he was much plea.sed 
to fnid his mu.setim comj^leted. 

As the Greeks combined to 
the Temple of Pallas Athena, so had 
the Danish Nation rai.sed this build- 
ing, that it might carr\- the name of 
Thorwald.sen to remote ages. 

' ' M}- tomb is ready ! ' ' said the old 
man, as he gazed upon the center of 
the courtyard and stood musing for a 
few moments. Then he roused liim- 

.self and w^alked 
iway with a 
(| u i c k 


could he 
h e 1 p 
k nowing 
that even 
if the 
t m 1) 

ct)uld over him, he would live 
forever in the marbles lu>lding watch 
aromul ? 

Ander.sen relates that during the 
month of March. TS43, Admiral W'ulf 
died suddenh- at the theater, while 
watching the i)la\-, and lliat Thor- 
wald.sen on hearing of it, exclaimed : 
" Is not tliat a beautiful way to die — 
a death to be envied ? ' ' 

On the 24tli of ^larch, 1844, he 
dined witli Baron vSlampe's family, 
and after dinner went to the theater. 
Outside the building he met Ander- 
.sen, whcini he asked to accom- 
pan\ liim, l)nt the poet excused him- 
.self, and they bade one another " Good 
evening." Tliat was tlie last time 
Thorwaldsen sjjoke. lie entered the 
theater. The ])la\ had already com- 
menced, and, a> he seated him.self, it 



was noticed that his body dropjK-d 

" Thorwaldsen is dead ! " was 
whispered close to him, as loving 
hands tried to raise his lifeless body. 

"Thorwaldsen is dead!" was re- 
peated through the vast theater, and 
the curtain, which had risen on one 
of QihlenschlcC'ger's tragedies, fell on 
a tragedy at which the world would 
weep, while the large concourse dis- 
persed in tears. 

One more scene before closing this. 
On the evening of the iSth of Novem- 
ber, 1S70, the centennial anniversary 
of Thorwaldsen 's birthda}-, a long 
torchlight procession wended its way 
from the Royal Academy to Thor- 
waldsen 's Museum. All Copenhagen 
v%'as astir ; the streets were thronged 
with people, and the city illuminated. 

The procession consisted (T artists, 
literary men and students from the 
academy, where, as a child, Thor- 
waldsen received his first instructions, 
and the torch-bearers were cho.sen 
from among the younger pupils. 

Outside the Mu.seum the procession 
halted. The doors were oj)ened, and 
the building lighted up with burning 
calcium, which threw its lustrous 
glare upon the white figures and on 
the rose-colored tomb. Then they 
sang a lullaby, compo.sed for the 
occasion. The effect was superb ! 
Within, the sleeping master, sur- 
rounded b\' his own creations ; with- 
out — the fresh young blood, the 
fresh young voices, many among 
whom to-day occupy the highest 
rank in the art and literature of 



HAT Lake George is 
to New York and 
the East, Talioe is 
to California, and 
year by }ear its 
beauties are being 
better appreciated, 
and its shores dotted 
by the homes of the city dwellers of 
the Pacific vSlope. 

In making the fourteen-mile stage 
ride to Lake Tahoe from Truckee, I 
am fortunate in securing the box 
seat. The sweet briar rollicks every- 
where, dancing over bowlders, trail- 
ing "flushed with haste," to .see 
itself blush from the river that crosses 
and recrosses the road. The golden 
rod and scarlet castillea flaunt their 
gaudy brushes, languid //ipiurs loll, 
and esihscho//.~ias coquette with gold 
and tan butterflies. The pcnslemon, the 
gladdest flower that l)lows, ])ink at tlie, blue at the recurved edges, sway- 
ing a brilliant purple, speak as blithely 
to our eyes as a bugle to our ear. 
Above the lower growths of inan- 
zayiita, icaiiol/ius and losacca, rise 
the ]'.ines and firs and spruces that 
give martial air to tlie woods. 

TTere are river galleries hung 
with copies from nature. We cannot our child-like pleasure in watching 
the wonderfnl reduplication given 
back by the mocking stream. IIow 
can these shallow measures build 
these magnificent (lei)tlis and dis- 
tances? What tricks are onr eves 

playing us? HereisaCorot in .softest 
greens and browns. There an old 
Dutch piece, perfect in every detail, 
to dank slime and fretted bark. Again 
a flower l)il, fringing red things, tangled 
in ferns, while yonder is an etching of 
a dead grove, silvery white. 

Fourteen miles of this beaut}-- 
bordered ride, and Tahoe, Indian 
Big Water, the Geneva of America, 
lies before us, as blue as though a 
fragment of the firmament had .settled 
( )n the mountain top. Never a .summer 
.sky bore .so intense a hue as does this 
shifting water. Only gray and brown 
and blue in the color .scheme, from the 
log at j-our feet to the di.stan t mountains, 
and yet there is infinite variety in tone 
and tint. There are new 
here we are sure, but (urr .sense is too 
dull to grasp them. They evade our 
puzzled eyes as a far-away .song the 
ear, or a receding dream the memor}-. 
We spend the afternoon watching the 
play of sapphires, and think that 
nothing could be fairer than the 

From the ])iazza of the rambling 
hotel, one \iews the Rubicon Moun- 
tains, twelve or fifteen miles away on the 
right, and the exquisite s^-mmetry of 
Tallac and Ralston rising above the 
circling ])eaks. There arc other ham- 
lets and hostelries hereabout, but we 
.shall come U]X)n them as we circum- 
navigate the lake, in the .steamer that 
makes the trip every day. 

IIow we sleep here in these still, 
upper stretches 1 There is something 
in the air that would frustrate 
Kehama's, ami yet with sun- 
rise, .some of us are up and doing. 

" 'iMie Cliff House breeze suits me 
])rettv well at Ikmui'," remarks the 
l) man from vSan F"ranci.sco, 
" but there is champagne here against 
.soda there." and lie walks off, his 


Eagle Falls. Tahoe 



hands aswing. ' ' We are a mile 
higher up than they are down on 
Montgomery vStreet," speaks the stat- 
istician, " and it's about a quarter of 
a mile down to the bottom of the lake. 

" How long and \vide is Tahoe ? " 
he repeats, as some one puts the ques- 
tion. "Oh! about twenty -five miles 
the longest way, and twelve or four- 

There comes a balmy morning 
when we embark on the little steamer 
to make the grand tour of the lake. 
Near the shore, the bottom shows 
richest browns and greens, with iri- 

Bearing on toward the southwest, 
we i)ass Rubicon and Kagle Pointer, 
and that gem of the world's bays — the 

Tallac, at the base of the mountain 
of that name, comes next. The sum- 
mer boarder, as fine as at Santa Cruz, 
is here to meet us ; to crowd down 
for mail. The hotel here is owned by 
" Lucky " Baldwin, of the San I'ran- 
cisco carav^ansary, and fashion drifts 
from that one to this when she flees 
the city for the mountains. \\' e speed 
on and reach Glenbrook, half-way 
round, by dinner-time. This is a 

Tahoe Citv, Lake Tahoe 

descent borderings quivering about 
ever}- outline, and we see the trout at 
home in sumptuous retreats through 
the clear, still waters. We have a 
glimpse of the far-famed "Idle- 
wild" cottage, the ideal sunnner 
liome of California ; 1)ut McKinney's, 
eight miles across from Tahoe, is our 
first stopping place. A point clad in 
evergreens runs down to the \\ater 
line. A hotel and .i; roup of cottages 
make summer homes for a permanent 
and a shifting colony of sunnner vis- 
itors. A curious peak, dubbed Napo- 
leon's Hat, rises behind the cove. 

hunbering town, and a of supplies 
for campers and wood-cutters. Vou 
can take the stage here for Placer- 
ville, along a ro;n\ renowned for 
beauties, or yoii can goto Carson City 
with Hank Moidc, who needs no in- 

In the afternoon dark clouds nut in 
.scowling conclave o\-erhead. "A 
sunnner storm is brooding." said the 
captain, and Ik- made for land, to await 
the outcome. As we tarried there 
they told of the insane wrath of the 
beautiful lake, when the winds sweep 
from her nian\- cafKiiis and meet in 

Vol. II— 4 



haste, and of men and l^oats lost for- 
ev^er if mad enough to bra\-e the 
short-lived fury. The threatening 
stoma passed away and, after another 
spurt of sailing, we came to the Hot 
Springs, across the lake from Tallac. 

To us forevermore the Hot Springs 
of Tahoe mean tlie ])lace from which 
we saw the most glorious sunset we 
have ever known . Through a rift of 
ber3-l sky, cross-ljarred l)y amber, the 
retreating sun burst one moment to 
reconnoiter the world, then .tooped 
behind the ambush of carmi le and 

into the upper depths, and stars above 
sent greeting to stars below that sailed 
on ever}' dipping wa\-elet, and as we 
glided on we spoke of the Breton 
peasants' legend, that these flickering 
lights from the water are the restless 
souls of the unburied dead. 

" Yanks " is the barbaric name of a 
landing place, the title coming from 
the owner's appellation, won since 
bai)tism. Here, in a low, picturesque 
room, we lunched on strawberries and 
cream, watching the Indians picking 
the berries. 

Stage Route Aloniif the Tiuckce River 

salmon that protected him till he was 
lost behind the mountain rim, which 
for this moment of crisis lay sharp- 
edged and gleaming like Kxcalibur, 
again clearing the waters. 

The sky burned goldly red fn^m lire 
of victory and .sacrifice, and there was 
flung across the waters a drawbridge 
of jacinth, topaz and all maimer of 
])recious stones, which made pathwa\- 
for an nnseen cavalcade, and we knew 
ihal Nonder 

" There must l)e ^nds thrown down 
And trumpets blown of triumpli." 

Peace came when the moon rose 

Next came a stage-ride, following a 
road built along the tracks of the old 
glacier, whose last moraine across the 
valley made Tahoe. Here another 
lake greets tis. Fallen T^^af is its 
name. I'or three miles we skirt it, 
with Mt. Tallac rising above us. 
The .same sheens of blue are abonl ns 

We are jnst in linn.- to catch a gleam 
of till.' morning's own charm, when, 
before the wind from far 
retreats, the lake is a biu'nishcd, sil- 
vered glass that reflects all the world 
about u])on its face. 

W'e climb ])ast thiso\-er bare ledges 






Floating Island Lake at Tahoe 



of rock, and slabs that pave the rude 
road, past a burst of shredded waters 
that spills forever on cruel rocks. 
All about us are the purple, scarlet 
and yellow of vivid blooms, the fra- 
grant elders, the fringed, and tasseled 


Here in an older country would be 
the Thermopylae, the Jura, the Ben 
Lomond of liistory or poesy, but now 
onl\- a stray tourist knows and loves 
the peaks and gaps, rising beside the 
lakes and streams — the chain of medal- 
lions held together by the sparkling, 
twisting links of the mountain brook. 

linger yonder yet. The afternoon 
jKisses as we still lie prone, and plan 
the trips and exploits we shall have 
known before we turn from this allur- 
ing spot. 

We shall know that dome above that 
shames St. Paul's — those .splintering 
pinnacles of some cathedral's ruin — 
that gorge that wrenches the horizon 
— Tallac now above us shall later be 
our foot.stool. 

We step to the mineral spring bub- 
bling there beside the rill of snow- 
water. Those who know Nature's 
healing fountains from Carlsbad tO' 

Tho L.indins: at Tahoe 

Lily T^ake lies next above Fallen 
Leaf on our route. Fishermen whose 
oars are lacquered in diamonds, are 
paddling among the liiu]) leafage on its 
surface. Richly yellow are these chal- 
ices of gold rising from green and garnet 
salvers. The royal blaze of color is 
startling amidst the granite and snow. 
One mighty pull, one rush around a 
bulge uf hill and we arc- at (jlen 
Alpine, and the end of the world, too, 
for mountains and sky wall us in. 

There is a subtle tonic in this high 
air, sifted through balsams cleansed ])y 
many waters, fro;:en by snows that 

Yellowstone say that never has she 
mixed a finer draught than here. 
hHeven of her simples, chemi.sts count, 
cunningh- wrought into the spouting 
jet that pulses from this .seething, 
iron-rusted caldron. We drink of the 
l)rew. It bites ; it puckers. It is 
.sour ; it is sweet. It changes like 
witch broth luulcr the tongue. But 
we grow to think it ilelicious, and 
long for it. at fast and feast, long after 
we ha\e left it to the wild animals 
that steal to it. loo. from iIk- common 
stream beside. 

A great sanilaiinin awaits .suffering. 





mankind, here among the hills from 
whence cometh strength. Man has 
done little yet for the spot. Ancient 
bnilders would ha\-e upreared a castle 
of the granite which lies hewn and 
strewed about as though a Baalbec had 
fallen. Modern wealth will yet build 
an hostelry upon the spot and all too 
soon for us who love nature unbediz- 
ined. Even now there is talk of the 
coming of that advance courier of 
civilization — the railroad — from Sac- 
ramento to Carson, or from Truckee to 
Tallac. But let us have yet a little 
longer our dens and holes iu the 

tropical a growth for the home of 

No gardener could have beauti- 
fied this natural lawn where the 
columbines nod to each other across 
old logs cushioned with fawnskin 
where the ini})udent brier-rose peers in- 
quisitively under and over everything, 
shocking the l)obbing brown-eyed 
Susies. Birch and sj^ruce crowd up 
to the door of the rude house where 
we sleep. The rafters are },'et covered 
with their bark, the walls yet rough. 
The floor is bare .save for an Angora 
rug before each bed. 

The [lutfl at T.itioe 

mountains, instead of our fashionable 
hotels, and hideous railroad sta- 

vSpring loves to put fair touches here 
and every blade and petal eager to do 
her honor, hastens to the brief, bloom- 
ing time. The lawn lins <>ii one side 
a jungle of veratrnin, the be.iutifnl 
thing of which II. II. knowing no 
botany but of the e^'e and heart, 
speaks lovingly in the Tahoe sketch 
in " P>its of Tra\el." The white 
array of racemes, rich, lush greener\-, 
brought us a remembrance of the calla 
stretches of the south. It seemed too a granite ledge is a daytime The walls are whitewashed. 
The granite fireplace will hold the 
butt of a goodly log. Crood ])rints are 
on the walls and old ]K)ets hobnob on 
the shehes. Folding doors such as 
were on old-tiuR- barns stretch be- 
tween this and the dining-room. 
Rare me:ds there were in that low 
a]")artment where loaves ami fishes 
\\\re miraculouslx' lessened and no 
other hall of feasting holds for us such 
memories. Mostly tired brain workers 
were the guests, all of one brotherhood, 
who gave each other the password 








year by year and came back to nature 
tr}-itig to forget that cerebrums were 
ever developed, that Cadmus or Gut- 
tenberg had ever done deadly work 
for mankind. Seldom they spoke of 
what Ijooks held but they were alert 
to the object lessons all about. There 
were thrilling encounters with trout 
that fought for freedom. Tliere were 
walks outdoing of jSlontezuma's 
couriers. There were searching ex- 
plorations, .skifling on every lake of 
the chain. At night, a tired happy 
family had stories and songs by 
liearthfire or campfire, or perhaps 

and is often killed, but he hates this 
intrusion of man into his solitary 
home, and Glen Alpine sees him .sel- 

There are not many birds in these 
higher places. Sometimes a jay's 
blue tail whisked round a corner ; 
sometimes a robin chirped lonesomely, 
l)ut it was left to the tireless cricket to 
wail his "eerie croon, like an elfin 
.spinning wheel," to fill in all the 
sound that the ear wished to recognize. 

Before the parting of the Glen 
Alpine clan that >'ear, there came a 
da)' for a grand tour to the home of 

A Bit of the Lake 

some laureate wrote up in foolish epics 
that made the laughter of an evening 
for a care-free throng — the day's ad- 

Quiet, even to desertion, one miglil 
have the woods, but there were those 
w^ho grew to know a curious, stirring 
life all about. The common animals 
were few, but a .shy constituency 
roamed there — woodrats, woodchucks, 
hare,, quail ami porcui^ine. 

Sometimes lying on the granite 
ledges, we have been startled to hear 
a pack of coyotes yelping by, but the>- 
were .seldom .seen. 

The grizzly roams these 

the old glacier, retracing its pathway 
up the caiion, and returning to camp 
by wa}' of Tallac, which gave the 
view from that noble mountain crest. 
We rode trained to climb moun- 
ta.n trails, and passed on upward 
between polislK-d granite ])iles, coming 
upon the smaller laki.'S one l)y one, 
each distinct in its own Ijcauty of 
domed, or cuigled, mountain back- 
ground. Lakes vSusie, "84" and 
Heather xw parsed in their stilhiess, 
and tliey mirrored our cavalcade, as 
might have the glass of tlie Lady of 

Most impressive of all though, was 

White Cloud Falls. Tahoe 



to us, 

the crescent cur\-e of molten snow — 

the lake that marks tlic birthplace of 

the old glacier — the glacier that 

has grown as real a thing 

living in the groove of its 

and pomps, as the lakes that are its 


We built our campfires here on the 
edge of the strange red snow which 
had its patches about us, as the 
buttercups and shooting stars do in 
our woods at home. 

The trees were all stunted, Init the 
heaths were conspicuous in two beau- 
tiful forms, allied quite closely to 
the liealher of the vScotch lakes. 
One bore a file of purplish bloom, 
another reached up waxen cups set 
in .scarlet saucers, and branches of 
the tvro made our beds that night. 

Ill the morning we rode away 
toward the fhountain top. One little 

lake, the Gilmore, we found half way 
up, but we rode under the largest 
trees we had seen in the region, 
cedars that might have grown hoary 
on Mt. LebaiKjn. 

These trees and all others were 
l)owed, and elotiuently told their tale 
of the cruel strain of snow tliat winter 
girds upon them. 

From the top of the mountain where 
stray drifts still tarried piles 
of chipped and crumbling rock, 
wasted by the untiring play of the 
frost, we slowly made our own the 
most entrancing view yet granted us. 
Tahoe lay stretched at Tallac's feet. 
Fallen Leaf and a score of others we 
counted, mountain peaks beyond 
seventy times .seven, up and down the 
Sierras. All the world seemed at our 
feet — a last view of Tahoe — from the 
peaks that gave it birth. 

Hi'uJ of a l.aUe Nfar Tahne 



[" The horse in his mad flight broke his neck over a precipice, and during the rest of the day and far 
into tlie night, Brunhilde lay there dying. It might, perhaps, be a matter of interesting speculation to reflect 
upon what must have been the thoughts of the great Austrasian queen during that long night whUe awaiting 
death."— Oi>-o«. Geofioi Riidel. Cli. .\.\.\VI.\ 

It wa.s over — the- long ordeal oi .shame. 
The jibes and insults of her conquerors. 
The taunts and blows of every hind and slave 
Who, in her daj'S of power, fed with her dogs, 
Aj^e, and were glad to be so pri\-ileged ; 
The hoolings and the triumphs of the host. 
An army banded 'gainst one woman weak ; 
And, wonse than all, the calm and pitying smile 
That curled around the lips of Fredcgondc . 
Seeing her rival humbled to the dust. 
The brutal exultation of Clotaire 
Who spat upon her, while the}' bound her down 
And gave the word to loose the plunging horse. 
And then the hideous whirlwind that en.sued. 
When like a missile from a catapult 
The fierce unbroken steed, with snortings wild. 
And thundering hoofs, .swept furiously on — 
While in his track, bound to him by her hair. 
Now seen by through thick clouds of dust 
Beneath his flying feet, now whirled aloft 
As he lashed out between two onward l)ounds. 
Now in the forest caught by forking boughs. 
That, with a fearful wrench of all her frame 
Checked suddenly his impetus of flight 
And for an instant held him till they brake — 
Was dragged and mangled the Austrasian queen. 
vSuch plight was hers, as when a fragile skiff 
Is knotted to the stern of a swift ship, 
And veers and plunges in its Itoiling wake. 
Struck at and buffeted by cruel waves, 
ITntil, its sides crushed in, it fills and sinks. 
But it was over now. Heaped in a hollow way 
The poor crazed .«^teed. exhausted, had crashed down 
And lay as he had fallen — steeped in sweat 
That slowly cooling, matted .stiff his coat ; 


II I I', 



,f |)l|i|fi't' ft^'iiii' 

■liul .,1k- could iiul (oijfct that calm and pitvinir sniiK- 
That curled about tht- lips of" IVedcKoiulc. ' 



And i1r- once r()\:il ([ucen, 'neath his dead bulk. 
La>- witli liini — (|nivcring, but not yet dead. 
And while she la\- thus, while the night closed down, 
And while the night wind sighed about the woods, 
And, prowling from his lair, a single lynx 
Scenting in air the death, wailed like a child. 
While on the boles and shingled cliffs, the owls 
With long, sonorous whistle, called aloud, 
And while the silent bats with flickering wing 
Danced thwart the rifted lines of after-glow, 
Then the (hill eliill wliich heralded Death's march. 
In nierc\- stilled at last her agony, 

And lulled llie tlirobbings of her limj), crushed frame. 
And calmed the beating of her tortured heart. 
Her mind was once more busy, and she thought, 
Yet thought not of manifold great crimes 
Done in this life, nor of that life to come ; 
She thought not that the blood of ten great Kings 
Red on her hands, was to be answered for. 
No sentiment of pity or remorse 
Ran in the fevered movements of her brain. 
She could forget her traitor arnn- now — 
Forget her ruin and Clotaire's vile jests. 
But she could not forget the calm, cold smile 
That curled upon the lips of Fredegonde, 
And even while she dwelt upon it there. 
And all her pride of woman and of Queen 
Ramped at her rixal's triumph and her fall- 
There came a sudden rattling in her throat. 
She .strove to check it — stiffened — gasped— and died ! 




OX March 30, 1S67, all that por- 
tion of the North American 
continent liitherto occupied l)y 
Russia aud known as Alaska, together 
with the Aleutian Islands and other 
islands in Bering Sea lying east of 
the boundary line as shown in the 
accompauying map passed into the 
possession of the United States on the 
payment to Russia of seven million 
two hundred thousand dollars. The 
rrib}loff Group consisting of vSt. Paul 
and St. George Islands aud all interests 
in the fur-seal rookeries or l^reeding 
grounds situated thereon were included 
in this purchase. In 1870 the United 
States leased to a corporation of 
American citizens known as the 
Alaska Commercial Compau}-, the 
Pribyloff Islands, and by the terms of a 
contract granted the company the ex- 
clusive right of taking seals on these 
two islands for the period of twenty- 
years. The company on its part 
agreed to pay a certain sum for every 
.skin taken, the number or fpiota being 
annually fixed ])y the Secretary of the 
Treasury and to free of charge 
to the natives, food, fuel and .schooling 
during certain portions of the >'ear. 
For nearly seventeen years the Com- 
mercial Company carried on its l)usi successfully ; honorably discharg- 
ing its obligations to the government 
and even exceeding the terms of th'.- 
•contract in tlie matter of benefils to \k- 

conferred upon the natives of the 
islands. .Several times after the leas- 
ing of the i^5lands rumors reached the 
government that small ve.s.sels were 
being fitted out avowedl}' for the 
pur])ose of entering Bering Sea and 
killing the seals near the rookeries. 
But the dispatch of a revenue cutter 
to patrol the waters usually deterred 
anj'one from following out any such 
intentions. In the year 1 886, however, 
several small vessels, mostly fitted out 
in Victoria and sailing under the 
British flag, entered Bering Sea and 
began the work of killing seals 
wherever found. Acting under in- 
structions received from the Secretary 
of the Treasury, Captain Abbey, 
commanding the revenue cutter Cor- 
win in that year overhauled and 
seized one American and three British 
schooners found sealing .some sixty 
miles .southeast of St. George Island. 
The ves.sels were taken into Unala.ska 
harbor, laid up under charge of a Dep- 
uty United .States Marshal and the 
masters and ofiicers .sent to .Sitka tor 
trial. The crews were released and 
furnished transportation back to the 
United .States. The trial which fol- 
lowed resulted in the conviction of 
IIk' ])risoncrs on a charge of \-iolation 
of .Section 1956, Revised .Statutes of 
United .States which declares it illegal 
for anyone not a native of the terri- 
tory to take any fur-bearing animals 



" within the waters of Alaska terri- 

Tile ]5ritish government proniptl}- 



the seizure of its 

encc which followed, Secretary Bayard 
acceded to the request for the release 
of the vessels and men but upon the 
distinct understanding that it was 











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citizens and vessels while outside of the 
usually accepted three-mile limit and 
asked for explanations and the release 
of the vessels. During the correspond- 

done without 
.settlement of 
authorit\ or 
Encouraged bv 


to the final 
the questions of our 
ights in Bering Sea. 
■ the apparent failure 



of the United States to maintain tlie 
position which it had assumed a still 
larger fleet of vessels visited Berin;; 
Sea during the next year and several 
captures were made b>- the rexenuc 
cutter Rush iinder command of Captain 
Shepard. The usual ])n)tesl from 
Great Britain followed, and on August 
2d, 1887, Secretary Bayard through 
the ministers at foreign courts re- 
quested the governments of Great 
Britain, Germany, France and Norway 
and Sweden "to enter into such an 
agreement with the United States as 
will prevent the citizens of either 
country from killing seals in Bering 

This action brought forth a strong 
protest from the British Minister at 
Washirigton in which he claimed that 
he had received assurances from ex- 
Secretary Ba\ard that no further 
seizures would be made pending the 
settlement (if the general questions at 
issue. An examinatiDU of the corre- 
spondence of the State Department 
shows that tliis was incorrect. In a 
letter from Mr. Bayard to Sir Lionel S. 
West dated August 13th, 1887, the 
former expressly denies that any such 
assurance had been given. In the 
discussion which followed the seizures 
of the year 1889, Secretary- Blaine in 



Indians Skinninjj the Fur-seal 

Sea." England at first agreed to 
this proposition and the way for a 
speedy settlement of the (juestion .seemed 
clear, when negotiations were abruptly 
closed by the intervention of Canada 
who declared that by entering into 
such convention with the United vStates, 
England would ruin a \-alual)le indus- 
try- of her colony, Ih'itish Columl)ia. 

In 188S, the last year of ]>resident 
Cleveland's administration, luAhing 
definite seems to have been accom- 
plished, ; but during the summer of 
1SS9 in ])ursuanceof a vigorous ])olic\- 
inaugurated by President Harrison 
several Canadian vessels were seized 
in Ikring vSca by the revenue cutters. 

a letter dated August 23d, 1889, and 
addre,s.sed to the British Minister, 
admits that the .seizures had been made 
but that it was the ' ' earnest desire of 
the President to arri\e at .such an 
adjustment of all existing differences 
of opinion as will remove all pt)ssible 
ground of misunder.standing with Her 
Majesty's Government concerning the 
troubles in Bering Sea." 

Early in the discus>ion wliich ioi- 
lowed between Mr. Blaine and v^ir 
Julian Pauncefote. liritish Minister at 
Washington, the former outlined his 
position by claiming that xes.sels en- 
gaged in pelagic sealing in liering 
vSea were' engaged in a ])uisuit which 


H If 



Voi/ir. -5 



was contra bo7ios mores as iuvolviug a 
serious and permanent injury to an 
industry belonging to the United 
vStates. With reference to the asser- 
tion which has been so persistent!}- 
made that Mr. Blaine in defending the 
claims of the United States had set up 
a claim to exclusive jurisdiction over 
the waters of Bering Sea as mare 
claustim, the correspondence which 
has taken place between the two coun- 
tries fails to reveal any such claim. 
The discussion of the questions nec- 
essaril}' involved one in v.'hich the 
title we had received from Russia was 

tration, and further suggested that 
provisional regulations be adopted (i) 
prohibiting pelagic sealing in Bering 
vSea during the months when the .seals 
were coming to and departing from 
the islands, and (2) prohibiting all 
vessels from approaching the seal 
islands nearer than ten miles. Mr. 
Blaine rejected this proposition as 
being insufficient for the protection of 
the fur-.seals, as it permitted the kill- 
ing of the animals in the water during 
the months of July, August and Sep- 
tember, when the sea around the 
islands was most crowded with seals, 

one of the most important features ; 
but instead of claiming exclu.sive jur- 
isdiction Mr. Blaine in a letter dated 
August 2d, 1890, .says : 

' ' The repeated assertions that the 
United States demands that Bering 
Sea be pronounced 7?iare claiisiim are 
without foundation. The goverinnent 
has never claimed it and never de^'ired 
it. It expressl}' disavows it." Dur- 
ing the month of April, 1S90, Sir 
Julian Pauncefotc, after a long dis- 
cission, submitted to Mr. Blaine a 
plan for the appointment of a mixed 
commission to act as a board of arbi- 

and especially female seals in search 
of food for their young. The zonal 
restrictive limit of ten miles, as pro- 
posed by England, was entirely inade- 
quate, as it is a well-established fact 
that the breeding seals are found over 
one hundred niiles from shore dur- 
ing the breeding season, being tem- 
porarily absent from the rookeries 
in .search of food. The failure of 
these negotiations was followed, on 
the part of England, hy a long 
argument in which the contra bonos 
mores theory ad\-anced by Mr. 
Blaine was taken up by Lord Salis- 



bury. In a dispatch to Sir Julian 
Paunccfote, dated May 22d, i«90, 
Salisbury contended that pelagic seal- 
ing was not contra bonos mores when 
carried on outside of the marine-league 
limit, unless, and for special reasons 
it has been agreed by international 
arrangement to forbid it. " Fur seals, ' ' 
he continued, "are indisputably y<7r^ 
naturce, and these have been univer- 
sally regarded by jurists as res nullius 
until they are caught. No person 
can, therefore, have property in them 

again i.ssued to the commanders of 
revenue cutters to seize any and all 
ves.sels engaged in pelagic .sealing in 
Bering Sea. Immediately upon receipt 
of the intelligence that such action was 
contemplated the British Minister at 
Washington entered a formal protest 
declaring that her Brittanic Majesty's 
Goverinnent would hold the Govern- 
ment of the United States responsible 
for the consequences that might ensue 
from acts "which are contrary to the 
principles of international law." 

Map showing: the migration of the Pribyloff Seal Herd, which leaves Pribyloff Island about November 10th and 
returns about July loth. The United States protests against their destruction during- this migration 

until he has actually reduced them 
into his posses.sion b}- capture." 
While Lord Salisbury was deducing 
these fine-spun theories in regard to 
the proper ownership of the fur-seal, 
the time for the opening of tl\e next 
season was drawing rapidly near. 
The Government evidentl}- viewed 
with alarm the prospect of another 
season's open sealing with nothing 
accomplished in the way of settlement 
of even the first steps toward arbitra- 
tion, and in May, 1S90, orders were 

It is impossible to say what would 
have been the result had not the 
President at this juncture acted in 
the prompt manner in which he did. 
Two 3'ears ago neither the general 
public of this country- nor ol England 
were as conversant with the details of 
this question as they are to-day. It 
was not as apparent at that time as 
later that pelagic sealing was so 
destructive to seal life, and so the 
President wisely withdrew his orders 
and issued modified instructions to 



the revenue cruisers by which the}' 
were merely authorized to speak seal- 
ing vessels and to serve them with 
copies of the President's Proclamation, 
warning them against taking seals 
' ' in the waters of Bering Sea within 
the territorial limits of the United 

An attempt 
Blaine at this 


made by Mr. 

to enter into an 
agreement with Great Britain, 
whereby her vessels should not be 
permitted "to enter Bering Sea for 
this season, in order that time may be 
secured for negotiation." Nearly a 

the President's proclamation. Mr. 
Blaine, in declining to accept 
conditions, stated in a letter dated 
July 2d, 1890 : ' ' The President cannot 
think that Lord Salisbury's proposi- 
tion is responsive to his suggestion ; 
besides, the answer comes so late that 
it would be impossible to proceed this 
season with the negotiations." 

The summer of 1890 passed without 
incident, but the reports which 
reached the Government during the 
following autumn, from its agents in 
the seal islands, of the alarming 
diminution of seal life on the rookeries 


The Rookeries at St. Paul Island ten years ago 

month later, under date of June 27th, 
1890, the British Minister replying to 
this proposition, said that such action 
could only be • taken under certain 
conditions, which were as follows : 
(i) That the two Governments agree 
fortluvith to refer to arbitration the 
question of the legality of the seizures 
made in Bering Sea ; (2) that pend- 
ing the award, all interference with sealing vessels cease ; (3) that 
tlie United States, if the award be 
adverse to them, compensate British 
subjects for all losses which they may 
sustain by rea.son of compliance with 

caused new life to be infused into 
the controversy. The Government 
renewed its demands for a speedy set- 
tlement of all questions in dispute. 
The usual dilatory and evasive tactics 
were pursued by Lord Salisbury-, to 
avoid the issue ; but at, on June 
15th, 1 89 1, the agreement now gener- 
ally known as the viodus vive^idi was 
signed by the representatives of the two 
countries at Washington, whereby it 
was agreed that both countries would 
]:)rohibit scaling vessels from entering 
Bering Sea for the puqjose of sealing 
from the date of signing the agreement 



until May ist, 1892. It was further 
understood that both nations would 
send special commissioners to Alaska to 
gather testimony, make observations 
on seal life, etc., for the purpose of 
laying the whole matter before a 
Board of Arbitration, to be thereafter 

The Commissioners appointed for 
this purpose were Sir George Baden- 
Powell and Dr. Dawson, representing 
England, and Professor T. C. Men- 
denhall and Dr. C. Hart Merriam 
representing the United States. These 
gentlemen reached Bering Sea soon 
after the signing of the modus vive?idi, 
and immediately entered upon the 
labor of gathering the necessary testi- 

Sea, and very probably end the con- 
troversy by destroying the last rem- 
nants of the .seal herds. Under these 
circumstances, Lord Salisbury was 
requested to again co-operate with 
the United vStates in the protection of 
seal life, pending the settlement of 
the preliminaries to appointment of 
the Board of Arbitrators, but declined 
to do so unless certain conditions were 
agreed to on the part of the United 
States, which were so onerous and 
unsatisfactory that it was impossible 
for this Government to accept them 
with honor to itself or without endan- 
gering every claim which it has 
steadily maintained throughout the 
long controversy. For the second 

i »iil.-ir..ll llv...! 

The Seal Rookeries at St. George Island ten years ago 

mony. Most of the summer was 
spent visiting the islands in Bering 
Sea and obtaining testimony. The 
Commissioners then returned to the 
United States. A joint meeting for 
discussion was held in Washington, 
beginning in October, 1891, and last- 
ing until early of the present year. 
The proceedings of this meeting have 
not yet been made public, but for 
some reason the matter was not 
brought before a Board of Arbitrators 
as early as was expected, and it was 
seen that unless a renewal of the 
vwdiis Vivendi was agreed to in terms 
similar to those of last year, nothing 
but force on the part of the United 
States would prevent a large fleet of 
sealing vessels from entering Bering 

time in the history of the Bering-Sea 
question, a crisis was at hand. The 
gravest fears were entertained that the 
two great nations might yet be drawn 
into war while discussing the best 
means of settling in a friendly manner 
the question at issue. But better 
counsels prevailed, and under the 
calm but determined pressure of Presi- 
dent Harrison, who had personally 
assumed the conduct of affairs at this 
juncture, Lord Salisbury receded from 
a position in which he found himself 
unsupported even by public opinion 
in England, and during the latter 
part of March, 1S92, agreed to the 
extension of the operations of the 
modus Vivendi until certain questions 
could be brought before a court, con- 



sisting of seven \vell-kiio\vu jurists, 
who were to be selected as follows : 

The President of the United States 
and her Brittanic Majesty, Queen Vic- 
toria to name two each, and the 
President of France, the King of Italy 
and the King of Sweden and Norway 
to name one each. The treaty pro- 
vides that the printed case of the two 
parties, accompanied b}- documents, 
official correspondence and other 
evidence, is to be delivered in duplicate 
to each arbitrator and to the agents of 
each high contracting party, as soon 
as possible after the appointment of 
the tribunal, Init within a period not 
exceeding: three months from the 
exchange of the ratification of the 
treaty. All questions considered l)y 
the tribunal, including the final decis- 
ion are to be determined by a majority 
of the arbitrators. Five questions are 
to be submitted to the arbitrators. 
These are : 

First — The exclusive jurisdiction in the 
sea known as the Bering Sea, and what 
cxchisive rights in the seal fisheries therein 
did Russia assert and exercise prior and up 
to the time of the cession of Alaska to the 
United States? 

Second — How far were these claims of 
jurisdiction as to the seal fisheries recog- 
nized and conceded by Great Britain? 

Third — Was the body of water now known 
as the Bering Sea inckided in the phrase 
"Pacific Ocean," as used in the treaty of 
1S25 between Great Britain and Russia, and 
what rights if any, in the Bering Sea were 
held and exclusively exercised by Russia 
after said treaty ? 

Fourth — Did not all the rights of Russia 
as to jurisdiction and to the seal fisheries to 
Bering Sea cast of the water boundary in 
the treaty between the United States and 
Russia of the 3otli of March, 1867, pass 
unimpaired to the United vStates under that 
treaty ? 

Fifth — Has the United States any right, 
and if so, what right of protection of i)rop- 
erty in the fur-.seals frequenting the ishmds 
of the United vStates in Bering Sea when 
.such .seals are found outside the ordinary 
three-mile limit ? 

Freed from the complications and 
technicalities f)f dijilomatic contro- 
versy, the fnr-sc:il (|nestion is a very 

simple one. In purchasing Ala.ska, 
the fur-seal rookeries on St. George 
and St. Paul Islands were justl}^ 
regarded as the most valuable portion 
of our acquisition. The wisdom of 
that surmise is shown from the fact 
that for nearl}- twenty years, during 
which the indtistry was fostered and 
undisturbed, the United States received 
an annual income from the product of 
these two islands amounting to five 
per cent on the cost of the entire Terri- 
tory. For more than seventeen years 
our rights to protect the .seals in 
Bering vSea remained unquestioned, 
and it was nottmtil the year 1886 that 
any s5-.stematic attempt was made 
by outsiders to interfere with those 

The argument that the fur-seal is 
/era; natures is not compatible with its 
well-known habits. For a hundred 
years it is known that the fur-seal has 
annually resorted to the Pribylofif 
Islands to breed and shed its pelage. 
From the time of its departure from 
the islands late in the autumn until 
its return in ISIay of the following year, 
it lands nowhere else. According to 
Prof. H. W. Elliot, who has made the 
fur-seal alife-longstud3',theseals arrive 
at the numerous passes through the 
Aleutian Islands in the latter part of 
May of each year and entering Bering 
Sea, head directly for the Pribyloff 
Islands. A glance at the map wiiich 
accompanies this article, will show 
how w^atery paths, traversed by 
the seals, converge as they approach 
the islands, and in so doing, solidly 
mass together thousands and tens of 
thousands of widely scattered animals 
at points fiftj' and even one hundred 
miles distance from the rookeries. 
' ' Here, then, is the place where the 
pelagic .sealer lies in wait and has a 
fine location from which to shoot, to 
spear, and to kill these fur-bearing 
amphibians, and where he can work 
the most complete ruin in the 
shortest possible time. His power for 
destruction is still further augmented 
by the fact that seals which are 
most liable to meet his eye and aim 













are female fur-seals, which, heavy 
with 3-oung, are here slowly nearing 
the land, reluctant to haul out of the 
cool water until the da}' and hour 
arrives that limits the period of their 

The pelagic sealer spares neither age 
nor sex, nor from the manner in which 
his work is pursued is it possible for 
him to do so. It is impossible to 
exaggerate the danger of depletion 
of our rookeries and the extermination 
of the fur-seal species if such a 
criminal waste and inhuman method 
of capture is permitted to continue. 
If the facts, as above stated, are not 
enough to convince even the most 
skeptical that the danger is most im- 
minent, we have only to review the 
history of the great fur-seal rookeries 
in the Southern Hemisphere, which at 
one time teemed with seal life, but 
which were destroyed by the wanton 
and senseless action of a fleet of seal 
hunters whose methods of capture 
were unrestrained by law, reason or 
even the dictates of common human- 

From a report compiled on the fur- 
seal fisheries of the world in 1887 by 
A. Howard Clark, a member of the 
United States Fish Commission, the 
following extracts are made : 

" At the beginning of the present century 
there were great rookeries of fur-seal at the 
South Shetlands, at Masafuera, at South 
Georgia and at many other places through- 
out the Antarctic region. These places 
■were visited by sealing vessels, and indis- 
criminate slaughter of the animals resulted 
in the extermination of the species, or in 
such diminution in their numbers that the 
fishery became unprofitable. * * * * 
An indiscriminate slaughter of old and 
young, male and female, in a few years 
results in the breaking up of the largest 
rookeries, and, as in the case of Masafuera 
and the Falkland Islands, the injury seems 
to be a permanent one. As an instance, 
the South vShetlands were first visited in 
18 19, when fur-seals were very abundant, 
two vessels in a short time receiving full 
fares. In 1820 thirty vessels hastened to 
the islands, and in a few weeks obtained 
upwards of two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand, while thousands of seals were killed 

and lost. * * * * The system of exter- 
mination was practiced * * * for when- 
ever a seal reached the beach, of whatever 
denomination, it was killed and its skin 
taken, and by this means at the end of the 
second year the animals became nearly 
extinct, the young having lost their mothers 
when only three or four days old, of course 
died, which at the lowest calculation, ex- 
ceeded one hundred thousand," 

The same story may be told of 
Masafuera, the Island of Juan de Fer- 
nandez and every other locality where 
the seals have been unprotected. The 
history of these great rookeries once 
inhabited by countless millions of 
seals, but now shunned and deserted 
by the gentle amphibians, will cer- 
tainly be repeated in the case of the 
Pribyloff group, unless an interna- 
tional agreement is reached, whereby 
the animals arc to be protected from 
such indiscriminate slaughter. In a 
lecture recently delivered by Mr. J. 
Stanley-Brown, before the National 
Geographical Society in Washington, 
he says : 

"In 1879 the Canadian fishery reports 
began to take notice of the pelagic catch, 
and we find that the Canadian vessels took 
that year twelve thousand five hundred 
seals. Up to 1886, the Canadian Fishery 
reports show a mean annual catch of thirteen 
thousand, but in that year thirty-eight thou- 
sand nine hundred and seven skins were 
shipped to London. In the three following 
years there were taken thirty-three thou- 
sand eight hundred, twenty-seven thousand 
nine hundred and eighty-three, thirty-three 
thousand nine hundred and seven, and in 
1890 the catch of the forty-two Canadian 
vessels that went out were forty-four thou- 
sand seven hundred and fifty-one, while 
last year the Canadian fleet, increased to 
forty-nine sail, made a catch of forty-nine 
thousand seven hundred and forty-two, of 
which number it took the fleet five months 
to catch twenty-one thousaiul one hundred 
and thirty-seven in the North Pacific, while 
in Bering Sea, despite the modus vivcndi by 
which the schooners were ejected, twenty- 
eight thousand six hundred and five skins 
were taken in about six weeks. But that is 
not all, f(jr the American schooners were not 
inactive. The London trade sales of last year 
show that sixty-two thousand five liundred 
skins were oflered for sale, and duul)tless 

M iy 



W' fc 

:i^^''*^'S^LSs^ "''■■^'^'■ 

I i' 

' mi i 


■'•V ^ ' -4 'f^'-^i^- ■ 

w \' v;-' "" 







there were some skins retained in this 
country or shipped to England to be cured 
and returned to the American owners. 
Lea\-ing out of consideration the seal shot 
and not secured, this all means at the very 
least over a hundred thousand seals were 
killed at sea and that more than half of 
them were mothers. 

" Arc the seals diminishing ? If they are 
not, why all this contention ? I unhesitat- 
ingly say, after more than four months' 
opportunity for observation, that no man 
W'ho has visited the Pribyloff Islands during 
the past two years and given even the most 
indifferent attention to the subject, can hon- 
estly state that the seals have not reached, if 
indeed they are not well within, the danger 
line of depiction. No one can stand on 
these rookeries, and compare the areas now 
and formerly occupied by the seals without 
realizing from the object lesson how great 
has been the destruction of seal life." 

The illustrations which accompany 
this article are from photographs taken 
on St. Paul Island and show better than 
any written description could the 
method of taking seals as practiced on 
the Islands. By the terms of the agree- 
ment between the government and the 
lessees of the seal islands, no female 
seals or male breeding seals are allowed 
to be killed. The animals selected to 
be killed are the young ' ' bachelor ' ' 
seal or ' ' holluschickie ' ' which are 
never permitted to land by the older 
and stronger seals on the same breed- 
ing-ground with the females. Hence 
when they reach the islands the 
' ' bachelor ' ' seals are obliged to live 
apart entirely, sometimes miles away 
from the breeding rookeries. ' ' In this 
admirably perfect method of nature, ' ' to 
quote the words of Professor Elliot, 
' ' are those seals which can be properly 
killed without injury to the rookeries, 
selected and held aside by their own 
volition, so that the natives can visit 
and take them without disturbing in the 
least degree the entire quiet of the breed- 
ing-grounds where the stock is perpet- 
uated." As an additional precaution 
the seals selected for slaughter are 
driven inland some distance before 
being killed and so perfect has the 
whole system been reduced that it is 
hard to imagine how any improvement 

could be made. It has been claimed 
that the diminution of seal life on the 
islands has been caused by an excessive 
number allowed by the government to 
be taken by the lessees. This is not 
true. From 1870, when the Alaska 
Commercial Company secured the 
lease until 1S86 when pelagic sealing 
may be fairly stated as showing its 
effects, there were allowed and taken one 
hundred thousand seals annually. 
Under the wise government of the 
industry, the areas occupied bj' 
the seals steadily increased. Btit 
in 1886 the rookeries began to 
grow noticeably smaller, and in 1890 
many of the smaller ones had disap- 
peared entirely. Dtiring this j'car the 
government restricted the catch to 
sixty thousand, but the Company suc- 
ceeded in taking only twenty-oue 
thoitsand skins, and last year this 
number was still ftirther reduced to 
fourteen thousand, of which number 
seven thousand five hundred seals were 
allowed to be killed to furnish food to 
the natives. 

It would be manifestly improper to 
discuss the questions at issue in this 
controversy at the present time. All 
the matter of our rights to exclusive 
jurisdiction in Bering Sea, and the 
protection of our vested property' in 
those waters will, in due time be con- 
sidered by the Board of Arbitration 
and its decision will be right. But 
in closing this article, we can, with- 
out violation of the proprieties, 
indicate what will be the probable 
line of defense which the United 
States will adopt in the coming dis- 
cussion. This can be done in no 
better way than by using the words of 
one of the distinguished jtu'ists, who 
have been selected to argue this case 
before the Board of Arbitration. In 
an article on this subject by lion. E. 
J. Phelps, he asks : 

"In what does the freedom of the sea 
consist ? What is the use of it that indi- 
vidual enterprise is authorized, under that 
international law which is only the common 
consent of civilization ? Is it the legitimate 
pursuit of its own business or the wanton 









destruction of the valuable interests of 
nations ? If the Government of the United 
States is restrained by any principle of law 
from protecting itself and its citizens 
against this great loss it must be because 
the Canadian ship-owners have a right to 
inflict it ; that is to say that these acts pro- 
hibited by American law, unlawful to 
Canadians wherever territorial jurisdiction 
exists which would be speedily made unlaw- 
ful within their own territory if any seals 

existed there and which are wanton and 
destructive everywhere, become lawful and 
right if done in the open sea, and are, 
therefore, a proper incident to the freedom 
of the sea." 

The clear statement of this proposi- 
tion refutes it in the minds of all who 
are capable of a sense of justice, and 
able to discriminate between right and 





Ah ! Hope divine, sweet pilot of our destiny — 
Thou art the inspiration that doth lead 
Mankind to thoughts and deeds sublime ; 
Or standing on the sentried heights of time. 
Above all storms, beyond all doubts and fears, 
Thy face aglow with heavenly lire, 
Doth sweetly chant in grand harmonic flow, 
Attuned to Arch Angelic symphony. 
Soul -stirring themes — seraphic dreams — 
Leading where Heaven's eternal splendors glow. 

S»n Diego 



TO draw attentiou to the failure 
of the lyCgislative departmenis of 
our Governmeut, whether Federal, 
State or Municipal, as compared with 
the efficiency of the Executive and 
Judicial and with the requirements of 
the people ; to show that this failure 
is entirely due to the mental and moral 
inferiority of the majority of the men 
elected to Legislative office ; and to 
suggest a practical means whereby pol- 
itics may be converted into a learned 
profession, and thus in the future the 
higher offices of the Government may 
be largely filled by educated brains 
and character instead of by ignorance 
and vice : these are the objects of these 

In the early days when population 
was sparse, wealth scarce, and public 
business simple, when no great aggre- 
gations of capital existed or were even 
dreamed of as political factors, it was 
deemed sufficient for the protection of 
liberty that the only qualifications for 
any office should be the right to vote 
in the district. So said all the older 
Constitutions ; so say they all now, 
with very few exceptions as to Judicial 
office, but none at all as to Legisla- 
tive aspirants. The fathers feared 
above all things a governing class, 
which might possibly make itself per- 
manent and become oppressive ; so 
they provided short terms and fre- 
quent elections, in the belief that any 
one who knew enough to cast a vote 
would be competent for anj^ office. 
They guarded in every possible man- 
ner against the recurrence of the evils 
from which they had suffered as col- 
onists, but which are dead forever on 
our soil ; and in so doing they uncon- 
sciously opened wide the door to other 

evils, consequent upon conditions 
which in their time it was impossible 
to foresee. 

So it was not long till experience 
showed that something besides short 
terms and frequent changes were neces- 
sary to the proper discharge of sev- 
eral of the functions of Government. 
Hardly had the Federal Constitution 
attained working order ere Congress 
adoptedWashington ' s recommendation 
to establish the Military Academy at 
West Point. What this grand insti- 
tution has done for the nation is famil- 
iar to all. To say nothing of its 
brilliant success in war. Professor E. 
S. Holden, one of its graduates, in an 
article in the Overland Monthly for 
Jul}^ 1 89 1, explaining its methods, 
bears the highest testimony to the re- 
sults of its training in the formation 
of honorable character. He quotes 
the late General Alvord's comparison 
between the losses to our Government 
through the defalcation of army offi- 
cers and losses to the Bank of Eng- 
land through the intromissions of its 
employes. Though in both cases 
the loss was a very small fraction of 
one per cent of the money handled, 
that occurring through our officers 
was only a small fraction of the loss 
through the employes of the bank ; 
though these are all picked men, all 
under guarantee bonds, and checked 
at every point under the most scien- 
tific system of accounting. He says : 
' ' The total disbursements by army 
officers during our Civil War were over 
eleven hundred millions of dollars. 
The defalcations and money losses of 
all kinds (including captures by the 
enemy) were less than one million 
dollars, or less than one-tenth of 



one per cent on the money handled. 
No organization for the disbursement 
of public money from the time the 
pyramids were built until now has a 
record approaching that of the officers 
of the United States Army, and this 
bright record is the direct result of the 
training of the Military Academy at 
West Point." The effect of that 
training upon patriotism was shown 
in the fact that four-fifths of the 
graduates, including one-half of those 
from seceding States, remained true to 
the flag throughout the Civil War, 
while almost all of the Southern 
United States Judges, all the Southern 
Senators but one, all the Representa- 
tives in Congress, but three, and the 
entire body of Federal Executive offi- 
cers, sided with their States. The army 
is removed from political influences, 
through the education and life tenure 
of its officers. The confidence of the 
people in West Point education, espec- 
ially as manifested in that splendid 
bod}^ the United States Engineers, 
has never been clouded even b}' a sus- 
picion of briber}^, jobbery or other 
dereliction, or by anj^ incapacity. 

Education was likewise found in- 
dispensable in the Navy, and the 
Naval Academy at Annapolis was 
founded on principles similar to those 
at West Point, and with like results. 
Can we not claim without boasting 
that there is no finer body of skilled 
scientific seamen, patriotic officers, 
and honorable gentlemen in the ser\^- 
ice of any nation than are the line 
officers of the American Navy. 

From the very first it was found 
impossible to administer the laws un- 
less the Judges of Courts of Record 
were educated to the bar. Though 
Federal and State Constitutions were 
originally silent on the subject, and so 
remain in all l)ut twelve States ; and 
tlKJUgh for many years in the majority 
of the States the Judiciary has been 
elective, 'the necessity of the case has 
for the most part compelled the nomi- 
nation only of educated or experienced 
lawyers to the l)ench. It follows there- 
fore that our Judicial service has been 

and IS fairly good. A few Cardozos,Bar- 
nards and Turners have here and there 
dragged the ermine through the mud, 
but the hue and cry raised against 
these proves the rarity of their offense. 
Peijur}', embracery and similar cor- 
ruptions of justice do unfortunatel}- oc- 
cur too often, but these are beyond the 
control of the judges. Professor Bryce, 
the fairest of our foreign critics, says 
in his great work on the American 
Commonwealth, ' ' The Federal Judges 
are above suspicion; the State Judges 
ha\-e been and arc deemed honest and 
impartial in nearly all the Northern 
and most of the Southern and Western 
States. In a few of those States the 
bench has included men who would 
do credit to any court in any country-. ' ' 
(Vol. II, page 500). This remark 
is true, notwithstanding that the tacit 
rule above mentioned has not always 
been observed in countr}- districts, or 
on all occasions in the frontier States. 

A fourth instance of compulsory- 
educational qualification for public 
service is to be noted in the profession 
of the law. The law^-er is an officer 
ot the court and a minister (at least 
theoretically) of justice. In the Fed- 
eral and nearly all the State courts he 
is allowed to practice only after satis- 
factory examination into his knowl- 
edge of law, or on proof of such 
examination elsewhere. Only one Con- 
stitution, that of Indiana, provides that 
"every person of good moral charac- 
ter, being a voter, shall be entitled to 
practice law in all Courts of Justice." 
This exception proves the rule. So 
degraded is the character of the Bar 
in Indiana that in a recent public 
address by a prominent educator at 
Indianapolis he remarked, ' ' That it 
required less brains and training to be 
admitted to the Indiana Bar than to 
the saw-buck." 

Another and a most important class 
of public servants, the teachers in the 
l)ul)lic schools, once hired on the 
score of cheapness without regard to 
qualification, are now employed in 
the majority of the States solely upon 
merit, as ascertained by examinations. 



Not only so, but Normal schools are 
maintained in many of the States for 
their free education . It is entirely due 
to the wide cncourag'emcnt of supe- 
rior education in the teachers that the 
public school system has become the 
most important and most jealously 
guarded of all our institutions, not- 
withstanding former and local apathy, 
and vigorous opposition everywhere 
from a powerful ecclesiastical antagon- 
ism. The only scandals connected 
with it grow out of the occasional 
betrayal of their trust by the elective 
Boards of Education in the exercise 
of the appointing power and the man- 
agement of the funds. 

So the laws in many States con- 
fine medical practice to regularly 
educated pli3\sicians; pharmacy and 
dentistry to trained specialists. Not 
only so, but vState Universities are main- 
tained at public expense for the free 
education of lawj-ers, engineers, chem- 
ists, doctors, dentists, scientists, in 
fact, of anybody who chooses to avail 
himself, or herself, of the benefits of 
the higher education. 

lyastly after a long, well-fought 
battle, the Congress of the United 
States has been induced to enact the 
Civil Service Act ; whereb}^, for the 
first time in our history, education and 
character have been made the sole 
conditions for appointment to the subor- 
dinate offices in the Executive depart- 
ments of the General Government, 
and the term of office is limited only 
b}^ good behavior. Massachusetts and 
New York have followed suit. Let 
us hope that other States will soon 
imitate the bright example. 

Thus, .step by step, the original idea 
that every voter has by nature equal 
capacity for filling any office, and equal 
right to enjoy it, has yielded to the 
teachings of experience. Successive 
classes of public service have been 
withdrawn from political nomination, 
and from general competition, and con- 
ferred exclusively upon persons spec- 
ially educated to perform the duties. 
This is now the recognized theory- 
both in England and the United 

States, in all Executiv^e service. The 
nation must have the best. Its vast 
business cannot be properly conducted 
except by the best, and the best it is 
bound to have. It is on the theory 
that underlies all business, viz., that 
employment and emolument must fol- 
low ability and integrity. Neither 
the Government nor the commercial 
world have any use for ignorance ex- 
cept to send it to school; nor for incom- 
petence except to teach it a trade; 
nor for vice except to send it to jail. 
I/Ct it now be prominentlj^ noted : 

1 . That of the three great divisions 
of power the Legislativ'e stands pre- 
eminent ; for it makes the laws which 
the Executive enforces, and the Judi- 
ciary administers. 

2. That more knowledge, wisdom 
and moral force are required in the 
successful and patriotic discharge of 
Legislative duty, perhaps in the face 
of opposition, party passion, a corrupt 
lobby, a licentious press, or popular 
erroneous excitement, than are needed 
in following the beaten paths of law 
and precedent to which the Executive 
and Judiciary are confined. 

3. That all the educational and 
moral qualifications for office thus far 
adopted in either Federal or State go\-- 
crnments have been applied in the 
Executive and Judiciary departments, 
while the most powerful of the three 
is yet wdiolly under the control of the 
worst class of politicians. ' ' Hinc illcB 
lachrymcE. ' ' 

Let it also be borne in mind that no 
nation ev^er existed which has excelled, 
or even equaled, ours in its efforts for 
popular education. The report of the 
U. S. Commissioner of Education for 
1887-88 shows an annual expenditure 
on common schools only, in all the 
States and Territories, of the enormous 
sum of one hundred and twenty-two 
millions four hundred and fifty-five 
thousand two hundred and fift>'-two dol- 
lars; besides the unknown expenditure 
upon private and parochial schools, 
which teach one-tenth as many pupils 
as attend the public schools. It also enu- 
merates three hundred and fiftv-seven 



colleges and universities, in which 
four thousand eight hundred professors 
give instruction in the higher educa- 
tion to seventy-five thousand three 
hundred and seventy-three students. 
And this vast expenditure upon edu- 
cation goes on increasing from year to 
year. Besides the public taxes devoted 
to it, it has become the fashion for the 
wealthy to pour their surplus millions 
into the educational mill. Each 3'ear 
old institutions are more richly en- 
dowed, or new ones founded on a still 
larger scale, like the Stanford Univer- 
sity of California, with its promised 
endowment of twenty million dollars. 
Not satisfied with our immense provis- 
ion for rudimentarj' instruction among 
the masses, we are now ambitious to 
overtake England and Germany in the 
highest culture and scholarship. Not 
only have Harvard, Yale, Princeton, 
Columbia and other old foundations 
used their growing means in augment- 
ing their libraries, museums and appa- 
ratus, in increasing their faculties, in 
raising their standards of admission and 
multipl3dng their special trainings, but 
Johns Hopkins University has been 
organized especially for the training of 
professors and scientists, beginning its 
curriculum where our other colleges 
leav^e off. Moreover, the whole num- 
ber of students in the three hundred 
and fifty-seven institutions has in- 
creased thirty per cent in ten years, 
or seven per cent more than the 
growth of population. Yet this grand 
educational movement has only fairly 
begun . It is like the commencement of 
a vast system of irrigation, as yet only 
past the experimental stage, butwhicli 
is bound to cover the land till the desert 
everywhere shall blossom like a garden. 
Now, is it not a striking anomaly, 
that, carried away as we are by such 
a national enthusiasm for education, 
there should be as yet so little popular 
appreciation of its results, that the 
question of the education of a Eegisla- 
tive candidate is seldom or never 
raised ? Is it not strange that in 
view of the immense field for brain- 
work and honest principle in handling 

the public interests of our sixtj'-three 
millions of people, who are growing 
decennially twenty-five percent, whose 
enormous productions have jnelded 
realized wealth exceeding that of 
wealthy Britain by more than ten 
thousand millions of dollars, there 
is so little demand for brain or char- 
acter in our Legislative department ? 
Says Prof Br>xe : "New York, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago and 
San Francisco have done their best 
to poison the Eegislatureg of the 
vStates in which they respectively 
lie by filling these bodies with mem- 
bers of a low type, as well as by being 
themselves the centers of emormous 
accumulations of capital. They have 
brought the strongest corrupting force 
into contact with the weakest and 
most corruptible material, and there 
has followed in Pennsylvania, New 
York and California such a witches' 
Sabbath of jobber}-, bribery, thievery 
and prostitution of Legislative power 
to private interest as the world has 
seldom seen. Of course, even in these 
States, the majority of the members 
are not bad men, forthe majority come 
from the rural districts or smaller 
towns, where honesty and order reign, 
as they do generally in America out- 
side of a few large cities. ]\Iany of 
them are farmers or small lawyers, vrho 
go up meaning to do right, but fall 
into the hands of schemers, who abuse 
their inexperience and practice on their 
ignorance." ("American Common- 
wealth," I, p. 516.) 

Says Theodore Roosevelt : ' ' Where 
a number of men, many of them poor, 
some of them unscrupulous, and others 
elected by constituents too ignorant 
to hold them to a proper accountabil- 
ity for their actions, are put into a 
position of great temporary power, 
where they are called on to take action 
upon questions affecting the welfare of 
large corporations and wealthy private 
individuals, the chances for corrup- 
tion are always great. And that there 
is much viciousness and political 
di.shonesty, much moral cowardice 
and a good deal of actual bribe-taking 


at Albany no one who has had any 
practical experience of Legislation can 
doubt. The worst Legislators come 
from the great cities. They are 
usually foreigners of little or no edu- 
cation, with exceedingly misty ideas 
as to moralit}-, and possessed of an 
ignorance so profound that it could 
onl}^ be called comic were it not for 
the fact that it has at times such 
serious effect on our laws. It is their 
ignorance quite as much as actual 
viciousness which makes it so difficult 
to procure the passage of good laws, 
or to prevent the passage of bad ones ; 
and it is the most irritating of the 
many elements with which we have 
to contend in the fight for good govern- 
ment." {Century, April, 1885.) 

In the report of the New York 
Commissioners appointed in 1876, to 
devise a plan for the government of 
cities in that State, occurs the follow- 
ing graphic description of the powers 
of darkness who rule the politics of 
that State and city : 

' ' A large number of important 
offices have come to be filled by men 
possessing little, if any, fitness for 
the important duties they are called 
upon to discharge. These unworthy 
holders of public trusts gain their 
places by their own exertions. The 
voluntary support of the citizens 
would never have lifted them into 
office. Animated by the expectations 
of unlawful emoluments, they spend 
large sums to secure their places, and 
make promises beforehand to sup- 
porters and retainers to furnish patron- 
age or place. The corrupt promises 
must be redeemed, anticipated gain 
must be realized ; hence old and edu- 
cated subordinates must be dismissed 
and new places created to satisfy the 
crowd of friends and retainers. Profit- 
able contracts must be awarded, and 
needless public works undertaken. * 

* * It is speedily found that 
these unlawful demands, together with 
the necessities of the public, call for 
a sum which, if taken at once by tax- 
ation, would produce dissatisfaction 
and alarm in the community and 
Vol. 11—6 

bring public indignation upon the 
authors of such burdens, and any fail- 
ure thus to raise a sufficient .sum is 
.suppliedby an issue of bonds. '■'- * * 
It would clearly be within bounds to 
.say that more than one-half of all the 
present city debts are the direct results 
of the species of intentional and cor- 
rupt misrule above described." 

In regard to the attempt made in 
New York to escape the evils inflicted 
by the city government through Legis- 
lative control, this report goes on to 
say : ' ' The representatives elected to 
the State Legislature have not the 
requisite time to direct the local affairs 
(if the municipalities. They have not 
the requisite knowledge of details. 
When a local bill is under considera- 
tion in the Legislature its care and 
explanation are left exclusively to the 
representative of the locality to which 
it is applicable ; and .sometimes by 
express, more often by tacit under- 
standing, local bills are ' log-rolled ' 
through the houses. '■= * * The 
notion that Legislative control w^as 
the proper remedy was a serious mis- 
take. The corrupt cliques and rings 
thus sought to be baffled were quick 
to perceive that in the business of pro- 
curing special laws concerning local 
affairs they could easily outmatch the 
fitful and clumsy labors of disinter- 
ested citizens. The transfer of the 
control of municipal resources from 
the cities to the State Capitol had no 
other effect than to cause a like trans- 
fer of the methods and arts of corrup- 
tion, and to make the fortunes of our 
principal cities the traffic of the lob- 
bies. Municipal corruption thence- 
forth escaped all bounds and spread 
to even,' quarter of the State. ' ' 

This description of the political hor- 
rors in New York is equally true, 
viutaiis fuutandis, of Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Illinois and California ; and the 
same infernal system has long ago 
.spread into nearly all the States. In 
many of them it has become so much 
a matter of course, in spite of seve" 
but never enforced laws against L^ 
lativebriben,-, that by manj' vot*^ 



earnest protest in behalf of ancestral 
purity will be treated merely as a joke ! 
As a specimen of a very common job, 
hardly a I^egislaturc meets in which 
ten or twenty bills threatening injur}- 
to insurance companies are not intro- 
duced. The writer has been apprised 
of two hundred and twenty such 
bills pending in twenty-four Legis- 
latures that were sittingi. cotempo- 
raneously. These bills seldom pass ; 
never, if the ever-present commit- 
tee fro::i the underwriters does the 
handsome thing. It is common to 
form rings in Legislative bodies, which 
unblushingly sell all the votes they 
can find a market for. In fact, it is 
now about impossible to procure the 
passage of any law at all affecting cap- 
ital, except by bargain and sale. The 
United vStates Senatorship has become 
a high-priced commodity within reach 
only of millionaires ; hence the recent 
wonderful increase of wealth}' ineffi- 
ciency in that once august body. 

The writer was informed by a once 
prominent banker in San Francisco 
that during the Legislative session of 
California in 1868, not less than eight 
hundred thousand dollars had passed 
through his hands alone for the pur- 
chase or defeat of Legislation ! This 
bonanza has been worked ever since 
for all there was in it. While I write 
a suit is on trial in vSan Francisco in 
which one Faylor, an outside lol), 
sues the late ' ' boodle ring ' ' in the 
State Senate for six thousand dollars, 
being, as he claims, his share of the 
profits during the last session, which 
the Senators refuse to divide with 
him ! At every session from twenty 
thousand to forty thousand dollars is 
regularly paid by the pilot monopoly 
of San Francisco, as the price for deny- 
ing the perennial demand of the ship- 
ping interests for the reduction of the 
exorbitant rates of pilotage, which 
greatb,' injure the commerce of the 
port. In the city of San Francisco 
politics have been controlled by 
" " ever since the war, 
excitement ])ul an end io the ten years 
of clean <rovernment inanirurated bv 

llic \'igilance Committee cf 1856. 
Three times have the reformatory 
charters been prepared since the 
adoption of the Constitution of 1S79, 
and three times have they been voted 
down, through the failure of their 
lukewarm friends to overcome at the 
polls the vigilant hostility of the pol- 
iticians. But enough r.3 to the failure 
of the Legislative department in States 
and cities. 

What good citizen of property does 
not dread the meeting of the Legisla- 
ture, tremble while it lasts, and 
rejoice when it is over ? What 
expedients have not been resorted to 
to curb its power for mischief, 
though at the cost of curtailing its 
abilit}- for good ? At, annual 
sessions were the rule, without legal 
limit as to their duration, now they 
are made biennial in all but six of the 
older States, and restricted to four, 
three, or even two months. At first, 
the Representatives were intrusted 
with all the Legislative powers of 
their principals, the people, except 
that of altering the Constitution (see 
Vermont Constitution of 1793). But 
the Constitution of California (of 1S79) 
not only limits the per diem of the 
Legislature to sixt}' da^-s, in a biennial 
.session, but specifies no less than 
thirty-three particulars in which it is 
forbidden to act. It is strange that in 
the presence of any quantity of exper- 
iments between these two extremes, 
each seeking to prevent .some time- 
honored abuse of Legislative power, 
it seems never to have occurred to 
Constitution makers to confine eligi- 
bility for the Representative function 
to men of ascertained education in 
.statecraft and of established reputation 
for integrity and patriotism. 

" O'er forms of Government let fools contest. 
That \vhich is best administered is best." 

Btit how is it with C<.)ngress, where 
for many years the of this 
great nation has been completely over- 
shadowed by party spirit, or forgotten 
in the excitement of dixiding the 
public mone\- among the tlunisands of 


private claimants whose attorneys the 
majority of the memljers seem to be ? 
Ivutirely owing to the lack of patri- 
otic education and of enlightened con- 
science on the part of said majority, 
Congress has become the most cum- 
brous of all inventions intended ' ' how 
not to do it. " In spite of the constant 
efforts of a few statesmen, who have 
been repeatedly re-elected by the 
exceptional good sense of their 
constituencies, its history has for 
years been a dreary narrative of 
IneflQcieucy, procrastination, stupidity, 
and often of national disgrace. Con- 
gress took more than sixty years to 
frame and pass a bill for the distribu- 
tion of the money received for the 
French spoliation claims, by which 
time all the original claimants were 
dead. It has allowed twenty-five 
years to pass without taking (until 
last session) any efficient means to 
prevent the gradual extirpation of our 
shipping in the foreign trade, due to 
our effete navigation laws and high 
tariff, in the presence of English com- 
petition under more favorable Legisla- 
tion. Yet at every session bills have 
been introduced, memorials, petitions, 
and reports filed, which, if acted upon 
would long since have restored our 
flag to its former position upon the 
high seas. But so profound has been 
the ignorance of Western and Southern 
members on the subject (one of whom 
once innocently asked the writer) 
"what ships do at night?") or so 
powerful have been the golden argu- 
ments administered by tlie agents of 
the British Ship-Owners' Association, 
that until the last session it has been 
impossible to procure any effective 
relief and the work of last session was 
only half done. Congress has so 
neglected the Navy that for several 
years, until the recent movement in 
the direction of rebuilding in 1SS3, 
we had not a single fighting ship 
afloat. And for twenty years it so 
neglected the fortifications of our 
immensely wealthy seaport cities as 
not to have at any of them a single 
gun capable of injuring an ironclad 

ship I Yet during all the time the 
Treasury has been overflowing, and 
public opinion everywhere crying 
aloud for the re-establishment of our 
National defenses afloat and ashore. 
But Congress appears insensible to 
public opinion unless it finds a place 
in party platforms ; and the hope that 
some party advantage may be reaped 
from every want that attracts public 
attention (a hope often disappointed) 
is the great motive of the chronic 
hesitation and exasperating delays 
with which it avoids action, be the 
subject never so important to the 
National welfare. 

Again, Congress stole the Geneva 
award fund from those direct claim- 
ants in whose names and for whose 
use it was obtained, and gave it all to 
those indirect claimants who had been 
expressly excluded by the arbitrators ; 
and by this act it impeached the good 
faith of the nation in the eyes of the 
civilized world, thus probably fore- 
stalling some future arbitration ; and 
doubled or trebled future war prem- 
iums on American vessels, whose 
underwriters are now deprived of all 
hope of salvage, heretofore their 
undeniable legal right all over the 
world. It took Congress twenty ^-ears 
to act on the continual petitions of the 
people of the Pacific Coast for the 
exclusion of the Chinese, and then it 
repeatedly liungled the business. 
Always holding the power of regulat- 
ing commerce between the States, it 
took ten years to evolve the Interstate 
Commerce Act, whose principal effect 
is to build up the business of the 
Canadian Pacific, at the expense of 
American overland railroads. It 
refuses to take any action on the con- 
stant increase of pauper immigration 
from the heterogeneous nations of 
Europe, though our institutions are 
everywhere threatened by it, and pub- 
lic opinion has for many years been 
cr>-ing aloud for its restriction. It 
cannot now make up its mind about 
the silver question, which for years 
has been left unsettled, to the great 
iniiiryofthe business of the country. 



The Lov\"cr House lias long inaiataiucd 
a system of rules (which, afLcr a l)itter 
fight was modified during the last 
session) intended to enable the min- 
orit}' to prevent the transaction of 
business b}^ the majority. It persists 
in devoting three-fourths of its time to 
the passage of private claims, which 
arc a perennial fountain of corruption, 
and which can never be properly 
investigated iu such a bod}^ instead 
of relegating all claims against Gov- 
ernment to the courts where they 
properh^ belong. 

But why prolong the list of 
Congressional transgressions, omis- 
sions, delays, neglects and inefficien- 

They are so familiar that the 
nation has long since become accus- 
tomed to them, and expects nothing 
else. But can this condition of things 
last forever ? If that bod}-, the onl}- 
expression of the sovereign power of 
the nation in I,egislation, is so terribly 
behind the business of sixty-three 
millions of people, what will be our 
condition when one or tvv^o hundred 
millions depend upon it ? Does any 
one ever speculate upon the wonderful 
improvement that would result to the 
business of Legislation, if every Senator 
and Representative were educated to 
statecraft, inspired by a broad spirit of 
honest devotion to the whole countrj^ 
instead of by mere party or local 
spirit, utterly unapproachable by 
corrupt motives, and looking only to 
the appreciative confidence of his con- 
.stituents and the covuitr}- for his 
reward of loj^al service? vSurely if 
any means can be devised for filling 
our Legislative bodies with the same 
trained talent and fidelity that govern 
the Army and Navy, our railroads, 
our great maiuifactories and business 
enterprises, the administration of our 
admirable institutions, like that of our 
private affairs, would challenge the 
env}^ of the world. 

Yet what is our situation to-day ? 
We are a powerful nation, constantly 
growing , already the equal if not the 
.superior of any otlicr, and likely soon 

to be confessedlj' the foremost iu all 
respects ; with accumulated wealth far 
exceeding any other. A nation spend- 
ing annualh' one hundred and twenty- 
two millions of dollars in common 
schools alone, besides untold millions 
in other and higher forms of educa- 
tion ; possessing the most omniscient 
and enterprising press ; the most stu- 
pendous system of internal improve- 
ments ; the largest area of fertile soil ; 
engaging in the greatest variety of 
productive industries, and holding the 
second place in the foreign commerce 
of the world. A nation whose free and 
prosperous conditions attract so many 
aliens as to destroy the homogeneity 
of its people ; whose many inventions 
keep manufactures and trade in a state 
of continual change ; whose freedom 
of thought, speech, press and associa- 
tion stimulates mental activity to a 
degree that threatens the stability of 
its institutions, through the influence 
of cranks and demagogues, who, with 
their foreign-born audiences, are too 
ignorant to appreciate the perils of 
half knowledge ; a nation with a 
most complicated government, founded 
upon a S3^stem of ideas, largely 
peculiar to itself; in fact, " an intel- 
lectual system of government, ' ' which 
can be maintained in its purity only 
by the intelligent and honest adminis- 
tration of very able and highly'- 
educated men. 

Yet all this seething mass of progres- 
sive humanity is ruled by a congress, 
1)y forty-two State Legislatures, by 
hundreds of city councils, and thou- 
sands of boards of county supervis- 
ors (some twenty thousand men 
more or lesvs), not one of whom, how- 
ever honest and well-meaning, was 
educated to statecraft ; the large ma- 
jority of whom are not sufficiently 
educated to have any conception of 
the true principles of government, 
especially of their own, or of the 
nature of the problems with which they 
have to deal. Not only ignorant, l)ut 
many of them dishonest, and nomi- 
nated only for that reason by the 
machinations of llic worst elements in 



the commtinity ; their idea of office 
being not the service of the public, 
but private gain for themselves and 
their nefarious associates in crime. 
And yet no one dreams of applying an 
educational or character qualification 
to legislative candidacy ; nor would 
tlie mass of the citizens vote to estab- 
lish an aristocracy of education in 
that branch of the government, 
though the only alternative be an aris- 
tocracy of villainy ! 

Of the one hundred and fifty millions 
of dollars doubtless spent annually on 
all kinds of education, only a trifle is 
as yet devoted in a few states to 
instruction in "Civics" in the public 

Out of three hundred and fifty-seven 

colleges and universities, not one, 
nor any distinct department of one, 
is organized for the special training 
of statesmen, or for the issuance of 
degrees in statecraft. 

An educated army, corps of engi- 
neers, navy, judiciary, bar and staflF 
of school teachers, and tliirtj--two 
thousand subordinate executive offices 
filled by educational and character 
tests, and all continually subordinated 
to legislative ignorance, incompe- 
tence, corruption, partizanship and 
rascality ! 

Under these conditions, if un- 
changed for the better, how can it be 
possible that the United States can 
attain their bicentenary in uninter- 
rupted peace and progress ? 



Sometimes, when I attune my ear to hear 

A classic symphony, I do, at most. 

But catch a bar or two, and then a ghost, 
Unseen, unheard, but not unfelt, draws near. 
And gentlest finger-tips do close my ear 

To present sounds ; while from old days long lost 

A strain comes back and holds my soul engrossed ; 
A song once loved, a voice low, sweet and clear. 

O haunting voice ! as thy notes rise and fall, 
The present fades ; the proud face at my side 

Gives place to one I cannot but recall ; 
Her hot-house flowers, that fling their fragrance wide. 

Field daisies are ; and thou, who wert my all 
In life's sweet spring, art once again my bride. 



I FIRST met John Miiir a quarter of 
a century ago in ^Madison, the 
beautiful capital of Wiscousin, 
where Dr. Carr was for many years 
Professor of the Natural Sciences and 
of Chemistry in the State University. 

As one of the Geological Comniis- 
sioners, he also had much to do in 
gathering and arranging the extensive 
collections which illustrate the natural 
historj- and resources of the region 
bordering the great lakes and the 
Mississippi. Professor James Hall, 
the eminent geologist, was at the head 
of the commission, and students em- 
ployed as assistants have since become 
eminent in the fields of scientific 
research and of education. 

During a fair of the state agricul- 
tural .society, held at the Capital, the 
secretary wishing to secure a .special 
premium for the meritorious inventions 
of a young vScotch friend from Portage, 
a.sked me to report them to the proper 
committee. They were not easy to 
classify under the .society's specifica- 

T accompanied liiui to a part of the 
grounds where we found John ISIuir en- 
gaged in .showing the relation between 
brains and ])edsteads. 

The l)edstead exhibited was a rude 
affair over which some blankets were 
thrown, but was my.steriou.sly con- 
nected with a rustic clock, which if 
.set for anv desired time of waking, 
gently rai.sed the occu]iant of the bed 
to an u])right ])osition with liis feet 
upon the footboard. 

He was assisted in this demonstra- 
tion 1)\- two small l)oys ; one a truant 
belonging to me and the other to 
the Profes.sor of (ireek. The lads 
.soon became perfect in tlieir role, 
sleeping tranquilly without moving an 
eyelash until surprised by the cheers 

of the .spectators. The little 
attracted many visitors who were en- 
tertained bj^ the naive explanations 
and enthusiasm of the inventor. But incidents \vould probably have 
been forgotten had not Dr. Carr soon 
after reported Muir's attendance upon 
his lectures at the University. 

A friend happened to be present, a 
physician from Portage, where the 
Muir family lived ; wdiose .story^ of 
piety and patience as exemplified in 
the lives of John's parents, David and 
Annie Muir, seemed like a reading 
from the pages of George McDonald. 

And of genius ; for as bidden 
by the Psalmist, David praised the 
lyOrd upon stringed instruments, even 
upon a violin of his own making ; he 
also practiced the prayer and faith 
cures as a free gift, and like the Mas- 
ter he strove to imitate, deprecated 
notoriet3\ He was reputed to be a 
severe disciplinarian ; not from passion 
or even ju.stice but because the conse- 
(^uences of sparing the rod were so 
explicitly .stated in the Holy Word. 
When he was called by the Spirit into 
the wilderness of towns and cities on 
religious errands, the brave mother 
and her loyal .sons took up the family 
burdens luicomj^ilainingly, and waited 
for his return. 

And .so thispioneerfamily took root; 
became iiseful and greatly respected 
by their neighbors in spite of some- 
what hard conditions. 

They had few books, but these were 
of the best and tales of grandfather, 
their very own, to fall back ui>on. 
David and his Annie were doubtless 
as happy in their simple belief that the 
world W'as made in six literal "days," 
as if these had been called (rofis or 
crores ; but the .spirit of iiu]uir\- de 
veloping in one of their l>airns was 


Juhn ,N\uir 



alread>- leading him to the ' ' Great 
vStouc Book " for a fuller explanation. 

In winter the inglenook was not 
destitute of cheer and thus this budding 
genius was accounted for in the order- 
ly processes of nature. 

When the ' ' twa laddies ' ' who had 
tested the bedstead heard that Muir 
was a student of the University, they 
gave me no peace until we visited 
him, having planned a course of 
jack knife studies wider this most 
competent professor. We found his 
room furnished with several ingenious 
and useful articles besides the now 
famous clock and bed. 

One of these was a desk, which if 
en rapport with the clock, moved the 
text books required in each study to 
the front, and opened them at the 
proper place. 

Ikit to me the most captivating piece 
of mechanism was an apparatus for 
registering the growth of an ascend- 
ing plant stem during each of the 
twenty-four hours. The plant he had 
selected for the purpose was the com- 
mon Madeira Vine ; {^Boiissingaultia 
of botanists) which was growing 
luxuriantly in his sunniest window. 

A fine needle, threaded with the 
long hair of a fellow studentess, when 
attached to the plant, made the record 
faithfully upon a paper disk marked 
to indicate minute spaces with great 
exactness, wdiile the rustic clock 
ticked the minutes and hours away. 

During the following winter Muir 
taught a district school in a log build- 
ing without other apparatus than the 
water ])ail and dipper. 

But with the help of these he con- 
trived a clock, and by applying his 
knowledge of chemistry and mechan- 
ical powers still farther found a fire 
and warm schoolroom awaiting him 
after his long walks through snow 
drifts in an almost Arctic temperature. 
A water color painting of that log 
schocjlhouse w^as long treasured ])y one 
of his friends as a i)roof that the 
artist's eye and touch were not want 
ing among his man\- gifts. 

At the beginning of the next Uni 

yersity year he was missed, and know- 
ing how eagerly he washed to finish 
the course. Professor Sterling in behalf 
of the faculty, invited his return as a 
free student. The University had not 
then come into possession of its large 

Dr. Carr had plans for him also in 
the geological ser\dce which we were 
holding back for a surprise ; but 

"The best laid plans of mice and men 
Gang aft aglee, — " 

and these letters were never received. 
After many fruitless attempts to recover 
him a characteristic missive reached us 
from Tronts Mills near Meaford, in 
West Canada, where there was a man- 
ufactory of wooden rakes. 

' ' I am sorry over the loss of Pro- 
fessor Sterling's letter, for I waited and 
wearied for it a long time, keeping up 
an irregular course of study but since 
undertaking, a month ago, to invent 
new machinery for this mill my mind 
seems to l)usy itself in this w'ork to the 
exclusion of everything else. ' ' He had 
been disappointed and we were grieved 
as we read. "Oh how frequently, 
when lonely and wearied, have I 
wished that like some hungry worm 
I could creep into that delightful 
kernel of your house, your library, 
with its portraits of scientific men 
u]wn its walls and such bountiful store 
of their shea\'es into the blossoms and 
verdure of your little kingdom of 
plants," (our winter garden,) "luxu- 
riant and happy as if opening their 
leaves under the open sky of the most 
flower-loving zone in the world." 

He seemed uncertain into which of 
many alluring waj'S he might turn his 
steps, and again he wrote : "A voice 
seemed to mock my aspirations towards 
the study of medicine, that I might do 
something to alleviate human mis- 
ery." At another time: "I felt 
called toward the study of nature 
among the dells and dingles of 
vScOTL.VXi), and all ihe other, less 
important ])artsofour world." 

I would like to invent useful ma- 
ehinerw hut tlie \i)ice answers ■ 



"You (If) not like to spend >our life 
among machines. 

In spite of tlie warning of his demon 
Miiir connniltcd himself t(j rake mak- 
ing, supplying new contrivances for 
setting the teeth and handles, and by 
the subtlety of his intuitions and sug- 
gestions, impressed his employer with 
his ability to substitute mind for 
muscle in a great variety of ways. 

His services were substantially re- 
warded, and on liecoming a capitalist, 
he had decided to in\est in a grand 
walking tour ; when the factory was 
burned, and his money, clothes, l^ooks 
and papers vanished in flames. 

Then began the wanderjahre of this 
meister in nature's greater workshops, 
whose record for the next ten years 
was as strange as any^ recorded in the 
literature of her lovers. 

His first important stopping place 
was at Indianapolis, where visiting 
some of the great machine shops, he 
fell into conversation with a skilfuU 
and intelligent operator. Some sug- 
gestion of Muir created a discussion of 
mechanical powers and their applica- 
tions, which led to an engagement, 
promising still greater advantages than 
those he had lost. 

In this new work he wrought as 
faithfully as before, making many 
friends, but during the following April 
there came a letter to us. traced by 
his fingers, with no help from his 
eyes, which read: "The sunshine 
and winds are working in all the gar- 
dens of God, but I, I am lost I I am 
shut in darkness. My hard toil- 
tempered nuiscles have disappeared ; 
and I am feeble and tremulous as an 
ever sick woman. 

' ' My friends here are kind beyond 
what I can tell, and do much to 
shorten the, black days." 

The explanation, written by an 
attendant, told us that while adjusting- 
some delicate machinery, a small fde 
had pierced his right eye on the outer 
edge of the cornea. Afterwards he 
wrote: "I felt neither pain nor faiut- 
ness, the thought was so tremendous 
that mv right eve was gone ; that 

I should never look at a flower 

Later, during his slow recover}-, he 
wrote: "On .some cloudy day, I am 
promised a walk in the woods, where 
the spring's sweet are 
waiting." After many weeks I re- 
ceived his token of recovery in a 
little package of Cliniacium, that min- 
iature palm among the mosses. 

We were still more encouraged 
when he concluded a letter by saying : 
" I have nearly an eye and a half left, 
and can read a letter with the poorest. 
I feel if possible more anxious to 
travel than ever. I read a description 
of the Yo.semite Valley last year, and 
have thought of it every day 

That he was using both his eyes 
was proven by a rhapsodj- upon the 

" The dear little conservative green 
mosses have elevated their smooth, 
shining shafts and stand .side by 
side, every cowl properly plaited, 
and drawn down just far enough, 
every hood with its daint}- slant, their 
fashions unchanging because perfect." 

One may trust a nature-lover to be 
his own doctor, and soon this one 
])rescribed a walk froni Indianapolis 
to Portage, Wisconsin, accompanied 
by a lad eleven years old. They were 
weeks on the wa>-, and appeared at 
Madison, laden like donkeys, with 
Iheir burdens of pressed plants. He 
.spoke only once of his trial, saying 
that ' ' he was ver>- thankful that his 
affliction had driven him to the sweet 
fields rather than away from them." 
This was in June. 1S67. when he 
spent some happ\- weeks with " the 
loved of home." 

The shock to his nervous system, 
resulting from his injury, was greater 
and his recovery slower than had 
been expected. vSeptember found him 
in Kentuckv. among the hills of Bear 
Creek, after walking from Louisville, 
a di.stance of one hundred and .seventy 

Of his plans and puq^oses he wrote : 
■ It was a few miles .south of Louis- 



ville when I planned my journey. I 
spread out my map under a tree, and 
made up my mind to go through Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee and Georgia to 
Florida ; thence to Cuba, and from 
there to some part of South America. 
It will be only a hasty walk. I am 
thankful, however, for so much. I 
will be glad to receive any advice 
from you ; I am very ignorant of all 
things pertaining to this journey. 

' ' The lordly trees and scenery- of 
Kentucky are cut into my memory^ to 
go with me forever." 

In pursuance of this plan, he 
reached Georgia, where, from a camp- 
ing place near Savannah — the famous 
Buenaventura — his letter was an ex- 
quisite prose poem on the ' ' natural 
beauty of death." 

' ' I gazed at this peerless avenue as 
one newly arrived from another 
planet, without a past or a future, 
alive only to the presence of the most 
adorned and living of the tree com- 
panies I have ever beheld. Buena- 
ventura is called a graveyard, but its 
accidental graves are powerless to 
influence the imagination in such a 
depth of life. The rippling of living 
waters, the song of birds, the cordial 
rejoicing of busy insects, the calm 
grandeur of the forest, make it rather 
one of the Lord's elect and favored 
fields of clearest light and life. Few 
people have considered the natural 
beauty of death. Let a child grow 
up in nature, beholding her beautiful 
and harmonious blendings of death 
and life ; their joyous, inseparable 
unity, and Death will be stingless in- 
deed to him." 

Having no doubt that Muir's per- 
sistence would lead him to the Andes 
and the Amazon, we addressed to 
friends in Buenos Ay res and to Presi- 
dent Sarmiento letters which we 
hoped would ensure his comfort and 
safety. Meanwhile he lay sick with a 
fever in T^'lorida, and a lady friend and 
admirer informed us of the perils he 
had incurred, and the interest felt in 
his behalf ])y all who had listened to 
his glowing descriptions of the scenes 

still fresh in his mind. On the eighth 
of No\'ember, he wrote from Cedar 
Kej's that he w-as getting plants and 
strength, and about to go to New 
Orleans for a passage to South Amer- 
ica ; not quite sure as to what point. 

Then occurred a break in a corre- 
.spondence, so fully shared with others 
that the letters are far more travel- 
worn than the writer of them, next 
heard from — " Near Snelling, Merced 
County, California,'" July 26th, 1868 : 

"I have had the pleasure of but 
one letter from any source since leav- 
ing P'lorida, and of course am very 
lonesome and hunger terribl}^ for the 
communion of friends. Fate and 
flowers have carried me to California, 
where I have reveled nearly four 
months. I am well again, and were 
it not for loneliness and isolation, the 
joy of my existence would be com- 
plete. I saw little of the beauty dur- 
ing the journe}- across the Isthmus of 
Panama, for my body was still a 
wreck, and was borne with cruel 
speed through the gorgeous Eden 
of vines and palms. I could only 
gaze from the car platform and 
weep and pray that the Lord would 
sometime give me strength to see it 

The pra^^er seems to have been 
answered at once and strength given 
to improve his opportunities in Cali- 
fornia, for he says : ' ' Florida is in- 
deed a land of flowers, but for every 
flower creature dwelling in its most 
delightsome places, more than a hun- 
dred are living here. Here is Florida. 
Not scattered, with grass between as 
on our prairies ; 1)ut the panicled 
grasses are .sprinkled among the flow- 
ers ; not as in Cuba, piled and heaped 
into glowing masses ; but side by 
side, flower to flower, petal to petal, 
touching but never entwined, each 
free and separate, yet making one 
smooth earth garment, mosses next 
the ground, grasses above, petaled 
flowers between. 

' ' Belore studying the flowers of this 
valley, their sky and all of the furni- 
ture somids and ndornr.iciits of their 



homes, one can scarcely believe that 
their vast assemblies arc permanent, 
but rather that actuated by some great 
plant purpose, they had convened 
from every plain, mountain and 
meadow of their kingdom ; and that 
the different coloring of the patches, 
acres and miles marked the bounds 
of the various tribe and famil}- en- 

He reached San Francisco in April, 
and at once struck out into the coun- 
try, following the foothills along the 
San Jose Valley to Gilroy ; thence 
into the San Joaquin Valley by the 
Pacheco Pass, and down to the mouth 
of the Merced. This walking (?) trip 
included the Mariposa forest of 
Sequoias, and the Yo.semite \'alley, 
then in primeval freshness ; Lemon's 
Log Cabin ; Hutching's original hotel 
and the .smaller one at Blacks being 
the only houses, did not mar the 
impression of " a sacred solitude. ' ' 

" One week from the burning plains 
of the San Joaquin, and I was lost in 
the blinding .snows of the Arctic win- 
ter. The winter scales are shut fast 
Hpon the buds of the oaks and alders ; 
the grand Nevada pines wave sol- 
emnly ; my horse is plunging in 
snow ten feet in depth. Wonderful 
indeed is the meeting and blending of 
the seasons of the mountains and 
plains, beautiful as the joinings of 
lake and land, or the bands of color in 
the rainbow." 

A letter dated Febniar>^ 24th, 1869, 
written from Snellings, showed how 
much he had felt the human hunger 
for friends and fellowship. 

" Yoiu' two California notes from 
San Francisco and San I\Iateo reached 
me last evening, and I rejoice at the 
glad tidings they bring of your arrival 
in this magnificent land. Of all my 
friends, you are the only one who 
understands my motives and enjo>-- 

' ' Onh- a lew weeks ago a true and 
liberal-minded friend sent mc a sheet- 
full of the most terrible blue-steel 
orthodoxy, calling me from clouds 
and flowers to the walks of politics 

and jjhilanthropy. I thought that 
you had never lectured me thus, and 
were coming to see and read for your- 
self these glorious le.s.sons of sky, 
plain and mountain, of which no mor- 
tal lips can adequately speak. 

" I thought, when in the Vosemite 
Valle\' last Spring, that the Iv;)rd had 
written things there for you to read 
.some time. I have not made a single 
friend in California, and you may Ix- 
sure I strode home last evening from 
the postoffice feeling rich, indeed. 

' ' I am engaged at i:)resent in the ver>- 
important and patriarchal business of 
keejjing .sheep. I am a gentle shep- 
herd. The gray box in which I 
reside is distant about seven miles 
northeast from Hopeton. The Merced 
pours past me on the .south , from the 
Yo.semite. Smooth, downy hills and 
the tree fringes of the Tuolumne 
bound me on the north : the lordly 
Sierras join .sky and plain on the east, 
and the far coast mountains on the 
west. My mutton family of eighteen 
hundred range over about ten square 
miles, and I have abundant oppor- 
tunities for reading and botanizing. 
In about two weeks I .shall be engaged 
in sheep-shearing between the Tuol- 
umne and Stanislaus, from the San 
Joaquin to the Sierra foothills, for 
about two months. I will be in Cal- 
ifornia until next November, when I 
mean to .start for South America. 

* ' You must prepare for your Yo- 
semite baptism in June. ' ' 

This I did with the utmost zeal and 
earnestness. Just before starting an- 
other letter came from Muir, telling 
me that he " woidd be ' at Black's ' 
until the end of June." In my own 
or others' ignorance that there were 
two localities of the same name, one 
near Coidtcr\'ille and one in the valley, 
a blunder was made which prevented 
my meeting Mr. Muir that summer. 
I inquired of ever>- dusty herder that 
we pa.s.sed on our horseback ride from 
Mariposa to the Yosemite until the 
curiosity of a fellow traveler, not of 
our party, was aroused. Riding 
alongside of me she asked, ''Is the 



feller you're liuntin' herdin' sheep !" 
' ' That is his present calling-, " I re- 
plied. "Wall, 3-ou're darned lucky 
to miss him ; that's my experience 
with scch as them ;" and she rode 
complacently away. What had be- 
fallen John Muir, especially in the 
regards of this female, or what there 
could be in a calling of which so many 
poetic things have been said since 
shepherds watched their flocks by 
night, to offend the most fastidious, 
I could not imagine. 

Many of his letters about this time 
were dateless, thrown off as if to relieve 
the tension of his unshared enjoy- 

" ]My studies have increasing re- 
wards of truth, and I will seek to be 
true to them, although all the rest of 
the world of beauty besides these 
mountains Ijurn and nebulize back to 
star smoke." He becomes more and 
more in love with ice. 

' ' I know how you love this 
purple and yellow and green — these 
warm sun songs of color, but I must 
edge in a kind word for ice. Glaciers 
are paper manufacturers, and they 
pulped these mountains and made the 
meadowy sheets on which this leaf 
music is written." 

' ' Are you pluming for our mountain 
better land ? I was on Cloud's Rest 
yesterday, and enjoyed a very vigorous 
snowstorm . Did you not hear a shout ? 
Three avalanches of ice and snow 
started from the summit of Cloud's 
Rest ridge, one after the other in 
glorious gestures and boomings ; I 
was within a few 3'ards of them. 

' ' It will probably ho late in June 
before we can get on to the summits, 
snow is very abundant. Nevada and 
Vernal and the strip of glory between 
were in full gush of .spirit life as I 
passed them yesterday. 

"I will be glad to know your friend 
Stoddard. He wrote about the Lord's 
making Yo.semite, and I want him to 
write an entirely dific-rent \crsion of 
the affair. 

" Sunday night I was up in the moon 
among the lumined sjiray of the upper 

falls. The lunar bows were glorious, 
and the music Godful as ever. You 
will yet mingle amid the forms and 
voices of this peerless fall. 

" I wanted to have you spend two or 
three nights up there in full moon, 
and planned a small hut for you, but 
since the boisterous waving of the 
rocks (slight earthquake tremor on 
the coast) the danger seems forbid- 
ding, at least for you. We can go up 
there in the afternoon, .spend an hour 
or two and return. 

' ' I had a grand ramble in the deep 
snow outside the valley, and discov- 
ered one beautiful truth concerning 
snow structure, and three concerning 
the forms of forest trees. 

' ' These earthquakes have made me 
immensely rich. I had long been 
aware of the life and gentle tenderness 
of the rocks, and instead of walking 
upon them as unfeeling surfaces, begin 
to regard them as a transparent sky. 
Now they have spoken with audible 
voice, pulsed with wave-like motion 
— this very instant, just as my pen 
reached the spot indicated on the 
third line above, my cabin creaked 
with a sharp shock and the oil waved 
in my lamp. We had several shocks 
last night. I would like to go some- 
where on the west coast to study 
earthquakes. I think I could invent 
some experimental apparatus whereby 
their complicated phenomena could be 
separated and read, but I have .some 
years of ice on hand. 

" 'Tis most ennol)ling to find and 
feel that we ai'e constructed with 
reference to these noble .storms so 
Are we not 
column of 
up heaven above 
into its pores. 

as to draw 
from them, 
our six-foot 

rich when 

and earth 

Aye, we 

have chambers in ns the right shajie 
for eartlu|uakcs I 

Jolni Muir of t()-da>- everyone 
knows — one of the most dclighllul 
writers in the West, a word colorist in 
every .sense, who, it is hoped, will not 
lay down the pen for many a day to 



WHO seeks the strange desertion of 
the seaside summer resort in 
winter ? Even the tourist from 
" the Kast," who is told by the native 
Cahfoniian that it is even more de- 
lightful in winter than in summer. 
Delightful ? )X'S ; yet even on the 
warm vSouthern California coast, where 
the hotel is open all winter, the stray 
guest is discouraged jjy so many white- 
draped empty tables, standing unat- 
tended by waiters, that he feels him- 
self under the ban of the unpopular, 
however sunny the shining sea, with 
summer in every wave. 

Wandering along the one street of 
the town, I see twent}^ or more closed 
cottages, and half as many stores, also 
closed, and, as the French say, I 
know not ' ' where to conduct myself. ' ' 
I wandered, not finding the deserted 
village as full of poetry as of phil- 
osophy, till I came facing an abnor- 
mally big sign situated just on a level 
with the eye, being fixed on the top 
of a low whitewashed fence : ' ' Del- 
monico's." The association with cut 
glass and fine damask was strange, 
and I looked up, smiling involuntarily 
at the entrance. Ambition stood be- 
fore me ! The door was not closed, 
but filled ! The largest negress I ever 
saw — take her hip and thigh, foot and 
hand — filled the doorway of a large 
restaurant. She stood at home, evi- 
dently ; yet she had not the air of a 
"free nigger." The heavy white 
linen apron, the three-cornered shoul- 
der .shawl, the red and gold turban 
were all worn as a costume, not as a 
"make-shift." I passed her with 
this idle mental comment, then turned, 
half from curiosity, half from a subtle 
attraction for the big creature. 

"Mornin', mammy," I ventured 
with the careless tone a rank impostor 
generally uses. 

She weighed me a moment in her 


majestic consciousness before she re- 
plied. I felt on judgment. Was I 
' "nough somebody' ' for her or not ? I 

The reply came slowly in beauti- 
fully modulated tones. "Mornin' 
lady. I .see you're out by you'sef dis 

Oh, the delicately implied reproach ! 
I knew her ole missus had never 
.strayed about alone ; never. 

' ' Yes, ' ' I said falsely, ' ' I want 
.some one to take care of me." Her 
eye lighted with real enthusiasm. 
" Sure 5'ou does, honey. I'se jes' 
wondrin' to see ye by yousef. W^hat 
niamni}^ 'gwine do fer ye ?" 

I had to invent. ' ' Come to the hotel 
every afternoon and give me a sea 

"Yes, honey, sure. I'se comin' 
right on de clock, (a darky phrase for 
being on time). What's I fer, lesson 
to wait on yer?" 

I felt some doubt as to my existence 
being sufficient reason for the being of 
the splendid woman, but I did not 
voice anj'thing contradictor}^ to her 

" Yes'm, us'ter be a lady's maid 
mysef 'fore I got so monstres." (I 
rather took this for a white lie.) 

" I thought you were a cook by the 
sign you have here." 

"A cook ! so I was, honej-, 'fore 
de wa'. Won't I stood up on de 
block in Ma'land' an' sole for a cook, 
an' did'nt I fotch three thousan' dol- 
lars for dat ver}' 'complishment ? I 
jes' was, ev'r)^ cent of dat money ! I 
hear 'em now. ' Wlio'se g^'ine get 
dis nigger ? ' Tain't no cheap nigger 
you're lookin' at, gemmen. ' Tain 
no fiel' lian' ; 'tain no breedin' nig- 
ger ; 'tain no 'unaway nigger. Look 
at dat han'.' Dat's de way dey us'ter 
say, lady, when dey want ter movmt 
de price up. ' Dat-a-han' don't pick 



no cotton ; dat-a-han' don't hoe no 
co'n ; dat ban' make de bes' pigeon 
pie an' pick de mos' patridge on de 
place. Gemmen, dat nigger fit ter 
ambrosier de food for any guest in 
any great house in de Souf !' Didn't 
I hate ter be sole ? What I kar, so I 
keep my place in de ranks ? I's sole 
icp, I was ; I wan never sole doiun. I 
cum upouten So' Calliny ter Ma'lan' ; 
wa' din' do no good to de ole folks 
'ceptjis 'long de aige like. Us firs ' 
chalk niggers was ready for it like. \ 
I jes' 'bout buyed up my freedom, 
anyway, 'bout de time de wa' strike 
in. Eight years I was earnin' an' 
learnin', den de wa' broke out, an', 
my good Lord ! ye cudn' t find nuthin' . 
Massa ner Missus ner nuthin' . Ef I ' d 
had dat money I'd been earnin' my 
freedom for, I tell ye, honey, I'd jes' 
start an' clear de fence ! But Ian', 
'course I din' have nothin', an' dey 
ain' no use talkin', white folks is 
white folks an' niggers is niggers, wa' 
er no wa' . ' ' 

" But, surel3^ Auntie, you despise 
poor white people just as much as 
you do poor black folks?" 

" 'Spise 'em? Course I does! 
Want I fotchcd up 'long o' quality 
fer? Don't I know quality when I 
sees 'em ?" This with an indescriba- 
ble glance at me, that as an enforcer 
of a delicate compliment could not 
have been excelled. Irisli flattery 
makes one laugh ; negro flattery 
brings a sigh ! The negro lived only 
for others. To please is the luxurj- 
of the free, the necessity of the 
slave ! 

We had been sitting on the porch 
in the shade of the flowering Mexican 
bean ; I in the carpet-covered rocking- 
chair. Mammy on the steps, her ele- 
phantine knees forming a rampart 
before her chest and a support for her 
arms ; the .sun sunk low over the ocean, 
the click of a gate attracted my atten- 
tion from the amythystine pile of the 
Catalina Islands glorified in the purple 
light. From the gate at the side of 
the an old negro came leading 
two lambs ; a quacking of geese, a 

bleating and barking, and above aU, 
the shrill cry of a tame magpie, were 
set alive by the old man's progress 
through the yard. To get the lambs 
out and keep the other too-willing 
creatures in was more than any one 
man could accomplish. Mammy rose 
with an apology to me and lumbered 
toward the .scene of action. All 
insurgents fled before one mighty flap 
of her thick apron. Her husband ad- 
vanced to be presented to me. Ah, 
welcome, shades of Thomas Jeflferson ! 
What dignity ! Not the mone3'-fed 
politeness of the ordinary serving 
man, but .something thorough, so 
quiet, .so su.staincd in manner and 
voice ! W^hom had he imitated long 
ago ? Some gentleman of old Vir- 
ginia's best, long dead, and j^erhaps 
forgotten by his sons ; 3-et the style 
survived in this negro. From the 
moment this man bowed to me, Vvith- 
out letting his eyes rest on me yet 
seeming to protect me with a respect- 
ful watchfulness, with eyes trained to 
serA'c, I ceased to smile at the big 
sign on the whitewashed fence. Dcl- 
monico ! certainly. Here was a Del 
Monico ! He led his lambs away. 
The hair on his well-shaped head was 
as white as the wool of the lambs. 
Fred Douglass was never more 
impressive. I could have greeted 
him with, " F^arewell, O, slave ! Tri- 
umph of a bondage better than free- 
dom !" 

His wife's voice startled me. "A 
nigger dat's fell in po.sition ain' never 
hold he haide up," quoth she. 

' ' I .should not be able to think of 
your husband in that light, he appears 
most superior." 

" Yis, hone}'," in a softened voice, 
"dat's jes' it, ye speak it you'sef; 
only you call it superior, an' I call it 
trainin'. I'.se de hen an' he's de 
mockiu' bird. I lays de eggs an' he 
counts de chickens. He kin read an' 
he kin write an' he kin figgcr 'counts 
an' he knows where we got money an' 
where we aint. Course /don't know. " 
This with a wonderful sly look to .see 
if I took in the joke. 



" He master poor an' be 'bliged fer 
ter rent him out fer a barber right 
young. He jes' take hole de news- 
paper, an', 'fore de Lord, he read dat 
paper an' books, too, 'for he ten year 
da ! I dunno huccum he marrj^ me. 
He aint de fust nigger I 'bliged to 
take up with, but (with a sigh) he 
boun' to be de las', I reckon ! If my 
lad)' like ter pic a bit o fish I set de 
pan on de ashes." 

I replied as formally as possible 
that I should be very grateful to get a 
supper in her splendid restaurant. 

" Sho, dar, lady, 'taine no restau- 
rant fer sure ; we jes put up dat sign 
fer ter 'tract de populace," .she re- 
sumed with contempt. 

I sat long under the shade of the 
flowering bean listening to the incom- 
ing tide. Somehow the mournful 
splendor of the social life of the South, 
now past forever, appealed to me in 
the tones of its forgotten slaves. I 
remembered the old days in Virginia 
when a guest was fortunate. At last 
the double doors were thrown open 
and a voice full of deference and as 
low as if it intended to escape the 
criticism of a drawing-room of guests, 
announced ' ' Ue suppah ! ' ' The big, 
low, cheap-looking room, decorated 
with fancifully cut tissue and glazed 
paper and advertising pictures, was 
illuminated in all its dingy coarseness 
by a flood of dusty sunlight from the 
setting sun, which did not spare the 
poor linen and tiny napkins ; but 
there, just two and a half feet behind 
my chair, stood the perfect ser\'itor, 
dres-sed in the most ancient possible of 
dress coats, a white necktie, a napkin 
on his left arm and a water bottle in 
his hand. I know he enjoyed " de 
suppah more than I did." If he 
could have served me Tokay with fish 
and champagne with salad and Roque- 
fort cheese, and coffee with just a 
touch of Burgundy, how happ>- he 
would have been. He was not in- 
clined to talk ' ' during service, ' ' as 
one might say. He had none of his 
wife's readiness to be free with a 
" lady " as by right. 

" Have you waited at Delmonico's, 
in New York City ? ' ' 

" Fifteen years, madam." 

"So? I .suppose, then, you could 
easily build this place with j^our sav- 



"No, madam; my wife built it." 
His way of taking my plate was 
fnie art, indeed. He did not lift it, 
but .slid it from the cloth, quickly, but 
not too quickly. He wiped the table- 
cloth with a velvet touch — no flourish, perfect ease. A French waiter is 
dexterous, but only the shadow-race 
can be graceful in service. He did 
not, of course, ask me if I would taste 
this or that dish ; he placed it before 
me, hovered anxiously a moment, and 
if I tasted it he retired to just his dis- 
tance ; if I did not, he slid it away, 
holding his breath meanwhile. Surely 
he was ' ' the man who knew. ' ' The 
sadness of his face was from being too 
near success ; a bank failure had taken 
the good thousands saved from 
twenty-five 3'ears' patient work. He 
was politely incredulous of any 
rchl sympatliy or interest in his great 
misfortmie. -^ * * 

The following summer when I went 
to the same restaurant, to my surprise 
it was alive ! Seventy or eight}- 
noisy, common and unclean people, 
the riff-raff of a camp meeting and 
revival, filled the dining-room with 
clattering plates and loud voices. 
Hired waiters ran to and fro. M>- 
l)lack prince was not to be seen. I 
looked on for a few minutes at this 
beggarly service, and then made my 
way through the duck yard, greeted 
b}- the magpie, which .shrilly invited 
me to ' ' take a shake, ' ' and peered 
into the big shed kitchen. A long 
range filled with steaming pots and 
frying-pans stretched the length of 
the place ; a hundred tins, pails, pans 
and .spoons, hanging from nails in the 
two ■» beams overhead, plates and 
dishes, filled and empt>', stood on the 
floor and on tables and chairs. 
Mammy, as sole cook and dispenser, 
made the place hum ! She bounced 
from pot to pan like a Swiss bell- 



rinj^er. vShe trod regardless of plate 
or pan or stray cat. She boiled and 
fried and stewed like a very demon of 
cooking ; giving her husband ten 
orders to one he could execute, and 
calling him, I am sorry to say, "a 
fool nigger" for all his pains. At 
last she spied me where I stood in 
the doorway. 

"O! great lyordy, Massa ! ef dar 
ain' my lady standin' musin' hersef 
with dis 3-er ole nigger pranks, 
mought ter got drounded in 'f de dish 
pan, or pelted widthe con' cob ; you're 
terrible venturesome jes like my Mis' 
Emma. She uster cum roun' fer de 
hoe cake, said hit wanted light' nd red 
an' ash ter make it tase good. Ha, ha ?' ' 

In spite of this happy reception I 
saw that I was stopping the suppl}^ 
train, so I accepted her husband's 
invitation, given in a shocked whisper, 
to "step into der parlor t'well de 
trouble was over." 

■ ' Tain no settin' out a coarse 
dinner for such folks, 'fore de I^ord, 
dey dunno how to eat it if dey get it," 
said he of Delmonico. 

Once in the parlor, I pondered on 
the easy chairs, the fine matting and 
rugs, the great mirrors, the rosewood 
etagcre, to say nothing of Dore's illus- 
trations of Don Quixote and Milton's 
Paradise Lost on the center table. It 
all showed individual taste in the 
selected articles. Yet I knew this 
colored woman, this giant of human 
toil, could not read a word. How 
much her hands had earned, how 
much she had wished, and how nuich 
she had won ! 

Mammy and her ' ' fallen nigger ' ' 
came in in half an hour, bearing each 
a large tray, and followed by two 
underlings (weak white folks) also 
carrying small tallies, cloths and 
napkins. Tlie tabic being spread, 
Mammy declared she would " ser\-e 
my lady hersef," and much to her 
husband's displeasure, ordered him 
"to go an' look after de trash an' 
keep de door .sliet." She then con- 
fided to me sadly that with all his 
figgers an' writin' in books, she did 

not know how matters stood, and that 
it might be well enough for white 
folks to count money in 1)ooks, but 
nigger money count bes' in de han.' 
Alas ! though she " was makin' money 
han' over han' " she was still afraid of 
' gittin' sold up' cause .she had to 
keep pay in' back what d^y owed on 
de place." 

" How'd I git dis place anyway, an' 
pay two thousand dollars for de Ian' 
'sides de home buildin' ? " 

" Well, honey, ye might say, I git it 
little by little, an' it ain't got yet ! 
When I cum yeah my nigger counted 
to lay he pile ter hit, an' he don lost 
it all, and so we 'gwine ter work it 
anj^how. He's a city nigger, an' I 
knowed he couldn't content hisself 
in a chicken coop. So I set a tent 
near b}^ de hotel, dat was way back 
four years ago when de boom was 
on, an' dar' I wash an' wa.sli an' 
wash ! Times I seed ev-ery con- 
sternation of the sky over my 
head, an' I hain' done washin' yet. 
Miss Judge Toune an' Miss Major 
Fish, dey was ladies, dey uster cum 
an' bring me snac' in ther own 
hans, an' dey often cum an' urge me 
fer ter cease ; dey saj^ I work like a 
slave ! Jehu ! dey dunno what dey 
say, dey ain't no slave dat works like 
dat, an' der ain't no massa ner missus 
in de whole vSouf got de gumption ter 
make 'em, needer. Slav^es don't work, 
ner dc}^ don't res' neither, don't never 
know what 'gwine ter be 'spected. 
But I jes' toil an' toil an' when I gits 
'nuff, I gits de beams fer de house an' 
de timbers an' I tote 'em on de back' 
an' I take de singles, an' I git car- 
penters, an' I jes watch 'em, an' I 
take de workin' days an' bo.^sin' de 
men. Dem was proud times, 1 tell ye 
an' I keep washin' nights. An' I 
keep pilin' up an' fixin' fer glory jus' 
like I din' know I'se a worm ob de 

The exultation of a great triumph 
shone in her eyes. 

" Yes'em, "lowering her voice, "I'se 
had white ministers to boad yeah, an' 
I'se entertained de conference." 



' ' What more honorable ! This is 
a great center for religious meetings, 
is it not ? ' ' 

" It am, my lady. Pears like dey 
think they 'gwine ter kill de dcbbil, 
if dey have camp meetins' enough. 
But he ain't dead yet ! I see his 
tracks, honey, right yeah in dis verj^ 
place. I see 'em plain. I'se tracked 
him up, too, an' I regret fer ter be 
'bliged ter state dat dem very tracks 
jes as likely ter end at de church door 
as anywhere else, so ! But now I 
looks at ye close, honey, yer ain't 
lookin' right. Mammy don't like ye 
looks. She's jes 'gwine ter lay yer in 
yer baid, en' put yer to res' an' charm 
ye feet, so she is." 

There was the grand bedroom off 
from the little parlor, opened for me 
to admire, a room not for common 
boarders, but for wedding parties and 
"quality." Her way of putting me 
to bed justified her boast of having 
once been a lady's maid. She laid 
aside each garment with so deft a 
hand, and caressed and smoothed each 
bit of lace or frills with a really re- 
storing touch, and when her clumsy 
looking fingers traveled gently over 
my head and the length of my hair, 
my very soul pulsated with content. 
Then she ' ' laid me straight in de 
baid," and the incantations began, 
with bits of bright ribbon and three 
long horse hairs from the tail of a 
piebald stallion. She braided these 
among my astonished toes gently, and 
crooning strange words, she tapped 
my feet and ankles with her puffy 
finger tips. A sleep of the body wdtli 
a strange wakefulness of mind resulted 
from her mystic proceedings. She, 
too seemed to be half asleep ; she 
swayed where she sat, but suddenly 
the original overlaid African nature of 
the old woman waked within her ; she 
clapped her hands, her eyes turned, 
and she laughed wildly, " Somethin' 
tells me in mv soul dat vou know de 
Lord! Yah!'" 

"Yes, Aunty," I answered, know- 
ing that I must adapt my words to 
her religious vernacular, ' ' I know the 

Vol. II.— 7 

Lord." More wild shouts. "How 
you come to know him ? " 

" I was ver>' ill and He came to 
me," I said, still adopting her style of 
expression . She shouted for gladness, 
she had the " power." 

' ' And how did you come to know 
the Lord, Aunty?" 

" How I cum to know de Lord, my 
strength and my salvation ? Why, 
dat's de tellin' ob my whole life, 
honey. ' Long when I'.se young I, 
uster see de other niggers git de 
power, an' I jes' set and laff. What 
Ikeer? I ain had no trouble den. I 
uster see 'em throw deysef an' talk 
'bout de Lord, but I hear de white 
folks up to de great makin' fun 
de poor ignerant darkey, an' I jes dat 
proud I boun to be 'bove 'em ; I wan 
goin' to have no nigger heaven. Dat 
ain't no good sign when you see a 
nigger like dat. Den first I know I 
jest struck with love for one de yaller 
boys on de place, an' dey dun part us 
'cause dey's too ristercratic ter have 
light-colored niggers raised on de 
place. I tell you I feel dat. You're 
willin' ter work fer folks, but nobody 
don't want to be interfered with like 
dat. But I jes hole my liaide up an' 
I wouldn't look at de Lord. Mighty 
hard to look at de Lord when dare's 
a man round courtin' ye. I'se jest 
'bellious. Next off my massa marry 
me to a big run 'way nigger fer ter 
keep him onde place, I s'spose. You 
wouldn't call it no marryin', jes' sen' 
de man down to de quarters, an' hog 
an' wliiskc},' nufT to feed de weddin' 
party. After while I got ter lovin' 
my man, 'cause we's both fond ob de 
chillun', an' by livin' in de cabin stive 
ob de great house, I didn't git so 
sassey. Well, honey, I got ter tell 
you 'bout de time my man was sole 
off Souf. Course de fambly begun ter 
sink, an' den I begun ter look fer de 
Lord, but sho, honey, I'se so proud 
an' pinenated I couldn't find nothin*. 
Dey all tellin' He give grace to de 
humble, but I 'spected to git Him de 
odder way. So I live long an' I live 
long, an' my oldest son, he gi.'is pride 



ter me, an' I kinder look up ter him, 
an' I think he mine, an' he 'gwnne ter 
take keer ob me ; well, an' he run 
away when he got de firs' whippin' 
an' I never seen him. Den I set down 
an' I called on dc Lord. Well, I kep 
de Lord waitin' thirty j^ears an' He 
kep' me waitin', but he very merciful 
an' didn't keep me waitin' long, an' I 
tell ye, honey, dey ain't been an}^ pit 
o' darkness in my soul ever since I was 
accepted. I'se seen toil an' I'se seen 
trial, an' I'se been lost an' lonesum 
an' sick ; I'se been 'spised an' re- 
jected, but my soul ain't never been 
dark since I found de Lord." 

The radiant face ! The radiant 
voice ! 

1 vvcnt again a year later to the sea- 
side place to find my friend. In the 
parlor sat a shrewd-faced lawyer 
making out legal papers ; a shrewder 
faced white woman was ranting of 
foreclosure of mortgages and interest 
at twenty per cent due and over due. 
Aunty sat there ; her face was as 
mj^sterious as Napoleon's after a 

"What's all this?" I .said, cold 
with fear. 

" I'.se bound to be sold up, at 
last, honey," said Aunty in a patient 

" How can that be," I said, " after 
eight vears' work and the land paid 
for ? Sold up ! It can't be. Why 
you both know Auntx- has earned this 

The Echoes, Elmyra 

house three times over and that the 
land is paid for." 

The lawyer coughed. ' ' She has no 
deed for the land, it seems, and lier 
liabilities are greater than her assets 
since the recent fall in real estate. 
Still, I think if things had been man- 
aged sometime ago more in the interest 
of the original owner ' ' 

' ' Have you got Aunty into debt to 
you ? " I said, looking at the sharp 
faced woman. 

She laughed a queer laugh ; "I am 
sure, ma'am, I've been tryin' to help 
her out this long time. ' ' 

Aunty plucked me by the sleeve 
and whispered : ' ' Help me de way 
de fox help de goose." 

It was, indeed. Auntj- was vic- 

The lawj-er and the sharp-faced 
woman went out together sharing the 
fruits of many years of almost incred- 
ible toil. 

Aunty's head dropped. " Yes, 
honey, I'se made a big fight since 
'fore de wah, an now I can't work no 
more, an' I'se sold up. Niggers isjes' 
bound to be sold up at lass ; I can't 
hole up dis poor ole head no mo'." 

"Aunty," I said, hardly able to 
speak, "Who shall lift up the head 
that is bowed down ? " 

There was a long silence. Slowly 
the old negro rallied, her great turban- 
crowned head was reared once in rare 

" Ye spoke de word, my ladj-," she 
said, " De Lord lif up de haid." 



THE carnival was at its liciKlit. 
There was a glow warmer tlian 
moonlif^^lit and paler than the palest 
sun-raysof Indian summer over the city 
— the glow of shaded lamps and flaring 
torchlights. High, high above in the 
violet sky and beating against it, three 
red stars, like passionate human 
hearts. There was music everywhere. 
It throbbed through the air, fragrant 
with the breath of dying flowers and 
it beat along one's veins in little rills 
of ecstasy ; it shone in the splendor of 
dark eyes and it twinkled in dainty 
feet that could not be still. The 
prisoners facing death in horrible dun- 
geons heard it and were young and 
innocent again dancing to the carnival 
notes and flingin<r roses for lighter 
feet to trample down. 

One figure I kept always in sight. 
A young girl, beautiful as a dream, 
with long hair, dark and soft, and 
about her brow a chain of cream 
azaleas. Her bare throat and should- 
ers whiter and softer than rose petals 
were linked round with chains of the 
same flowers ; and her short skirt of 
black lace reaching just to the knee 
was stan"ed with them. The pure and 
delicate curves of her limbs, the con- 
tour of her body and the rhythmic 
grace of her dancing would have 
driven an artist mad. Not an instant 
was she still. Her feet sparkled and 
her body swayed to every note of the 
ravishing music, and with each curve 
of her bare arm and wrist she tossed ' 
l)lood-red roses high into the golden air. 
I was surprised that no one else 
seemed to follow her or even look at 
her as she twinkled by. No .swart 
admirers pelted her matchless throat 
with soft flowers or flung kisses from 
pointed fingers into her tempting scar- 
let mouth, no man sent a longing look 
into those marvelous e}' es that had set 

even m\- cool blood to leaping like 
wine along my veins. 

Suddenly the music burst into a ver>' 
passion of rapture — swift, riotous and 
wild — and the girl before me, poising 
upon the tips of her slender toes, 
whirled round and round a dozen 
times, her arms curved like linked 
lilies above her head and her hands 
.showering crimson rcses about her. 

In that instant a black form darted 
from a shadow and ran a poniard to the 
dancer's heart. I shrieked and fell 
senseless. * * ^- ^- " Where is she ? " 
I stammered after, to the curious 
crowd, trying to rise — "The girl who 
was stabbed ? ' ' 

' ' What was she like ? ' ' cried a 
woman, kneeling beside me. 

' ' She was like a fire-opal, ' ' I uttered 
passionately. "She was all warmth 
and color and she danced." — I shut 
my eyes and shivered with the remem- 
brance of delight. — " And she wore 
black lace — and her limbs were bare 
and lovely — her eyes were like stars 
with red hearts in them — and there 
were cream azaleas about her throat, 
her arms — ' ' 

The woman leaped to her feet, white 
as death. 

' ' Mother of Christ ! ' ' she cried 
crossing herself — 

" It is Carmenita, the dancing girl 
who was killed by her ri\-al only last 
3^ear ! Ay, run to the heart with a 
poniard while she poised to whirl to 
the music on carnival night I — Hear. 
Mother of Jesus ! ' ' 

The music throbbed on again, 
flowers pelted soft throats and gay 
dancers flashed by with coquettish 
glances. But I — I shuddered and 
went away from them all ! What is 
any other jewel under heaven to one 
who has looked on an opal with its 
heart of chastitv and its soul of fire ? 




{^Commenced in January number) 

[The historj- of the late war has been -w-ell treated in various publications, but that portion relating to 
the famous Tivy Tortugas prison, where thousands of men were kept during the war, and where those connected 
with the assassination of President Lincoln were confined, has never been described; yet the events are now 
of great historical value. The island upon which the great prison was established was a sand bank comprising 
but thirteen acres, — one of the last of the keys representing the end of the great Florida reef. For .seven or 
eight years a lady, the wife of one of the surgeons, lived in this isolated spot and viewed all the incidents from 
the appearance of the first war cloud until the declaration of peace. The following chapters were not written 
or intended for publication, the events being jotted down simply for friends in the North; and The C.\ii- 
FORNIAN has been enabled to give them to the public in a series of chapters, believing that many arc of 
historical interest and value, and also as showing the singular life of a lady in one of the most ouf-of-the-way 
spots in this countn,-.] 

OX Januar}' ist, 1863, the steamer 
Magnolia \-isited Fort Je£fer.son 
and we exchanged hospitahties. 
One of the officers who dined with us 
said it was the first time in nine 
months that he had sat at a liome 
table, having been all that time on the 

Mr. Leavitt, an officer from the 
Magnolia, told ns that on the block- 
ade of St. Andrews, where they had 
been stationed, they were ordered 
ashore to destroy the salt works, and 
that people, who were far from being 
poor, were living on cornmeal cake 
without salt. They could not get it 
even to ' ' put down ' ' their pork, 
which was their chief dependence. 
Salt was fifty dollars a bag, and men 
came from a longdistance in Georgia, 
offering treble that sum ; but there 
was none to be had. Later in the 
season we saw steamers from Havana 
every few days taking small craft 
loaded with .salt around by us, going 
into the inlets and bays, where there 
was no blockade. 

Colonel Alexander, our new Com- 
mander, said that in Jack.sonville, 
where they paid visits to the people, 
the young ladies would ask to be 
excused from not rising ; they were 
ashamed to expose their uncovered 
feet, ' and their dresses were calico 
pieced from a variety of kinds. 

We received a paper on the loth of 
January, which was read in turns by 
the residents, containing rumors of 
the emancipation which was to take 
place on the first, but we had to wait 
another mail for the official announce- 

I asked a slave who was in my 
service if he thought he should like 
freedom. He replied, of course he 
should, and he hoped it would prove 
true ; but the disappointment would 
not be as great as though it was going 
to take awa}^ something they had 
already possessed. I thought him a 

Ill Key West, man^^ of the slaves 
had already anticipated the proclama- 
tion, and as there was no authority to 
prevent it, many people were without 
servants. The colored people seemed 
to think " Uncle Sam " was going to 
support them, taking the proclama- 
tion in its literal sense. They refused 
to work, and as tlic}^ could not be 
allowed to starve, they were fed, 
though there were hundreds of people 
who were offering exorbitant prices for 
hel]i of any kind — a strange state of 
affairs, yet in their ignorance one 
could not wholly blame them. 
Colonel Tinelle would not allow Ihcm 
to leave Fort Jcffcr.'^on, and many 
were still at work on the fort. 

John, a faithful boy, had not 




heard the news when he came up to 
the house one evening, so I told him, 
then asked if he should leave us imme- 
diately if he had his freedom. 

His face shone, and his eyes 
sparkled as he asked me to tell him 
all about it. He did not know what 
he would do. The next morning 
Henry, another of our good boys, who 
had always wished to be my cook, but 
had to work on the fort, came to see 
me, waiting until I broached the .sub- 
ject, for I knew what he came for. 
He hoped the report would not prove 
a delusion. He and John had laid by 
money, working after hours, and if it 
was true, they would like to go to one 
of the English islands and be ' ' real 

I asked him how the boys took the 
news as it had been kept from them 
until now, or if they had heard a 
rumor whether they thought it one of 
the .soldier's .stories. 

"Mighty excited. Missis," he re- 
plied. "We dun sleep berry little 
las' night," shaking his head in a 
verj- solemn way. 

Henry had been raised in Washing- 
ton by a Scotch lady, who promised 
him his freedom when he became of 
age ; but she died before that time 
arrived, and Henry had been sold 
with the other household goods. 

The former slaves behaved verj' 
well when the news was fully estab- 
lished, and as they could not get 
away, continued to work for them- 
selves on the fort, as they could earn 
more that way than any other. 

The free men would not come down 
from Key West, although Captain 
Ellis had orders every trip he made 
to bring back somebody who would 
work, he offered exorljitant prices, 
but the negroes were having a beauti- 
ful time doing nothing, and we had to 
wait and do without. 

A lady in Key West who owned a 
number of slaves had little cabins for 
them in the rear of her house, separ- 
arated by a fence. When they were 
declared free, they all left the house 
and retired to their cabins, and Gov- 

ernment provided them with rations. 
They would look over the fence and 
see their mistress, who had never 
performed such duties, cooking and 
doing her own work, and ask her how 
.she liked it. She replied with a spirit 
I wondered at, knowing how she felt 
on the subject, that "she was learn- 
ing and getting along very well." 

After a few months matters adjust- 
ed themselves and they came back 
to her. She hired as many as she 
wanted for the house and said she was 
better off than when she had them all 
to take care of. 

One day, early in the spring, 
Colonel Alexander, who was ver>' 
watchful and always on the alert, was 
([uite alarmed by seeing some twenty 
vessels hov^ering just in sight. Extra 
guard was mounted, the big guns were 
loaded and the men slept by them all 
night ; l)ut the vessels passed by 
without coming nearer. 

The Inspector-General, after re- 
turning to Beaufort, made rather an 
overturning in Key West which was 
under the command of Colonel Mor- 
gan of the Ninetieth New York, who 
had been rather playing the tyrant. 

He had perverted a very good order 
of General Hunter into one that 
ordered every person w'ho had friends 
in the rebel service to leave Key West 
allowing them only fifty pounds of 
baggage apiece. The people protested, 
plead with him, even threatened, for 
it would almost depopulate the town, 
but in vain. 

Justice, however, was nearer than 
he suspected, for just as the vessel was 
to start with these people who were 
being sent adrift, a steamer came iu 
bringing Colonel Goode of the Forty- 
Seventh Pennsylvania to relieve 
Colonel Morgan. 

The people were almost crazy in 
their excitement. They took the 
soldiers' knapsacks as they marched 
up the street and would have carried 
the men on their shoulders in their 
joy over Morgan's defeat. 

Colonel Goode came to Tortugas a 
few davs afterwards, and while there 



said that he might send the remainder 
of the Regiment down to us — some- 
thing very reassuring for the summer 
as the}^ were acclimated and would be 
more likely to withstand any epidem- 
ic that might occur. 

The dreaded month of June came 
again and found us in Key West — 
to break the terrible monotony of 
island life. 

The feeling in Key West between 
the various political factions became 
more and more intensified as time 
went on. The sectional spirit had 
been so strong that it had almost re- 
sulted in the residents keeping entirely- 
aloof from each other, although the 
greater part of them professed to be 

Those who owned the greatest num- 
ber of slaves were at times defiant, 
although they made no attempt to join 
"he other side. Society was an^-thing 
but pleasant, and we felt that the 
efforts of General Woodbury, who was 
now Military Governor, to bring peo- 
ple into more friendly relations were 
most commendable, and were seeming- 
ly successful. 

Just as we were about ready to go 
down to the boat before starting for 
Key West, some one came for us to go 
on the ramparts as there was a fight 
at sea ; one of our gun-boats was fir- 
ing at a big steamer. 

Taking the glass we were soon with 
the others on top of the Fort, and, 
surely enough, about five miles out 
was an immense steamer emitting a 
dense black smoke which announced 
its character as only the Confederates 
used soft coal, and when they were 
running away, as that one evidently 
was, they put in pine wood or any- 
thing they had. 

She was running from a little boat 
that in comparison was like a pigmy. 
Two larger steamers were trying to 
head her off, and they passed out of 
sight in that position. There were 
between twenty and thirty guns fired, 
and all in all it was quite an exciting 

We saw nothing of tl:cm on our 

way to Key West, but the day after 
our arrival a steamer brought into 
port a large Mississippi River boat, a 
side wheeler, loaded high upon deck 
with cotton — a prize valued at half a 
million dollars. 

Colonel Alexander met one of the 
owners of the steamer who said that 
the people in the south were hopeless ; 
but, he added, " we have nothing now 
to lose and we are going to fight as 
long as we can." 

I met at the hotel a lady from 
Mobile who ran the blockade with her 
husband on a vessel loaded with 
cotton. She said she stood on deck 
all the time they were being fired at, 
and v/ould avow herself a Secessionist 
at the cannon's mouth. 

Her husband lost a large amount of 
property in the steamer. He was 
going to Europe while she returned to 
Mobile with her three children. 

The straits to which we often became 
reduced on these days, in out-of-the- 
way Florida, was more amusing than 

My sister informed me before I left 
Tortugas that we were reduced to one 
needle between us and to be sure and 
remember to bring some back with me. 
I found some needles but there was 
not a piece of cotton cloth or muslin 
in the stores of Key West. 

Upon our return to Tortugas, we 
heard that brave Colonel Putnam, who 
marched out of Fort Jefferson only a 
few months before, so proud of his 
regiment and so hopeful, had been 
.shot at Morris Island. 

It cast a gloom over our little circle 
that had known him .so well, bringing 
home to us the horrors that were so 
familiar to the people of the North. 

The latter part of August, 1863, 
Mr. Hall, who with his wife, had been 
long with us, was ordered awa}'. He 
was a very efficient officer and we 
heard long afterwards that his bravery 
luider fire was remarkable. Tlieir 
departure was most tantalizing to 
them and to us somewhat amusing. 
It showed more clearly than anything 
else would our isolated condition, for 



our only legitimate means of getting 
away was by sail ; whenever we had 
steam conveyance it was by special 

We had given some farewell enter- 
tainments to Mr. and Mrs. Hall, and 
Saturday afternoon saw them on 
board the boat that was to carry them 
directly to Pensacola. When ready 
to sail the wind suddenly failed, and 
the vessel could not get awa}' from 
the wharf. 

The doctor went down and brought 
them back with him to tea after which 
they returned to the boat, hoping 
that during the night a breeze would 
spring up, but in the morning there 
the boat lay, and they breakfasted 
with the colonel. Later all went 
down again to see them off, as a 
breeze gently flapped the flag, but it 
was dead ahead, making it impossible 
to get out of the narrow channel, 
which in some places was not wide 
enough for two vessels to pass each 
other, and beating out was impossil)le, 
so they came up to tea again and 
spent the evening. 

The next morning the doctor looked 
out of the window and exclaimed : 
' ' There they go ! " when suddenly 
as we were watching, the masts be- 
came perfectly motionless. We knew 
only too well what that meant. They 
had run on to the edge of the reef, 
within hailing distance of the Fort, 
and the doctor with others, went out 
and spent the morning with them, as 
they refused to come on shore again. 
Mr. Hall said he was going to ' ' stand 
by the ship." 

In the course of the day, by kedging 
as the sailors call it, putting out the 
anchor and pulling the boat up to it, 
then throwing it out again further on, 
they managed to crawl to the first 
buoy, and there lay in the broiling sun. 

Mr. Hall remarked that at that rate 
of speed the war would be over before 
he reached Charleston, where he was 
ordered, for it was then Tuesday and 
they had only made a half a mile since 
Saturday night, and had been aground 

Some one replied that it was fortu- 
nate that the Wishawkeyi had captured 
the Atlanta and that the Florida after 
running the blockade from Mobile 
under the British colors, rarely came 
near our coast, for they certainly 
would have been captured had there 
been a privateer in those waters. 

The next morning when we went 
on top of the Fort, the sails of the 
.schooner were just a white speck on 
the northern horizon, and we could 
hear the music from the .steamer, 
which was bringing Colonel Goode for 
his monthly in.spection of the troops. 

Our rains continued occasionally 
later than usual, one in the middle of 
September almost ending in a hurri- 
cane ; so rough was it that the Clyde, 
a long, graceful, English-built steamer, 
that came in for coal with the Sun- 
flower, had to remain several days. 
The Clyde had quite a serious time in 
reaching the harbor. We watched it 
through a porthole with great anxiety. 
It was too strong a wind for us to 
venture on the ramparts, but we could 
walk all about inside seeing ever^-- 
thing that came in from our safe 

Colonel Goode on his last trip had 
left the regiment band for us awhile, 
so that guard mount and dress parade 
were important features, while the 
naval officers went about visiting the 
various houses, keeping us bright and 
gay while they were weather bound. 

The high winds ended in a severe 
norther — an almost unheard of thing 
so early in the season. Later we saw 
by a paper that they had snow in New 
York the latter part of August ; it 
might have been the same cold wave 
that swept do^^^l over the Gulf, for it 
housed us shivering. 

While the band was with us the 
ramparts were the favorite places for 
viewing dress parade, and the colonel 
gave the ladies all the pleasure he 
could, having the band play on parade 
during the evening. 

My old cook, Aunt Eliza, visited us 
occasionally, as .she said she felt that 
she ' ' blonged ' ' to me. 



I asked how she was getting on 
with the new husband. 

" Oh," she said, " he's cross as the 
berry debbil hisself." 

' ' Why did you not get a good one 
this time ? " I asked, ' ' Jack was so 
cross you could not get along with 

"Why, missus, Jack was a bery 
angel in hebben by de side ob dis 3'er 
one," was her reply, laughing as 
though it were more a cause for joking 
than a serious matter of complaint. 
' ' But I hear, missis, ' ' she added, 
' ' you hab John de fouf to do yo' 
washin' an' John de fust to do yo' 
errands. Dey's good boys, dey is, 
but dey' 11 soon be 'gwine away w'en 
Mars Linkum dun send 'em free papers 
down yere ; heaps dem niggers gwine 
to 'stuction in dem days. 

" I'se gwine ter stay wid Mis' 
Fogarty ; she's boun' to tek cyare ob 
me. I don't want none o' dem papers ; 
I'se too old ; dey'U do fur Classy and 
Sophy and sich gals, but I'se too ole, 
too ole, marm." 

She did not take her freedom upon 
hearsay ; hers was to be a document 
' ' right from Mars lyinkum. ' ' 

A remittant fever broke out and we 
were ill for three weeks. It was ver>^ 
much like the l^reak-bone fever ; 
extreme suffering in the limbs and 
back seemed to be the prevailing 
feature of the attacks. At the same 
time they were digging a ditch 
around close to the wall of the Fort, 
which made it pass between the house 
and kitchen as the latter was in the 

The rains, of course, swelled the 
size of the brook so that the bridge 
over it, when the wind blew, as it 
seemed to most of the time, was rather 
an insecure passage, as it was five 
feet wide and from three to four deep, 
and to cross that every time one went 
into the kitchen was no small annoy- 
ance, and the contrivances to get the 
meals into the dining-room hot re- 
quired no little ingenuity. 

Some very funny things happened 
during the high winds in the trans- 

portation of the dishes, as a sudden 
gust of wind coming round the corner 
of the house with the force of a steam 
engine, taking the contents of the 
dish the boy grasped, while with the 
other hand he clutched the one railing, 
and, under the shelter of the piazza, 
which he had reached with an empt}- 
plate, watched his dry toast floating 
off, bread literally "cast upon the 

At another time when it really 
seemed a doubtful chance of getting 
over safely, the head of the house 
offered to convey the platter, on which 
was a fine roast of beef, it being one 
of the feast days, and we stood in the 
doorway to watch the passage. 

He was just over when a whiz 
came and a thud, and we saw an 
empty platter and a man watching a 
roast of beef sliding the piazza. 
His look of disgust and mortification 
overpowered all other feelings, and we 
rushed to the rescue of the beef, wdtli 
peals of laughter. 

On the 8th of November, 1863, a 
steamer came in with one hundred 
and twenty-five prisoners from the 
prisons at the North, which were 
running over with bounty jumpers, 
deserters, and men who had commit- 
ted a variety of misdemeanors. We 
had heard that Tortugas was going 
to l^e made a military prison for our 
soldiers and were rather dreading it. 

Captain McFarland had been unable 
to secure workmen enough to expend 
the appropriation, and it was still con- 
sidered necessary to push the work on 
the fort as rapidly as possible, so 
that the prisoners were turned over to 
the engineers' department as laborers. 

The morning after their arrival thev 
were drawn up in a line and the over- 
seer of the works took the name of 
each man, their occupation and trade, 
then they were turned over to the 
department they could work in, and 
as all trades nearly were represented, 
things began to look brisk again, yet 
when I saw the men at work I did 
not think that lot of prisoners would 
complete the work, nor many more 



like them. I could not help a feeling 
of pity, so many of them ought not 
to have been sent there. I presume 
there was little time at the North for 
discrimination after a man had been 
found guilty, perhaps for drunken- 
ness, or disrespect to his commanding 
officer, who might have been a com- 
rade at home, that was exercising an 
authority over the man who had not 
yet learned to obey in true military 
spirit. Many cases as trivial as these 
might have resulted in a season at 
Tortugas, whilst others were deserv- 
ing all and more of a punishment 
than a few years of life at work on 
the fort, for they fared almost, if not 
quite as well as the paid workmen, 
only they could not get away or go 
outside the fort after dark. 

With all the precaution, however, 
two prisoners took a boat one dark 
night, rowed to Loggerhead and there 
found a sailboat, and sailed away ; no 
one ever knew whether they reached 
the mainland or went to the bottom of 
the Gulf — the latter, probably. 

We were delighted to welcome 
Captain Van Syce, the U. S. gunboats 
Simflower and the Clyde again, and at 
the same time Captain McFarland 
paid us a flying visit. 

While they were all there, we had 
the most severe norther of the winter, 
the mercury falling to fifty-seven de- 
grees. The fish floated ashore they 
were so chilled, and we had fires for 
nearly a fortnight. The wind filled 
the air with sand, cutting the skin 
like sleet, and people went about with 
overcoats on, looking as though they 
were buffeting a northeast snow- 

Captain Bowers was detained a 
week, and the Tortugas was delayed 
in Havana harbor for twelve days by 
the gale. 

A large steamer was seen off" Logger- 
head, and the Clyde went out to it. 
She proved to be from Baltimore with 
a cavalr^^ regiment for New Orleans 
and a lot of cattle. They had been 
out in all the gale, and the poor 
creatures had not eaten or drank since 

starting, and they were stopping to let 
them rest. 

The Catawba came with cattle for 
us, making seven vessels in the harbor 
— two steamers. A vessel had arrived 
with one hundred and twenty-five 
workmen, another with brick, and the 
work was rapidly progressing. 

The prisoners in the main were 
growing better contented, as most of 
them realized that they might be in a 
much worse place, for as yet there was 
plenty of room and their work not 

The new year of 1864 was ushered 
in with cold winds and rain, so that a 
fire on the hearth gave us both com- 
fort and company, and during the 
night more rain fell than in anj' one 
day during the year, accompanied by 
.severe thunder and lightning. On 
the second da}', a steamer came 
bringing the veteran troops who had 
been North for thirty days, looking 
like another set of men, so benefited 
were they by that short change. 

On the nineteenth the Tortugas 
came in, bringing Ivlr. Holgate and 
Captain McFarland, without a north- 
ern mail, but with the news, which 
seemed to fly sometimes so mysteri- 
ous was its coming. The regiment 
was to be moved to Louisiana and 
the New York One Hundred and 
Tenth Regiment would replace the 
Forty-seventh Pennsylvania with us, 
and a colored regiment would be 
stationed in Key West. Captain Mc- 
Farland was ordered to Mobile, and 
Mr. Frost was going to New York for 
a two months' leave. It was enough 
news, without a mail. The troops 
had been so long with us. we hoped 
they would not be changed until the 
following autumn, we so much 
dreaded having unacclimated people 
sent to us before the summer. Some 
of the officers had sent for their fami- 
lies, and they had already arrived in 
Key West. 

We had at that time over two hun- 
dred prisoners, sent there for all kinds 
of crimes, from murderers to the petti- 
est offenders — some for life with hard 



labor, others for five, ten, fifteen 
years, down to as many months, and 
our little island had become known to 
the world as the Dry Tortugas. 

Colonel Alexander had quite an 
alarm during this month. After it 
was over, they said it was needless, 
yet such a thing could not be passed 
by without taking action thoroughly 
and investigating matters. Three of 
the prisoners went to the colonel and 
told him that the prisoners were mak- 
ing dirks and knives out of everything 
they could get that could be turned 
into such weapons, and some night 
when the Matchless and Tortugas were 
both in, they were to spike the guns, 
kill people if they resisted, and sail 
away — something verj^ difficult to 
carry out, yet the attempt might hav-e 
been exceedingly unpleasant and dis- 
astrous to somebody. It was impossi- 
ble to prevent them from prowling 
about the casemates, as the place was 
not made for a prison, except the 
small one by the guard-room at the 
Sallyport. The casemates were sim- 
ply boarded in, as the necessity for 
more sleeping rooms arose. It was 
hardly a pleasant thought that we 
were inside of a prison, not knowing 
who were desperadoes and who were 
not, without any means of protecting 
ourselves against them, for before all 
that I hardly think any one ever 
locked a door. Whether there was 
any truth in the matter or not, the 
colonel saw fit to prepare a room in 
the casemates, where about thirty of 
the prisoners were locked up every 
night and a guard stationed at the 

The guns were always examined 
night and morning, and we, of course, 
felt easier when we saw all that extra 

It was an imposition to send prison- 
ers there who ought to have been put 
in the penitentiary, yet every one felt 
that, but there was no remedy for it. 

One of them became angry at another 
prisoner who was sent to convey a 
message from one of the officers, some 
words passed between them, when he 

drew a knife stabbing the messenger 
twice just missing the heart, he was 
put in irons and drew a ball and chain 
for occupation after that. 

On the twenty -third we saw a steamer 
over the ramparts and concluded that 
the exchange had come, but to our 
great disgust it proved to be one hun- 
dred and sev^enty more prisoners, 
really there seemed a prospect of the 
fort being turned into a penitentiary. 

It was followed during the day by 
another steamer, bringing Captain 
Hook with marching orders for the 
Forty-Seventh, that steamer taking the 
Key West troops to New Orleans and 
in two weeks the One Hundred and 
Tenth was to take its place. 

We saw by the papers that the 
weather had been very cold in New 
Orleans accounting for the low mer- 
cury with us, for some three weeks we 
had fires and wore our thickest cloth- 
ing that had not been needed since 
leaving the north. 

A theatrical performance gotten up 
by the soldiers one evening was a very 
creditable entertainment and the audi- 
ence an appreciative one. We were 
sorry they had not started it before, 
but of course they did not expect to 
be ordered away. 

We were very much startled one 
night by heavy firing outside and see- 
ing danger signal rockets, which was 
soon followed by six guns inside the 
fort, sounding in the still night as if 
everything was coming down about 
our cars. 

The Matchless was at the wharf and 
went out to find the transport McLellan 
on the reef. The excitement could 
hardh- have l^een greater had we been 

Three of the prisoners gave us 
quite an excitement by taking a boat 
and rowing awa3\ There was nothing 
in but the little sail-boats, and Colonel 
Alexander with a crew started off in 
pursuit, as soon as they were found 
to be running away, but the wind 
failed and finally l)ecame a dead calm. 

We watched them from the ramparts 
until they disappeared, and llie dis- 


appointed Colonel had to spend the The officers going about to say good- 
better part of the day becalmed in tlie bye, and some always taking their last 
scorching sun, while the prisoners meal with us, and finally the columns 
rowed away toward Cuba, they were marching out always to the tune of 
never heard from and most likely " The Girl I Left Behind Me." Then 
escaped it was so calm. the watching of the steamer from the 

On the 28tli of February the One ramparts could never be divested of a 

Hundred and Tenth New York arrived certain sorrow as if it were a final 

to relieve the Forty-Seventh, bringing leave-taking of friends with whom the 

a mail with the news of General association could scarcely be under- 

Grant being made Commander-in-Chief stood except by people who have lived 

of the Army. The excitement inci- a garrison life. 

dent to the changing of troops in Then came the choosing of quarters 

garrison was always great, for so much by the new people, which we fortu- 

had to be done in a short time, and as nately did not borrow trouble about, as 

we were always left behind it was a we occupied those belonging to the 

sad time, giving us a feeling of unrest Engineering Department and were 

that clung to us until we became never disturbed, 

interested in the new people. In a week even.-thing was back 

The coming ashore of the new into the accustomed routine — guard 

troops who stacked their arms waiting mount in the morning and dress 

for the quarters that were being parade at night, the only change be ing 

vacated by the departing Regiment: all new faces. 

(To be Continued') 



O love I am so tempted to defy 

The Power that ordain' d thy sudden flight, 

The Power that withholds thee from my sight. 
Yet keeps me thoughtful of the days gone by. 
There was a time — I speak it with a sigh — 

The very stars seem'd friends of our delight ; 

The placid moon look'd on from night to night 
Directed earthward like a guardian eye. 
O love once more the circling frost retires. 

And all is widespread bloom from hill to lea ; 
But my ambition and the old desires 

That soon had blossom'd in behalf of thee, 
Now serve to kindle sacrificial fires 

Upon the altar of ni}- memon,-. 





H, Padre VoiXv^^JosChimehuevas! 
Los Chinichucvas! Oh, Madre 
de Dios, we shall all be killed 
by the gentiles ! ' ' 

So shouted Pedro Bandini as he 
reined back on its haunches the stout 
little mustang, whose heaving flanks, 
lather-covered body and sides bleeding 
from the deep gashes made by a pair 
of immense-roweled .spurs on its rider's 
heels, attested the speed with which 
he had been ridden across the wide 
i}?csa, red-hot in the midday sun. 

Padre Felipe, to whom the panic- 
stricken rider had addressed his 
alarming ejaculations, stood in the 
broad-arched corridor that formed the 
front of the principal building of the 
outpost of the San Gabriel Mission 
that had been established far to the 
eastward of that place and named 
after good Saint Bernard, San Bernar- 
dino. The low-roofed adobe structure 
with its tremendously thick walls, 
red-tiled roof and heavily-shuttered 
windows stood on a commanding slope 
of the range of hills which separated 
the valley of the Santa Ana River from 
that of the San Timoteo Creek. 

A short distance below the building 
the waters of a rudely excavated zanja 
rippled over the roots and beneath the 
shade of the alders and sycamores that 
lined its banks. The handiwork of 
the first Indians who had been ' ' con- 
verted " i.e., lassoed, corraled and 
broken to work like so many unruly 
mustangs, this zanja had been con- 
structed with the rudest tools and 
engineering appliances and advantage 
had been taken of the many natural 
depressions in the surface, so that in 
time the stream came to be regarded 

•Founded on a tradition concerning the branch 
Mission at Old San Bernardino. Several years ago La 
Plaza Verde or the C.recn Spot was honeycombed by 
searchers for the bnried treasure, who claimed to be 
acting under direction of the spirits. 

as a natural water At the foot 
of the slope a couple of hundred j-ards 
from the building the viesa ended in 
the level plain, and here were the 
orchards, vineyards and grain fields 
that had been planted when the outpost 
was first established, and thrifty 
growth in this genial soil had been a 
marvel even to those who were best 
acquainted with what had been accom- 
plished in the same direction at the 
older missions. Close at hand were 
the adobe buildings and brush wick- 
iups that gave shelter to the hundreds 
of Indians who had been gathered 
together by the secular arm of the 
church and were being taught the 
rudiments of a civilization which they 
were only too willing to .shake off at 
the first opportunity. 

The parent Mission at San Gabriel 
had been established for several years. 
The herds of cattle, horses and sheep 
had increased in such numbers that it 
became necessary either to slaughter 
them by thousands or to seek other 
grazing grounds. Exploring parties 
were sent out in various directions 
and in a few days one of them returned 
and reported that at a distance of some 
two days' ride to the eastward and 
almost at the base of the lofty moun- 
tain which had already been named 
San Bernardino, they had discovered 
a marvelou.sly lovely valley with beau- 
tiful streams of water running through 
it, many living springs Ijunsting from 
the hillsides, and of all with a 
dense growth of fine grass promising 
an abundance of food for all the 
superfluous cattle that the Mission 

There were, it is tnie, rumors of 
hostile Indians having been .seen in 
the Valley. Indeed just across the 
mountains on the borders of the 
desert was the countrv of tlie fierce 



1 1 1 

and warlike Chime/uievas, hereditary 
enemies of the more peaceable Serra- 
nos and Coahuillas, and already had 
roving parties of these savages crossed 
the range through a low gap to the 
westward of the peak of the San 
Bernardino and boldly penetrated 
almost to the walls of the San Gabriel 
Mission itself, killing several of the 
herders and driving away large bands 
of cattle and horses to their desert 

It was decided, notwithstanding 
these rumors, to establish a settlement 
in the valley of which such glowing 
reports were made, but because of the 
danger of trouble with the Indians a 
man was chosen to command the 
enterprise who was equall}^ at home 
as a representative either of the sec- 
ular or the spiritual arm of the church. 

Padre Felipe was a stalwart broad- 
shouldered man, who, had he been 
clothed in other garments than the 
frock of a priest, would never have 
been taken for anything except what 
he in fact was — a soldier. True, he 
had abandoned the sword and spear 
for the crucifix and rosarj^ but his 
mind and his habits were of martial 
mold, and he was in every w^a}- fitted 
to fill the position to which he was 

So the mission at San Bernardino 
was established, and under the ener- 
getic administration of Padre Felipe, 
it grew and prospered in marvelous 
fashion. Extensive buildings were 
erected, orchards and gardens planted, 
grain fields sewed, and in the lush 
pastures of the valley the flocks and 
herds waxed fat and increased in 
number rapidly. Padre Felipe never 
lost an opportunity for making con- 
verts in the method peculiar to the 
times. On occasion armed par- 
ties were sent to the east and the 
south, and invariably returned driv- 
ing before them bands of the Gentiles 
who were to be Christianized. Some- 
times the more adventurous of these 
proselyting parties penetrated even to 
the borders of the desert of the Colo- 
rado, and on one memorable occasion 

reached a large Indian 7'anchcria at 
Agua Calietite, where they met Chief 
Cabazon, head of all the tribes in 
that region. Him they persuaded to 
accompany them to the mission, using 
argument rather than force. He was 
received by Padre Felipe with such 
kindness and so well treated that 
forever after he remained a warm 
friend of the whites. As was the cus- 
tom, the Spaniards questioned the 
Indians as to their possible knowl- 
edge of the existence of gold in their 
country, but were always met with 
profe.s.sions of profound ignorance. 
Sometime after the friendship of 
Cabazon was obtained, that individ- 
ual, who quickly learned of the all- 
pervading desire for gold, came to the 
mission after a protracted absence 
desert ward, and sought Padre Felipe. 
After pledging him to secrecy, the 
Indian produced a pouch made from 
the skin of a rabbit, and to the im- 
measurable surprise of the Padre, 
poured out a quantity of nuggets of 
pure gold upon the table before him. 
He resolutely refused to tell where he 
had obtained the precious metal, 
further than by a vague sweep of the 
arm, covering all the region to the 
east and southeast, but in the most 
matter-of-fact way told the Padre that 
he knew w'here there was plenty more 
of it, and as he and his people had 
been well treated by the Spaniards, 
he was willing to bring them more of 
the nuggets upon occasion. Only, he 
insisted that Padre Felipe should tell 
no one of the source whence the gold 
came, and he peremptorily refused to 
allow any of the Spaniards to accom- 
pany him on his treasure-procuring 

Now, Padre Felipe had one great 
ambition, and that was to have the 
altar in the chapel of his mission 
decorated in the same gorgeous man- 
ner that was customary in his native 
land. Hitherto everything had been 
of the cheapest and crudest descrip- 
tion. The sacred utensils were of 
base metal, the censers were of com- 
mon earthenware swung by stripes of 



rawhide, the crucifixes were of wood 
roughly fashioned. All this grated 
on the pious sensibilities of Padre 
Felipe^ and while zealous in saving 
the souls of the gentiles, his heart 
burned within him to obtain the 
means for more appropriately furnish- 
ing forth the sacred precincts. 

The disclosure of chief Cabazon was 
his opportunity, and he urged upon 
his Indian friend to gather all the 
gold that he could and biing it in. 
Among the soldiers stationed at the 
mission was one Jose Carillo, who had 
been a goldsmith in his native Bar- 
celona, but who had abandoned his 
peaceful pursuit to seek a fortune in 
the new world. To him, with many 
cautions of secrecy, Padre Felipe told 
the wonderful tale, and to him was 
intrusted the task of converting the 
precious golden nuggets into vessels 
for service at the altar. He labored 
diligently, and periodically Cabazon 
made trips to the eastward and 
returned with further store of nug- 
gets. Finally, however, he an- 
nounced to Padre Felipe that the gold 
was all gone, but not before he had 
brought in enough of the precious 
metal to provide the most valuable 
set of ecclesiastical furnishings pos- 
sessed by any of the missions on the 

Padre Felipe and his military gold- 
smith kept their own counsels. When 
the Father Superior made his next 
annual visit, the ambitious Padre had 
decided to proudly marshal before 
him, all unannounced, the golden ves- 
sels with which he had honored the 
memory of St. Bernard. But until 
that time the precious objects Avere 
kept carefully stored away in the re- 
cesses of the fortress-like adobe build- 




It was while waiting the arrival of 
Father Crispi, which was to be made 
the occasion of the display of this 
sacred wealth, that Pedro Bandini 
brought his alarming intelligence of 
tlie approach of the CJiimchuevas . 

Willi a gesture, Padre Feli])e bade 

him alight, and as he did so it became 
apparent that he had been sorely 
wounded. He limped with every 
step, and hobbled painfully to the cor- 
ridor, where he sank exhausted on a 
bench. The Padre himself hastened 
for wine, which he gave the suffering 
man and revived him so that he could 
tell his story. 

Bandini was one of the men sta- 
tioned ^\.Jurupa, still another outpost 
of the San Gabriel mission, some 
thirty miles farther down the valley. 
According to his account, all the 
people at that place had been mur- 
dered by a large party of Chimehuevas, 
who had descended upon the place 
during the previous night, and there 
not having been the slightest premon- 
ition of their coming, the Spaniards 
and their Indian allies had been taken 
entirely unawares. The Indians had 
spared none, and Bandini himself had 
been wounded — knocked in the head 
and left for dead. When he came to, 
it was broad daylight. Fortunately he 
had fallen in an obscure spot, and he 
was able to see what was going on 
without being observed. The Chime- 
huevas had broken open the store- 
house, and were now gorging them- 
selves on the unaccustomed provisions 
and drinking copiously of the wine 
thc}^ had found in the cellars. Pedro 
gathered from the little that he under- 
stood of the ChimcJiueva dialect that 
they intended next to attack the San 
Bernardino Mission, and knowing that 
they would use the same treachery 
that had cost the lives of his com- 
panions at Junipa, he determined to 
make an effort to escape and warn 
Padre Felipe of the danger. The 
Indians were so busy with their feast- 
ing and drinking that Pedro was able 
to make his way into the brush 
unobserved. There he bandaged up 
his wounds, and keeping out ot sight 
of the Chhnehuevas, who were clus- 
tered in front of the buildings, he went 
to the spot where his horse was staked 
out, saddled it, and making for the 
timber in the river bottom close at 
liand, was soon safe from an^- fear of 



discovery on the part of the murderous 
gentiles. Although suffering terri- 
bly from his wounds, which were 
aggravated by the severe heat of the 
June sun, he urged his horse onward, 
sparing not the spur, until he reached 
the mission and gave his warning. 

Padre Felipe was a man quick to 
see the necessities of the situation and 
to act accordingly. He questioned 
Pedro closely, and allowing for un- 
conscious exaggeration, he saw that 
the hostile band must number several 
hundreds. They were between him 
and San Gabriel, and it was useless to 
look for succor from that far-distant 
spot. His own little force only nvun- 
bered half a dozen soldiers, while the 
Indian converts were not to be de- 
pended upon to strike a blow in 
defense against the feared Cliime- 
Jnievas. Tlien there was the treasure ! 
While not knowing its intrinsic value, 
the hostile Indians were certain to be 
attracted by its beauty and novelty, 
and would either carry it away or 
destroy it. Should he allow the 
sacred vessels to fall into the blood- 
stained hands of the heathen ? Rather 
let every drop of blood in every Span- 
ish heart at the mission be shed. 

For a few minutes after Pedro had 
told his stor}^ Padre Felipe pondered 
silently. Then he summoned Jose 
Carillo, the soldier who had played so 
well the part of goldsmith, and told 
him to get three burros, put pack- 
saddles on them, and bring to him 
the great aparcjos in which it was 
customary to pack goods for transpor- 
tation in the primitive fashion then 
prevalent. He was also directed to 
summon two Indian servants, and tell 
them to put up provisions and other 
necessaries for two da^^s' journey. As 
soon as the aparcjos were brought. 
Padre Felipe, with the help of Jose, 
wrapped all the golden vessels — the 
candlesticks, the censors, the basins, 
the goblets, the crucifixes, all of solid 
gold— in cloths, and carefully packed 
them in the leather sacks. These 
were fastened to the saddles on the 
backs of the burros, there being ample 

to load two of the animals heavily. 
With the treasure was also put a large 
pouch containing nuggets which gold- 
smith Jose had not had time to work 
up. Padre Felipe announced that it 
was his intention to guide Jose and 
his companions across the valley, 
whence he thought they would be 
able tomake their way to San Gabriel, 
keeping on the opposite side of the 
vallc}', from where the marauding 
Indians were. 

The Padre himself made few prep- 
arations, but a singular one consisted 
of the selection of a large sharp knife 
which he carefully concealed in its 
sheath inside the folds of his frock. 
He warned the soldiers to keep a close 
watch for the Indians and promising 
to return either that afternoon or dur- 
ing the night, he left the mission with 
Jose and the two servants. 

Padre Felipe led the little party, the 
.soldier by his side, with the two Indians 
following and driving the burros. A 
straight line was made to the north for 
the chaparral which covered the plain 
up to a short distance from the mission 
and in W'hicli the party were lost to 
sight within five minutes after starting. 

Then the course of the travelers was 
changed to the northeast. While 
standing in the open corridor after 
hearing Pedro Baudini's story and 
fornuilating his plan of action. Padre 
h'elipe had glanced quicklj- over the 
valley and finally his eyes had rested 
on a grove of trees which showed 
clearly on the mesa several miles away 
across the plain to the northeast and 
well up under the mountains. These 
trees and the verdure with which they 
were surrounded stood out sharp and 
clear against the uniform dull brown 
of the major portion of the landscape, 
Iictokening the presence of some 
sj-jrings and which had led to the 
place being called La plaza verde or 
the green spot. He glanced again, 
nodded, said to himself ' ' That will 
do," and then proceeded with his 

The chaparral was dense, the sun 
was hot and the little party made slow 



progress. Indeed, close observation 
would have led one to almost suppose 
that Padre Felipe was in no great 
haste, or that he was singularly un- 
decided as to what route he desired to 
follow. He twisted in and out, crossed 
gulches, climbed hills, sometimes 
retraced his steps, now went north and 
now west, now south and now east. 
Accustomed to unquestioning obe- 
dience his companions said nothing. 
It was sunset as they finally, after 
stumbling for miles over the bowlder 
strewn wash of the Santa Ana River, 
clambered up the bank and approached 
La plaza verde. 

They halted close to the edge of one 
of the clencgas whose waters kept the 
grass green for some distance around 
about. Near at hand was a grove of 
noble sycamores and the Padre bent 
his steps thither. 

He examined the trees closely and 
at last seemed to be attracted especially 
by three which appeared to form a 
triangle. He paced the distance 
between the two which formed the 
long arm of the triangle, then paced 
bark again and halted exactly midway 
between them and on a direct line 
with the tree at the apex. Thrusting 
a twig in the ground, he walked to a 
distance and getting the two trees in 
line saw that the twig also was in a 
direct line from one to the other. 
Having carefully located the spot, he 
called sharply to his companions and 
they approached, driving the burros 
before them. Pointing to the spot 
marked by the twig, he commanded 
' ' dig. ' ' The necessary tools had been 
packed at his command on the third 
burro with the provisions, and the two 
servants went to work with vigor, as 
the twilight warned them that dark- 
ness was at hand. Having excavated 
a hole of considerable depth the 
apatejos, which had been laced tightly 
shut with buckskin thongs were, much 
to the apparent amazement of the two 
Indians, put carefully in the bottom 
and the earth then refilled, care being 
taken to trample it down closely so 
that no depression might be left by 

subsequent settling. When the task 
was finished it was night. At the 
Padre's command camp was then made 
and branches w'ere brought from a 
fallen tree near by with which a great 
fire was built over the buried treasure 
so as to obliterate all traces of the soil 
having been disturbed. The surplus 
earth left after filling the pit was care- 
fully thrown into o barranca near by 
the bottom of which was covered wdtli 
mud and thus all signs of the excava- 
tion were removed. 

Padfe Felipe had been very silent 
all through the afternoon and evening. 
He only spoke to give the necessary 
directions and used the fewest W'Ords 
possible even then. After eating supper 
Jose offered to stand guard during the 
night, but the Padre said it was not 
necessary. There were no hostile 
Indians in that remote spot and as the 
moon would rise later all would sleep 
for awhile, and then take an early 
start and get w^ell on their journey by 
daylight. Well content, Jose and the 
Indians wrapped themselves up and 
stretching on the ground near the 
camp-fire were soon fast asleep. Not 
so Padre Felipe — as his companions 
succumbed to their w^eariness, he drew 
his hood over his head and apparently 
slept likewise. But it was only in 
appearance. A hard stem look crept 
over his face. Finally making sure 
that all three wxre sound asleep, he 
arose sileutl}^ drew the keen-edged 
knife that he had hidden in his gown 
and approached the prostrate forms. 

:^; * ;|; ;i< i\^ 

Hardly had the sun peeped over the 
mountain crest next morning when 
Padre Felipe reached the mission. 
Its occupants were on the lookout for 
the Indians, but they had not come. 
Padre Felipe expressed his pleasure at 
this, and said that he had accompanied 
Jose and the two Indians until well 
advanced on their journey, and that 
they might reasonably look for assis- 
tance from San Gabriel, were they 
able to hold out against the Chimelnie- 
vas for a short time. That the Indians 
had not come that night he took as an 



indication that they had indulged too 
deeply in the wines oXjurupa — a sup- 
position that was correct. All that 
day Padre Felipe was feverishly ener- 
getic, giving directions for the 
preparation of the defenses, and 
seemed laboring inidcr even greater 
excitement than the actual condition 
of things called for. 

That night the Chimc/nievas csn-ao. in 
overwhelming force. Still maddened 
by wine, they attacked the Mission 
with insane fury, and, though dozens 
lost their lives, they stormed tlie 
building after a contest that lasted till 

A week later a part}- from San 
Gabriel rode up to the Mission, which 
they found a scene of desolation. In 
the chapel, not far from the altar, lay 
the body of Padre Felipe, surrounded 
by the corpses of a dozen CJiimchucvas, 
a blood-stained sword showing that 
the iRxfl^r^'.? hand had lost none of the 
strength which it had possessed when 
it belonged to a soldier. 

On the whitewashed wall near the 
altar and just above the Padre's body, 
were traced apparentl}^ by a finger 
dipped in blood and in tremulous 
characters : La plaza verde — the 
golden altar vessels — buried by the 
three sycamores that " 

But the people from San Gabriel did 

not know of any such place as La 
plaza verde. They did know, how- 
ever, that the furnishings of the San 
Bernardino mission were of the 
cheapest description, and the golden 
vessels could have had no existence 
save in the fevered imagination of a 
man wounded to death, so with many 
a sigh they buried the Padre beneath 
the altar where he had perished, and 
with him w'as buried the secret of the 
green spot. 

But not all of the secret. On the 
night that the mission was .sacked, the 
wild beasts that prowled about La 
plaza verde seemed to have found an 
unexpected feast. They snarled and 
growled and fought, just as did the 
human beasts at the mi.ssion, and when 
morning came, the cleanly picked, 
polished bones of what had been three 
human beings glLstened in the rays of 
the sun, and the gorged beasts slunk 
back to their lairs in the mountains. 

Of a truth the secret of the green 
spot was well hidden, and though 
many have sought the solution of the 
Padre' s lost message, none have yet 
found it. It is said that three ghastly 
figures, with gaping wounds in their 
throats, streaming blood, guard the 
treasure, which cost them their lives, 
and woe to the unfortunate mortal who 
tempts their wrath. 

Vol. II— s 



BETWEEN the western shores of 
Mexico and the mountainous land 
that extends for seven hundred 
miles beyond California's southern bor- 
der lies the great Gulf of California. 
Its width is not so great but that on a 
clear day one may, from one side, see 
the mountains at the other, yet from 
north to south, its waves roll uninter- 
ruptedly for more than two hundred 
leagues. For all that is ordinarily 
heard of its products, it might be as 
devoid of life as the Dead Sea, yet its 
v/aters teem with riches. Few of the 
inhabitants of California proper im- 
agine that pearls, the rarest of the 
gems of the sea, are found so close to 
their own border. Yet in this Gulf 
of Cortez, as the Spaniards called it, 
more than six hundred men, living 
almost next door to us, earn their 
daily bread diving for pearls. Per- 
haps the most interesting thing I could 
say about the comparatively unknown 
fisheries of the Gulf of Calitornia is, 
that the pearl fishery is not merely the 
most important of them, but that 
pearl divers have been plying tlieir 
trade there for more than three cen- 
turies. Cortez found pearls in posses- 
sion of the natives when he discovered 
Lower California early in the sixteenth 
century, and his followers carried 
many pearls back to Spain. Eater, 
when the Spaniards began to occupy 
the country, one of them, named Osio, 
sent six hundred pounds of pearls to 
Spain at one time. The Jesuit mis- 
sionaries saw its beginnings as an 
industry, but if the naked divers that 
plunged into the shining waters of 
the Gulf in those days, could see their 
descendants, arrayed in the diving 
clothes of the present day, go down to 
remain for hours at a time, and watch 
the workings of a machine that sends 
down air for them to breathe at the 

bottom, they would feel as out of tune 
with the times as the seven sleepers 

Other advantages enjoyed by their 
successors, especially the immunity 
from sharks, granted by the diving 
armor, would doubtless appeal to 
them strongly. The big " tintorera " 
shark that goes about seeking what 
he may devour, is terrified by the ap- 
pearance of the submarine engineer, 
with his waving ropes, sharp-pointed 
spear, and, more than all, the upward 
leaping bubbles of air from his hel- 

The days of the naked pearl diver 
are, indeed, past. No longer plung- 
ing for sixty seconds into the sun-lit 
green water that covers a coral bank, 
the diver for pearls has become a 
mere submarine laborer who uses all 
the modern diving paraphernalia 
available. Whatever romance for- 
merly enshrouded him has disappeared. 
He now puts on a rubber suit, with 
a glass-fronted headpiece, and, suit- 
ably weighted with lead, deliberately 
walks upon the bottom, gathering 
pearl oysters in a basket made of wire 
which is methodically hoisted to the 
boat that floats over his head. 

In conducting the pearl fisheiy the 
divers are located in camps at fa\-or- 
able places along the shores. Each 
camp is supplied with a diving suit, 
and an air machine which is mounted 
in a heavy, barge-like boat. This 
boat is rovvcd daily from camp to each 
place of operation : Arrived there one 
man becomes the diver, one tends the 
signal rope with which communication 
is kept up with him, one hoists and 
empties his l)asket of .shells, two turn 
the cranks of the air-pump that sup- 
plies him with the breath of life, and 
two are at the oars, to keep the boat 
well over him and carefully follow his 





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wandering course upon the bottom in 
search of shells. 

A small fleet of schooners moves 
about the Gulf supplying the camps of 
the divers with provisions, and trans- 
porting their ever-accumulating heaps 
of shells to La Paz, a town of some 
two or three thousand people, lying 
on a small bay of the same name on 
the west shore of the Gulf of Califor- 
nia. It has some little importance as 
the. capital of the Mexican Territory 
of Lower California and its commercial 
importance is derived entirely from 
its being the headquarters of the 
pearl-fishing industry of the Gulf. 
Of course when the fisheries were 
more productive La Paz was more 
prosperous, but it has declined in pro- 
portion with these and is now a 
sleepy old Spanish- American town, 
the monotony of whose existence is 
only broken by the arrival of some 
coastwise trader. 

It is a pretty place enough, with its 
picturesque buildings and plaza and 
gardens filled with semi-tropical plants 
and flowers, the blue waters of the 
Gulf in front. Behind are the purple 
mountains, and over all the sky of 
the tropics. 

Here I visited some large warehouses 
filled with diving machinery and the 
supplies and stores used in the pearl 
fishery. In one of them were stored 
in sacks eighty tons of shells of the 
pearl oyster {J\fclcagrina margarill- 
fera). The shells are shipped to 
Europe for manufacture into orna- 
ments, knife handles, buttons, and 
all those articles for which mother-of- 
pearl is employed. 

The revenue derived from the an- 
nual catch of shells of the pearl oyster 
is not greatly inferior to that of the 
' ' pearls, ' ' which they only occasion- 
ally contain. Pearl, or mother-of- 
pearl, as it is usually called, is but the 
nacreous interior of the shell of the pearl 
oyster, laid down in successive laj'crs 
by the mantle of the animal, while 
' ' pearls ' ' are purely accidental 
growths, ' ' being caused by the depo- 
sition of nacre around some forcijrn 

object. This nucleus may be a bit of 
sand, a parasite, or some similar 
object. ' ' The pearl oyster, it should be 
stated, does not resemble in appear- 
ance the edible 03'ster. 

The products of the pearl fishery 
increased in value from 5'ear to year, 
the systematic gathering of pearl 
shells, made possible by modem 
machinery having greatly reduced the 
numbers of the species. During 
recent years, the combined pearl fish- 
cries of the world have failed to sup- 
ply tlic fifteen thousand tons of shells 
required to meet the universal de- 
mand. Only about eleven thousand 
tons can now be procured annually. 
Of this amount, the fishery of the 
Gulf of California supplies nearly five 
thousand tons, which, valued at ten or 
eleven cents a pound, amount to more 
than a hundred thousand dollars a 
year. Pearl shells from the fisheries 
of Ce5-lon and Tahiti are larger and 
bring better prices, being worth 
twenty and twenty-seven cents a 
pound respectively. The pearls ob- 
tained annually from the shells gath- 
ered in the Gulf of California are 
worth nearly three hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars. The best pearl 
taken from our neighboring fishery 
during recent years, and shown in the 
accompanying cut, was discovered last 
season and sold in Paris for ten thou- 
sand dollars. This pearl, named the 
Cleopatra, weighed thirty-six carats. 
The largest pearl known is two 
inches long and weighs three ounces. 

The manager of the pearl fishery at 
La Paz kindly opened his safe and 
showed me the pearls representing the 
gatherings of the three preceding 
months, the value of which v/as 
roughly estimated at fifteen thousand 
dollars. They were separated into 
eight or nine grades, the lower grades 
constituting l)y far the greater num- 
ber of those exhibited. Most of them 
were small and imperfect and of little 
value. The large, .symmetrical and 
consequently valuable pearls of the 
lot, worth, perhaps, from five hundred 
to one thousand dollars each, were 









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1 i-.s^l^^.\ \ 




only a dozen or so in number. One 
or two of these were black, and most 
of them were of metallic black hues. 
I was informed that they were more 
valuable than white pearls of similar 
proportions. It is on this account 
that the pearls of the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia are deemed the most desirable. 
The pearls of the Ceylon fishery' are, 
as a rule, white. 

The territory over which the opera- 
tions of the fishery extend embraces 
the coast of Lower California, from 
Cape St. Lucas to the mouth of the 
Rio Colorado, at the head of the Gulf, 
and much of the west coast of Mexico. 
The season for pearl diving com- 
mences in May, in the vicinity of Cape 
St. Lucas, whence the work is carried 
into the Gulf, which is usually entered 
by the fifteenth of the montli. Dur- 
ing the summer the entire western 
shore of the Gulf is 
worked, and in October 
the base of operations 
is moved from La Paz 
to Acapulca, where the 
fishery is continued a 
little longer. Pearls are 
also found along the 
Pacific Coast of the pen- 
insula for nearly two 
hundred miles north of 
Cape St. Lucas, but the shells of that 
region are too thin and brittle to be 
marketable as mother-of-pearl, and 
are not gathered, although the pearls 
found in them are valuable. 

The pearl fishery had been declin- 
ing for many years, when the adop- 
tion of the submarine engineers' suit, 
by the divers of La Paz fifteen years 
ago, led to the continuance of the in- 
dustry. The search for shells can 
now be carried on in deeper waters 
th.'in in the days of the naked divers, 
the best of whom could not descend a 
dozen fathoms. Half that was rather 
more than their practical working 
depth. During the investigations of 
the United States Fish Commission's 
ship A/ da fross, in the Gulf of Califor- 
nia, shells of the pearl oysters were 
brought up by the " dredge " of the 

or the connecting rubber tube 

The $10,000 Cleopatra Pearl 

vessel from depths of twenty and 
thirty fathoms. In slightly greater 
depths, the number of hauls made 
with the dredge were, perhaps, not 
sufficient to test their existence, but 
none were obtained. 

It must have been difficult to teach 
these people the use of the diving suit, 
as during the first 5'ear or so after its 
introduction, a man was lost from the 
La Paz force almost every month. This 
was usually ascribed to the giving way 
of the rubber tubing, and it is said that 
no accidents have occurred since the 
introduction of a better grade of tub- 
ing. An accessory to the diving suit 
as used at La Paz is a small sheet-iron 
reservoir of compressed air, which can 
instantly be made to supply the diver 
with five minutes' breathing material, 
ill case of accident to the air machine 

goes down with the 
diver, and its connection 
with his helmet is effect- 
ed by the simple turning 
of a cock within his 

The devil-fish, the 
huge Manta raja, 
largest of all rays, meas- 
uring sometimes twenty 
feet across, is perhaps 
the only marine animal dreaded by 
the armored diver. Fearful tales are 
told of this great creature, which the 
divers say can settle down over a 
man, enveloping him, as with a blan- 
ket, in its wing-like fins ; but not- 
withstanding its formidable appear- 
ance, it is perhaps more terrifying 
than dangerous, for its teeth are 
small, and only in the largest speci- 
mens is its mouth wide enough to 
take in the head of a man. Whether 
rightly or not, it is placed in the 
category of the diver's perils, for have 
not vessels been suddenly moved from 
their anchorages by its getting afoul 
of the cables, and has it not more 
than once struck the diver's ropes, 
dragging boat as well as diver before 
getting free ? ' ' Carra77iba! a big one 
will weigh a thousand pounds." 

: ,,-rV-' -■'''• 

V 1 


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4^« r<' 



The Pearl Diver and the (.iiant Rav 



III company with two associates in 
the work of studying the Gulf fisheries 
under the direction of the United 
States Commissioner of Fisheries, one 
of them a Professor of natural history 
and the other usually referred to as 
' ' The Fisherman, ' ' I went out with 
a party of divers and made a descent 
in a diving suit. The sensations 
accompanying this experience were by 
no means comfortable, at least not in 
the excitement and perhaps nervous- 
ness of a first trial, but one can 
readily understand how a diver accus- 

of the experiences of the divers, and 
eventually arranged to make a trip 
with some of them, without fully 
realizing the seriousness of the task 
we were undertaking. The next day 
found us on board their boat outward 
bound, one of us at least with some 

Several miles from the harbor we 
stopped over a coral bank where the 
water was four or five fathoms deep, 
and seemed a pale green in contrast 
with the blueness of the deep water a 
few hundred yards beyond. One of 


mm or 


The Old Mission at La Paz 

tomed to breathing under such 
conditions could ver>^ thoroughly 
search the bottom for shells. The 
light is gray and dim, notwithstanding 
the intense light at the surface, 
but within a radius of a few yards, 
everything is distinctly seen. Owing 
to the pressure of the water and the 
weights necessary to overcome it, a 
novice has the same difficulty in main- 
taining the perpendicular as a child 
learning to stand alone. 

Loitering about the sunny wharf at 
La Paz, we heard interesting stories 

the Mexicans soon got into his cum- 
bersome paraphernalia and was 
lowered down, remaining on the 
bottom about half an hour, and 
gathered many shells and corals which 
were hoisted at his signal in a wire 
basket made for the purpose. His 
position was being indicated constantly 
by the escaping bul)bles of air from 
his helmet. We could see them rising 
shaped like large medusce, without 
sound, until they broke at the surface 
with loud gurglings. The basket was 
hauled up frequently with only a 



few pearl oysters, however, among its 
contents. There were shells, corals, 
starfishes and other marine objects for 
our delectation. 

When the diver came up the pro- 
fessor, the fi-sherman and I exchanged 
glances. I at once suggested the 
tossing up of a coin to determine 
which of us should make the experi- 
ment for our party. The profes.sor 
bravely said he meant to go first, but 
looked my way .so reproach. fully that 
I felt I had Ijeen guilty of levity on a 
solemn occasion. So with much out- 
ward show of self-sacrifice and a 

that would enable us to cross-question 
the Mexican, Ijut here was one with 
whom we might without 
difficulty or reserve. By this time the 
diving suit was once more vacant and 
I covering my nervousness with great 
carelessness of manner, motioned the 
visibly diffident " Fisherman " aside. 
I tossed hat, coat and shoes among the 
junk of the barge and took my place 
beside the armor, feeling that I was a 
lamb led to the slaughter. 

The rubber suit, large, and baggy, 
is entered at the neck. The Mexicans 
took me in hand and I was inserted 

Home of a Pearl Diver 

feeling of relief inwardl}-. I made room 
for him. 

After the helmet was secured and 
the air started to see how he stood it, 
he signaled to be lowered, for not a 
word could be heard from out the 
air-tight and water-tight contrivance. 

A diver ready to go down looks 
somewhat diabolical. Not to make 
the story too long, he came up alive. 

The ' ' Fisherman ' ' and I listened 
to his account with keen interest. Not 
the minutest detail of his experiences 
but was circumspectly noted. We had 
not that control of the Spanish tongue 

without ceremony, my hands, which 
alone were to be exposed to the 
water>- element, having first been lib- 
erally soaped for easy slipping through 
the snug-fitting wristbands. Then 
the glass-fronted helmet was put over 
my head. There are about a dozen 
brass thumb-screws, used in making 
the connection between the helmet and 
the suit water-tight. Judging by my 
feelings, they might have been dress- 
ing me for the grave. 

Each screw that shut me in seemed 
a nail in my coffin. The tedious, 
soul-harrowing preparations being 



completed with the adjustment of the 
necessary leaden weights for proper 
gravitation in the submarine world I 
was to enter, they began to lower me 
down. The air crowded down upon 
me. I seemed to take it in principally 
at the ears, although I have some rec- 
ollection of a gasping sensation. A 
valve inside the roomy head piece 
allows the continually accumulating 
air to escape when touched by a side- 
wise motion of the head . Under water 
I looked through my window but saw 
nothing — only a blank grayness. I was 
thinking on the way down, thinking 
whether I remembered the signals, 
whether the rope, which looked 
slightly worn, was really strong 
enough to hoist me again ; whether 
they would be careful up on the 
barge — those Mexicans did not know 
any more about the business doubtless 
than the law allowed ; whether there 
was any danger in my helpless condi- 
tion, of my rig snarling up in the 
coral — strange that I should ever have 
been interested in such useless stuff 
as coral. I thought of one or two 
hundred things besides which I have 
since forgotten, but among them 
doubtless, whether my life had been 
what it might have been. The sen- 
sations would put an atheist in a con- 
dition to be reasoned with. To say 
that I was frightened would scarcely 
be just to myself. I had never once 
thought of evading the trial. Excite- 
ment, intense excitement would be 
the words best suited to express my 
condition. Then my feet touched 
bottom. I pressed the valve a few 
times to let off the air that threatened 
to inflate my suit, and .seemed lifting 
me from my footing despite the eighty 
pounds of lead on my person and 
found my breathing freer. There 
were masses of coral everywhere about 
and of .several varieties. I walked in 
this direction and that, wherever the 
way seemed clear of coral. Too much 
diving must have frightened away 
the fishes, but there was enough at 
my feet to look at, what with my 
uncertain equilibrinm and the care of 

vay ropes and air valve uppermost in 
my mind. The solicitous Mexican 
was twitching the signal line constant- 
ly and I must constantly be making 
answer of safety or be hauled up, 
which added to my cares. The water 
pressed the rubber suit very closely to 
my legs and body, but the pressure 
was not specially uncomfortable. 

A half-upward glance convinced me 
that there was one direction in which 
I dare not look. Indeed I came near 
going over backward and the possibil- 
ity of cutting my rubber pipe among 
the coral was too horrible to think of. 
There were some beautiful starfishes 
and shells, but I feared to stoop for 
them, tottering, .swaying, big-headed 
child that I was. I wished something 
to take back with me from Neptune's 
realm, but felt that my mission had not 
the same urgency as that of Orpheus 
in the underworld. Ah, sweet allure- 
ment of the forbidden. Eurydice was 
not here, but a glance in the direction 
I most desired might bring disaster 
upon me. How I longed to see the 
boat swimming over my head. Could 
its sides, white in the dazzling sun- 
light, look white from here ? Would 
it be possible to distinguish the faces 
of my companions leaning over the 
side ? A pearly cloud arose like dust 
where my uncertain footsteps stirred 
the light .sediment and obscured my 
surroundings like a fog if I did not 
move on. The ringing in my ears 
from the air forced down to me did not 
give me quite the silence I expected, 
but if ever I was aIo7ic surely it was 
during that trip under the California 
Gulf. The valve inside the helmet 
was making my head .sore, so viciously 
did I keep bumping it. The signal 
man gave rac no peace. Must I have 
no time for anything but twitching the 
rope, thumping the valve and moving 
on out of the fog? The thin 
ooze was stirred up by the lightest step. 
How the demon pursued me, mo^•e on, 
move on. Why should I .senselessly 
recall jangling rhymes in this place 
which of all places I wish to observe 
calmly — ' ' demons down under the 



sea can ever dissever 1113^ soul — ' ' that 
starfish is surely brigliter colored than 
any of the others. I know its name 
too — oreaster occidcntalis . I will bend 
my knees and try to reach it without 
leaning forward. Ah, I have it. The 
professor also got one but lost it in the 
ascent. I will not lose mine. It is a 
pearl of great price — not even the 
demons down under the sea can ever 
dissever, dissever, dissev — There, 
there, this multiplicity of cares is 
tiring me, my thoughts become tumult- 
uous, I had better go up while I can 
do it in good shape. I hope they will 
not mistake my signal to be hoisted. 
I want to go up. There could have 
been no doubt on board the boat about 
the meaning of the sudden fierce jerks 
on the signal line, for the life line 
tightened so quickly around me that 
I knew two pairs of willing arms were 
heaving that rope into the sunlight 

was seized from above and my own 
hands were grasping the gunwale. Do 
drowning men grasp at straws ? If my moment had come and my hands 
had been laying hold upon eternal life, 
I could not have laid hold more firmly. 

" I thought you went after pearls," 
said the Professor in derision, holding 
up my starfish when I emerged from 
the diving suit. How it had been 
saved I know not. 

The fisherman's turn came next, but 
with a splitting throbbing headache, 
I took but a pa.ssive interest in his 
descent, compassionately lending a 

The Beach at La Paz 

with an energy that betokened appre- 
hension of trouble below. 

What an unconscionable time they 
were getting me up. How I yearned 
to rise faster ; v^y leaden feet were 
dragging me back. All the trouble- 
some fancies that addled my brain at 
the bottom were now merged into one, 
that they would not get me up before 
disaster in some form should overtake 
me. In fancy the demons down under 
the sea were already plucking at my 
helpless dangling legs. Then my 
helmet bumped agaiu.'it the boat, I 

hand however to get him on board 
quickly when he came up. 

When the boat was headed for home 
the fisherman said, "I suppose you 
would not have missed this afternoon's 
experience for a good deal ? " 

"No," I answered, "not for a 
hundred dollars." 

His sensation must have borne a 
resemblance to m}- own, for he present- 
ly queried, " I suppose you wouldn't 
care to repeat it ? " 

"No," I said, "not for two hun- 



JACK Jcrningham and I had lunched 
together one day about a year ago, 
and as we passed out of the restau- 
rant we met Dick Devi in. Devlin , Jer- 
ningham and myself had been school 
and college class chums, but since we 
had been out in the world, he had 
drifted apart from us, having married 
ver>' shortly after finishing his Uni- 
versity course, and as he was devoted 
to his wife and she to him, he nat- 
urally had little time for his men 
friends, and so it had come about that 
of late years we had seen little or 
nothing of him ; but a few weeks since 
his wife had died in giving birth to a 
child, and poor Devlin was a wreck. 
As we met he looked at us, 
nodded, averted his eyes and passed 
by. He was but the the ghost of his 
former self, poor chap, instead of the 
erect, alert figure, with head up, 
clear-eyed, ruddy-skinned, alwaj^s 
greeting one with a frank disiugenu- 
ousncss of manner that charmed. He 
was now a shambling, sallow, hollow- 
eyed creature that glanced at a friend 
furtively and passed by with a nod 
almost churlish in its brevity. Jcr- 
ningham and I looked back at him 
and pa.ssed into the street. Presently 
Jack said : "I have no patience witli 
a man with no more backbone than 
Devlin has. God knows I pity his 
grief. He has all my sympathy, 
and he knows it, but he is a man of 
the world. He knows that death 
must come to all of us, no matter how 
dear we are to others. Why can he 
not call his philosoph}' and his moral 
pluck into play and conquer his in- 
clination to parade his grief in pul^lic? 
One would think his very pride, if 
nothing else, would prevent him from 
making an exhibition of what should 
be sacred. Thank heaven I have too 
much philo-sophy to ever allow any- 

thing, no matter how great a sorrow 
it might be to me, to crush me as 
his sorrow has him." I made no 
direct answer, but turned the conver- 
sation into another channel, and at a 
near corner we parted. 

A few months later, I was shocked 
one morning on picking up "a paper to 
find among the death notices that of 
Jemingham's only child, a beautiful 
boy of about four years. I hastened 
to the house and sent in my card to 
Jack. The servant told me he would 
see no one, but I insisted on his tak- 
ing my card to him. I was shown 
into a reception-room, and presently 
Mrs. Jcrningham came in. She was 
a slight, big-eyed, white-faced little 
creature, with apparently no more vital- 
ity or pluck than a bird, but her 
manner and voice were perfectly com- 
posed, and she gave me the details of 
the poor little man's death as clearly 
and concisely as though she were not 
suffering a particle. Only now and 
then the big eyes would grow bigger 
and the voice would sink almost to a 
whisper. It was membranous croup 
that had killed him. The day before 
he had been as well as ever, ' ' and you 
know," the poor mother said, "what 
a great, strong, active creature he 
was, romping and shouting all over 
the house. He never seemed to feel 
fatigue. He always threw off the 
other diseases that are common to 
children so easily that I came to think 
that his splendid strength and vitality 
were proof against anything, but 
now — ' ' H ere her voice trembled for 
the first time, and I hastened to assure 
her of sympathy, and asked to be 
commanded if I could be of service. 
"You must not pity me," she said, 
" at least not in words nor in looks, if 
you can help it, for if you do I might 
break down, and I must keep u[) for 



poor Jack's sake. He is completely 
prostrated, poor fellow, and I really 
do not know what to do with him. 
You might go in and see him, and do 
try and get him to let the undertaker ar- 
range the poor little man's last resting 
place, for he swears he will not allow 
any one to touch him." She had 
risen as she spoke, and motioning me 
to follow, she led the way upstairs 
and into a sleeping chamber on the 
floor above. She stood by my side 
with her finger at her lips for a mo- 
ment, on the threshold, then softlj^ 
turned away. I went quietly on into 
the room. The blinds were down 
and the half light showed me a dis- 
oi'dered bed, beside which knelt a 
man. His body, with arms thrown 
out above his head, rested prone upon 
the bed, and on the pillow la)- the 
waxen face of the dead child. 

I laid my hand on his shoulder and 
no sooner had he felt the contact than 
he leaped to his feet, and with a sav- 
age oath, took me by the throat. 
' ' You'll not touch him, do ^-ou hear ?" 
he hissed, " .'-•.a\e over my dead body." 
Then I spoke and he recognized mj- 
voice and dropping his hand from 
my throat, said, "its you, is it? 
What do you think, there's a ghoul of 
an undertaker in this house some- 
where and he says little Jack's 
dead, and he wants to lay him out, 
but he shan't ; the little lad is 
only in a sleep, a deep sleep, he'll 

wake up soon and " here l:e 

seemed to read something in my face, 
(he had been looking me straight in 
the eyes all the time he was talking) 
for he gripped me by the shoulders 
with either hand and shook me rough- 
ly to and fro as I stood, " Oh, Tom, 
Tom," he 'aid, and I never want to 
hear again the heartbreak in a strong 
ir.a i"s \cic2 as I heard it then, "he is 
dead. I know it. He 7S dead, but 
oh, God, how can I give him up, look" 
and he threw back the bedclothing, 
and displayed the little body, stripped 
just as it had been taken from the 
bath, "did any one ever see a more 
perfect child, phj-sically ? Look at 

those limbs. Look at that See 
how the grand little chest swells. 
See how firmly the muscles are devel- 
oped, and last night, only last night 
he was as well as you or I are now, 
and now — Oh God ! Now ! ' ' and he 
threw himself on the little body again, 
as I found him. I was a doctor my- 
self, although I did not practice, and 
I knew that the more he unburdened 
himself to me, the sooner the reaction 
would .set in, and the sooner he would 
recover his mental balance again. I 
roused him to talk by asking him 
some question as to the child's illness. 
"Yes," he said, " it was croup, that 
cursed, membranous kind that one 
can't do anything for except let it do 
its deadly work. We had a doctor — 
a drivelling fool like all doctors, what 
good are they, if they can't save the 
ones we love? — of course, and when the 
membrane would form and the little 
man would choke and gasp and cough 
— that awful rending, tearing cough 
— and the cursed thing would come 
away, the dear little lad would motion 
me he wanted to speak in my car and 
I would stoop to him and he'd gasp, 
' Papa, why don't you take that thing 
out of Jacko's — you know we called 
him Jacko to distinguish him from me 
— ' froat, you can do it, papa. You 
can do anything you want to if you 
onl)- try hard enough.' I had taught 
him that in my absurd conceit of 
my own powers, thought it a good 
lesson for him to learn young, and here 
he was throwing it in my teeth at such 
a time as this, in all seriousness, too. 
He believed I cou/d do it if I Vv'ould — 
then the poor little face would begin 
to grow dark again, and another of 
those awful scenes would ensue, and 
there I was, a 7}!a?i, strong and power- 
ful, with money by thousands, ready 
to give ever\- cent of it and my own 
life into the bargain, and when my 
poor little laddie would gasp, ' help 
Jacko, papa, you know you told me 
always to come to you for anything 
I wanted, and I want to be well, 
papa,' all I could do was to stand 
there and watch him be done to 



death before mine and his mother's 

As I went down the steps an hour 
or so later, I met another man coming 
up. it was Devlin. He stopped, and 
with a rare pale smile, only a ghost of 
his former brilliant welcome, shook 
hands with me. " I am going to see 
poor, dear, old Jack. I .see little 

Jacko is gone. We can sympathize 
with each other«^z£',"andlie passed on. 
Jerningham and Devlin are insep- 
arable. I am a rank outsider. They 
are always glad to see me and up- 
braid me for not coming to them 
oftener, but I am outside the finer, 
truer sympathy that exists between 




" My name is L,ife," a radiant angel said ; 

' ' I bring the sacred bliss of motherhood ; ' ' 
Then turned to go his Heavenward way, when, lo ! 
Another angel on the threshold stood. 

Before the awful glory of that face, 

The bright first comer bowed his shining head. 
" The smiles that welcomed me must melt in tears. 
Since thou art here, O, Brother Death ! " he said. 

'Mid twilight's gathering gloom Death entered there ; 

Whispered, ' ' The Master calls thee ' Come up higher. 
Clo.sed to all earthly things, the earnest eyes ; 

And set his seal upon the lips of fire. 

" She is not dead, but sleeping," .saith the Lord, 
But tears are falling like the summer rain 
For her, who, wearing woman's crown of love, 

Sank 'ncalh the weight of woman's cross of p.iin. 



IT was not the promise of good fish- 
ing, but bones that drew us to Santa 
Catalina, the long range of moun- 
tain peaks that rise abruptly thirty 
miles off the shore of lyos Angeles 
County — bones galore, the refuse of 
the ancients, huge stone mortars and 
pestles, mighty swords fashioned of 
stone and from whales' ribs, polished 
steatite sinkers, hooks of pearly 
abalone, precious bits of fiber, and 
other objects dear to the heart of the 
lover of true ancient history'. These 
were the magnets which drew us on 
and explained our presence one day 
on the little steamer that during the 
summer months plies between the 
port of San Pedro and the oflf-shore 
possessions of St. Catherine. In the 
long ago, before Cabrillo and the 
rest had sailed among the channel 
islands, they were inhabited by a race 
superior in many respects to the 
inland tribes — a race of hardy men 
and women, who had temples, such as 
they were, and graven images ; who 
were the delvers in stone of the Pacific 
Coast, and who in passing away left 
these legacies buried in the island 
sands with their bones. 

No wonder the island was well pop- 
ulated in the old daj's — ever3'thing 
about it is attractive. The water 
through which we surge is of the 
most intense blue, and deep in its 
heart, we see pulsing, moving medu- 
soid shapes, telling of its wondrous 
purity. The island rises grandly 
from the sea, as if the waves had 
parted but yesterday, leaving its cliffs 
beetling and menacing, presenting 
a bold front to the sea — a ridge of 
mountain peaks from four hundred to 
nearly five hundred feet in height, 
eighteen or twenty miles long, often 
four miles to a fifth of a mile in width. 
On the west side of the island, which 

extends parallel with the coast, the 
wind blows and the waves beat furious- 
ly, while the fog steals up the deep 
canons and gathers about the peaks, but 
to the east all is fair, and many of the 
little bays are scarcely disturbed from 
one day's end to the other. Harbors 
are few and rare. The mouths of the 
canons are the only points of vantage, 
and into one between rocky sentinels 
we, finding a half-moon-shaped 
bay, a little town, with picturesque cot- 
tages, white tents, with the mountains 
reaching away to seeming illimitable 
distance. This is Avalon, and its 
hotel rests on a townsite of unknown 
antiquity. From the piazza, the vis- 
itor .sees the sparkle of pearl among 
the fallen petals of the rose, telling of 
the old sword-maker, who broke up 
the shell in days gone b}', to set the 
gleaming bits in a rude mosaic, 
a bit of polished stone, an oval pend- 
ant, a sinker of steatite, a needle of 
bone, suggestive of the old days. 
The ground here has a dark and rusty 
appearance, a tell-tale of the daj-s of 
yore, when the kitchen-midden proc- 
ess was in operation. We had dug in 
the graves of the upper island, found 
yards upon yards of beads, taken 
mortars from the lowest level of the 
old graveyards, and segregated beads 
from bones, and ashes from human 
dust, and were surfeited with archaeol- 
ogy, when one day we espied a 
fisherman, wending his way to his 
boat, with a hook and line of extraor- 
dinary^ size. 

In reply to m}' interrogations he 
informed me that he was on the trail 
of the black sea bass. "A bass line 
as big as a rope ?" I queried. " Yes," 
said the half Mexican, a half Indian. 
" You ever catch bass — black bass?" 
Memories of summers on the St. Law- 
rence River, where I had often way- 




laid gamey bass, and of certain four 
and live pounders taken on sundry oc- 
casions, passed through my mind as I 

" Wall," said the fisherman, " You 
never cot black sea bass, that's cer- 
tain. Go with me, I show you." 
I was soon on the pebbly beach, and 
a moment later the little boat was 
gliding around the grim, rocky senti- 
nel that guarded the island. My oars- 
man was an old settler, a picturesque, 
bitr-chested half-breed who had lived 
on the little island for thirty years ; 
who knew and, I could see, loved 
it well. We passed by the grim 
precipices, against which the surf had 
formed a half-moon shaped beach, 
with white sands and pebbles, and 
then the Mexican stood up, looked 
around out to sea, then up at the gray 
slopes, then took the oars again, and 
in a few strokes put the boat over what 
he assured me was a big rock fifty 
feet down, and a favorite haunt of the 
black sea bass. The anchor was 
tossed over, the rope ran merrily out, 
and the hook, baited with a six-pound 
grouper, went hissing down to the big 
submerged rock. "Sometimes he 
bite, sometimes he don't," quoth the 
fisherman, "but whether he do or 
not, we have the fishin' all the same;" 
and he looked at me inquiringly to see 
if I was that kind of a fisherman or 
of the variety who are never satisfied 
unless the fi.sli are always on the 
line. It so happened that I was not 
of the latter kind. I found pleasure 
in the mere anticipation, and so we 
sat silent for half an hour on the sea 
of glass, I holding the throbbing 
line that the ebbing tide played 
upon as the string of a nuisical in- 
strument. The broad channel between 
us and the mainland was smooth and 
as blue as steel. Here and there a 
flying fish rose and soared away, like 
some fantastic insect. Away inland 
rose the snow-capped peaks of the 
Sierra Madres, telling of Pasadena, 
the San Gabriel Valley and the 
fertile garden spots that reach up 
to the mother mountains. Far to 

the south I traced them, until they 
were lost in the blue haze. There 
was Santa Ana, with a capping 
of golden cloud, and far away, ris- 
ing grandl}^ rich, masses of cloud 
that told of the great California 
desert and the burning sands in such 
marked contrast to the verdure of the 
coast country. I glanced at my com- 
panion and his dark eyes rested on 
the great rocks that rose above us, 
and the gray slopes that reached 
away, making up the fair mountain 
island. I wondered if he was think- 
ing of his ancestors, the Indians, whom 
Cabrillo and others found here cen- 
turies ago ; of the time when Santa 
Catalina was an empire in itself, and 
owned by them ; of the time when 
the temples of their god capped 
the hills and villages, crowned 
every canon's mouth. This I won- 
dered, and more, when suddenly I 
became aware that the tension of the 
line I held had increased, by a steady 
pull ; then came a jerk that took my 
hand into the water. 

' 'Jew fish, sure, ' ' whispered the Mex- 
ican, awakened from his reverie by my 
exclamation. " Slack ! " I paid out 
the line while he seized the anchor 
line and made ready to haul up. "Give 
him five feet and then hook," were my 
orders. I was an old shark fisherman 
having caught many of those mon- 
sters in the South, and I saw that work 
of a similiar kind was laid out for me 
in this l)lack sea-bass fishing. The 
line jerked heavily in my hand, then 
began to run out steadily, I paid out; 
and then when about six feet had gone 
over the gunwale I .stopped, gave a 
glance at the coil to see that all was 
clear, and when the line came taut I 
jerked the hook into my first black 
sea bass. 

I have ever}' reason to believe that 
the latter was astonished, as for a sin- 
gle second there was no response ; 
then came a jerk that almost lifted me 
from the boat, and the line went hissing 
over the rail like a living thing, playing 
a merry hornpipe of its own composi- 
tion. Nothing could stop such a rush 

Vol. II- 



and I simply waited while the Mexi- 
can pulled up the anchor, and when 
the latter was in I grasped the line 
and braced back for the fight. The 
light Ijoat whirled around like a top 
and away we went like a tug, surging 
through the water, an ominous wave 
of foam rising high around the bow. 
A ten-foot shark never pulled harder 
than this gamey fi.sli, and for five min- 
utes I was undecided who was master. 
I took it in with the greatest difficulty, 
gaining ten feet only to have the gamey 
creature rush toward me and then 
dash away with an impetus that was 
more than irresistible. Then I would 
stop him again, slowly making foot by 
foot, hand over hand, taking a turn on 
the cleat, slacking and pulling, in 
attempts to tire the monster — tactics 
that for a while were of no avail. One 
of the tricks of this fish was to .stop 
and jerk its head from side to side vio- 
lently — a proceeding that produced an 
effect equivalent to striking blows at 
the holder of the line ; tremendous 
jerks which came, one, two, three, 
then one, tw^o, three ; then the line 
would slack as the monster rushed up, 
and if I took the line in quickly enough 
to prevent a turn well and good ; if I 
did not the bass would turn and dash 
at the bottom, making everything hum 
and sing. Giving and taking, hauling 
and easing off for twenty minutes, and 
I was satisfied that I had done 
my duty in the premises when sudden- 
ly the fish rushed up, and recovering I 
took in the slack and with a final 
effort brought the black giant to the 
surface. For a moment I saw a pair 
of eyes as big as those of an ox, a rich 
chestnut back, and then with a tre- 
mendous heave the fish threw itself 
over, deluging me with water, tipping 
and half capsizing the dinghy. It 
was the last .struggle. I kept my liokl 
and with another haul had the king of 
Pacific Coast fishes at hands' length 
where it rolled and tossed, its huge 
tail bathing us with spray, protesting 
against its capture. What a capture 
it was ! IIow we breathed hard and 
looked at each other. The cx])ericnce 

of the moment, the sensations, could 
not have been purchased. It was worth 
going a long way to accomplish. 
Imagine, you casters of the black bass 
fly, a small-mouthed black bass length- 
ened out to six feet, bulky in propor- 
tion, a giant black bass — one that you 
would dream about in a nightmare, 
after a good day's fishing — almost a 
facsimile of the five-pounder you have 
taken pride in, but increased to a size 
that tips the scales at fouy Inaidrcd 
pounds. Imagine this and you have 
the black sea bass, the Jew fish, or, as 
the naturalists have it, the Sfcrcolcpsis 
gigns of the Pacific Coast, a noble fish, 
a gamc}^ fellow, especiall}^ adapted to 
the man who desires animated dumb- 
bells, or who, sedentary in his habits 
requires violent exercise, coupled with 
much excitement. The black sea 
bass is to the Pacific Coast what the 
tarpon is to the East, though it is 
thoroughly a hand-line catch. If 
any Eastern angler desires to try it 
with a rod, I will not say that it is 
impossible, but when it comes to 
the reel I would recommend a donkc}^ 
engine attachment of two or three 
horse-power, as our quarry- some- 
times reaches seven hundred pounds. 
I give this as a fair samj^le of a 
California fish stor\% one to be 
chronicled among the big things as the 
trees of Calaveras, the Yosemite and 
others, and quite as real, as the 
accompanying photographs from real 
life will testify, one showing the catch 
of Jew fish of three fishermen on the 
same spot in the course of a few hours 
in an August day. 

During the catching process, the 
big bass had towed our boat several 
hundred feet out from shore, where 
the ground swell was coming in, and 
with the huge black form struggling 
alongside, the situation was not an 
agreeable one. The (question of land 
ing was now to be considered, which 
my companion .solved by attempting 
to kill the game with an axe — 
upsetting the boat in the struggle ; 
but finall\- il was (juieted and firmly 
made fast at llie stern, and we pulled 

Fioni a photo^iapli 

A Three Hundred and Fifty Pound Jew Fish 



slowly into the little bay — a tedious 
process. Once more we experienced 
that feeling of conscious triumph as we 
rowed into the beach, and the popu- 
lation came down in a body ; some to 
tender their congratulations, some to 
compare the fish to much larger ones 
they had caught. We had triumph 
enough for one day as the crowd 
took the line and ran the big fellow 
up the sands with a shout. It was a 
proud moment, indeed, which the 
fisherman who reads these lines well 
understands. Then came the telling 
and retelling the story at night on the 
veranda, each incident of the battle 
being gone over again and again, 
while mj^ trusty colleague, the IMexi- 
can, he of the ancestors, stood by, 
willing to do hard swearing if neces- 
sary should I wander from the field 
of actual fact, as fishermen have been 
known to in the exuberance of the 
moment ; but the facts were all suffi- 
cient, and there, in the moonlight, on 
the white sands, was the game}- 
fish. On the morrow it was taken in 
hand by the chef, hoisted on the 
children's .swing that stood on tiie 
little plaza, and later was .served up 
for the benefit of the entire village. 
The weight of this specimen was be- 
tween three hundred and fifty and four 

hundred pounds, about the average, 
but specimens have been taken that 
weighed seven hundred and even more, 
if we are to believe traditions ; but 
the three hundred and fifty or four 
hundred pound fish is a match for the 
best man, and I have duly surrendered 
to a larger one. I had the honor of 
hooking it and my five companions in 
the boat watched my .struggles until I 
gave out, then took the line one by 
one, and this mon.ster gave each man 
all the work he required, and when 
finally brought alongside, nearly filled 
the boat by an unexpected lunge. 
Such sport may be considered hard 
work and not aesthetic fishing, yet it 
requires skill, and to take a big black 
.sea bass, single-handed, in a very light 
boat and bring it in, may be considered 
a matter for .self congratulation. 
The Jew fish is very common along 
the islands of the Santa Barbara 
Channel, Santa Catalina, San Clem- 
ente and others with their steep shores 
and vast schools of fish being the 
favorite haunts of the big fish ; and in 
Jul}^ and August it can be taken by 
the patient and muscular fisherman, 
upon almost an}' of the bright, sunlit 
days that make these isles of summer 
among the most delightful summer 
camping grounds of the Pacific Coast. 


1 1 


TAKU Inlet is a mountain-locked 
fjord walled in by lofty cliffs of 
black forbidding granite, scored, 
seamed and polished by countless ages 
of friction with the slow flowing 
ice river that centuries ago found 
here its outlet to the parent sea, the ship 
steamed slowly in between the sentinel 
cliffs that guard this Dantean entrance 
but that portal bears no forbiddings. 
God's fair blue sky is over all and hope 
in every glint of it. 

Here are wonderful pictures, incom- 
parable colors of ice, and sea, and sky, 
rocks and ice piled in massive archi- 
tecture, all combined to disarm the 
pen or brush of any colorist. 

The Taku Glacier, a great river of 
ice, rears its awful front at the head of 
the inlet, nearly three hundred feet 
high and amid nuich subglacial grind- 
ing and rattling peals of glacial 
artillery produces bergs that float 
out into the great unknown a terror to 
all those who go down in ships to the 
north seas. 

There arc several other glaciers to 
be seen from Taku Inlet, one of which 
the Norris comes down almost to the 
sea, but for a narrow moraine which 
separates it from the water. 

A most lovely stretch of all Alaskan 
wealth of weird and wonderful beauty 
is that few hours' steaming through 
hynn Canal, as it is called. Shortly 
after leaving Juneau, passing Douglas 
and Admiraltv Islands, we enter the 

canal ; here the walling cliffs are 
loftier, wider a])art than in an}- other 
of the many like arms of the sea we 
have yet seen. Here to our right as 
we enter the fjord are the Auk and 
Eagle Glaciers, a glimpse of the former 
being shown in the accompanying cut,, together with several other 
smaller glaciers on the canal, do not 
come down to the sea but end at 
what is known as a terminal moraine 
which means simply the strip of 
sand and gravel l3'ing between them 
and the water's edge — a strip which 
the glacier has deposited. 

At the head of Lynn Canal lies the 
David.son Glacier. It is of the same 
class as the Kagle and Auk but 
nnich greater in extent, it comes 
winding down from its mountains 
debouching on to the stretch of lev- 
eler countr>- that lies along shore 
through a narrow pass in the foot- 
hills and then spreads itself in a 
great facade of solid ice three or four 
miles wide. 

Muir writes of it : 

' ' But it is on the west side of the 
canal near the head that the most 
striking feature of the landscape is seen 
— the Davidson Glacier. It first appears 
as an i:nr.ien.^e ridge of ice thrust for- 
ward intt> the channel, but when you 
have gained a position directly in front 
it is shown as a broad flood issuing 
from a noble granite gateway, and 
spreading out to right and left in a 




beautiful fau-sliaped mass, three 01 
tour miles in width, the front of which 
is separated from the water by its ter- 
minal moraine. This is one of the 
most notable of the large glaciers that 
are in the first stage of decadence, 
reaching nearly to tide water, but fail- 
ing to enter it and send off icebergs. 
Immediatel}' in front of the Davidson is 
the deposit or moraine, the accumula- 

Those cliffs of blue were made to 
front where summer seas ripple and 
splash, or the giant rollers break 
and foaming and hi.ssing, fling their 
spray high up even to the glaciers 
very top. 

The glaciers of Alaska are of two 
different kinds, generally speaking, 
the Alpine and the Piedmont. 

The former are those glaciers like 

A Glimpse of Auk Glacier 

tion of hundreds of years, upon which 
is growing a fine forest that at certain 
positions stands out in strong relief 
against the ice." * 

*[In the first article on glaciers in the May issue two 
views of Davidson Glacier were shown representing 
it as entering the sea. It should have been ex- 
plained that they were intended n^rcsloxitiois of this 
magnificent glacier showing: it as it appeared perhaps 
a thousand years ago when its icebergs broke > (T and 
floated away as clo those of Muir to-day. To-day 
Davidson is a magnificent glacier but l)etween it and 
the sea rises a forest growing on the debris which 
the ice has brought down from the upper range ] 

tile Muir and the Taku, which have 
tlieir sources in the nu)untain caiions, 
and come sweeping down to the sea, 
rivers of ice swollen to great volume 
by the tributary ice streams that How 
into them. 

The latter are the plateaus of ice 
formed along the leveler strip of coun 
try l>ing at the foot of the mountain 
ranges between them and the sea and 
heiu\- tlic kTin Piediiioiil The 

.\\uir Glacier trom ti\e Moraine 



Piedmont Glaciers are formed of 
course by the ice streams as lakes are 
fed by water courses. 

On Yakutat Bay, are the largest 
glaciers of both formations yet dis- 
covered in Alaska. Of the Alpine 
class, the Hubbard Glacier is the 
mightiest, and of the Piedmont 


He called it Desengano Bay for the 
reason that here his hope that he was 
to immortalize himself as the discoverer 
of the long-sought short cut to the 
Indies was frustrated by the ice coming 
down from the North and driving his 
ships back southward again. Only 
one hundred years ago all of the inlets 


■ f' - ■■;V: :;;-'^; V ■/:■ r ■/ -■;. ; :\; ^ T- v :y -^ :; .:•/■ 

K • '-:•■:.*■■.•••.-.■.. ■•,•, ■ ■. ■ ■■'•':•,>••, 

Malaspina Glacier 

class the Malaspina is the greatest. 
The Malaspina takes its name from 
an Italian explorer who in the serv- 
ice of Spain, A. D. 1792, sailed to 
the North Seas in .search of the 
Northwest passage. He explored the 
eastern shore of Yakutat Bay, and 
gave its name to Disenchantment Bay. 

north of Haenkes Island were filled 
with ice. By consulting the ma]-) pub- 
lished herewith of Mala.spina Glacier, 
one can see at a glance the recession 
of the glacier during the past hundred 

In addition Id the Hubbard Glacier 
there is one other ver>' large 







/ « 


^ -^*: 


Jff <-' ' 





glacier of the Alpine variety on 
Yakutat Bay called the Dalton, which 
enters tide water several miles from 
where the Hubbard makes its entry, 
when Malaspina explored Yakutat 
Bay onl}' one hundred years since 
these two monsters, the Dalton and 
Hubbard were one. Can the imagin- 
ation of man conceive the grandeur of 

eight hundred feet above sea level. 
The sides and top show, from their 
poli.shed striated condition and the 
terraces cut into the sides of 
solid granite, prove that the glacier 
which formerly filled Disenchant- 
ment Bay must have been two thou- 
sand feet deep. At least as late 
as one hundred years ago the glacier 

Pattersdii ( il.n ler 

that scene, the ice foot of these two 
combined pushing out into the baj' 
could not have ])een less than twelve 
or fifteen miles in width, and the front 
of ])roportional altitude. The .scene is 
sublime beyond conception even now. 
What nuist it have been then ? There 
is an i.sland called Haenke's Island in 
Yakutat Bay, tlie lop of which is 

surrounded this island on three sides, 
and by computing the recession at 
the same rate as it has progressed 
since Mala.spina's map was made the 
glaciers ha\e fillrd DiM.iu'liant- 
menl ]5ay two liundrcd years ago, and 
Ix'tween five hundred ami one thousand 
years ago were at their very fiood. 
Standing on the summit of Haenke's 

•' ' 

< f 

t n 





' I 

f : 



t 1 



Island one has the grandest panoramic 
view imaginable. From the North 
comes the Dalton Glacier, slowl}-, but 
as irresistibly as death itself, down a 
canon walled by beetling cliffs, the 
stream of ice shattered and fissured, 
with great crev^asses yawning every 
now and then, making one final plunge 
down a steep descent before expanding 
into its grand sea cliff of miles of glit- 
tering, shimmering ice. 

And then across the berg-strewn 
waters of the bay are the three or 
four miles of front of the Hubbard 

clouds of smoke like spray flying over 
the glacier's front, one is reminded of 
an artillery' battle between giant bat- 
teries. During the fine, warm days 
of the Alaskan summer, the glaciers 
are never silent, the cannonade is 
incessant, and the waters of the bay 
are covered with masses of floating 

There are immense bergs broken 
from these large glaciers through the 
sea, cutting the ice away above the 
water-line, but leaving an immense 
terrace of ice, as it were, beneath the 

Silk.i, shinuilj; tliu Chun li 

Glacier, wliich keeps up continually 
an answering cannonade of thunder 
of rending ice to that of the Dalton. 

vStanding there on the bleak wind- 
swept island, with all that grandeur 
about one, the thunders of the two 
great glaciers booming across the 
desolate waters of the bay, watching 
the great bergs split off from the 
fronts of ice totter for a second and 
then sink noi.selessly down into the 
waters of the bay (for so far-di.stant is 
the glacier's front that one sees all 
this take place ere the accompanying 
roar lias time to reach him), .sending 

water. When this becomes too heavy 
to bear its own weight any longer, it 
naturally separates from the main 
body, and with a roll and a phnige 
comes seething and rushing from 
the sea, a new Atlanta. l^lue as 
turquoise, l)eautifnl as the sky, born 
but for a little hour to drift about 
that northern sea, but awful in its 
majesty and ca]-)acity for destruc- 
tion, these leviathans ct)nie rushing 
from IheseM without a warning of any 
kind, and woe to any unfortunate 
caught in canoe, small boat or steam- 
ship, even in the maelstrom of 



rushing, surging waters left in the 
berg's wake, for anything less stable 
than an island to come in actual con- 
tact with such an enormous body of 
solid ice would mean annihilation. 

The Malaspina Glacier is the largest 
of all I'icdmont glaciers yet explored 
in Alaska. It lies between Icy and 
Yakutat bays, on the mainland. It is 
between five hundred and six hun- 
dred square miles in extent, and 
between one thousand five hundred 
and one thousand six hundred feet 
thick at its maximum. The central 
portion of this plateau of ice is clear 
and clean, but for a distance of five 
miles from its edge all around it, it is 
covered with debris and moraines, 
save at the points at which the Seward 
and Agassiz Glaciers come in. At 
some points this fringing circle of sand, 
gravel, rocks and silt is covered with 
vegetation, and in places flowers are 
blooming, strange contradictions of 
nature, ice, that death in life beneath 
and on all sides, miles and miles of it, 
and here in the midst of all this desola- 
tion bloom flowers. 

The Mala.spina is a lake of ice fed 
by tributary streams, the principal 
ones of which are the Agassiz, Sew- 
ard, Marvine and Hayden glaciers, 
which flow into it from the moun- 
tains above. A strange fact is to be 
noticed in the structure of the 
Mala.spina, which is that the courses 
of the tributary glaciers are plainlj- 
defined in the main body by the differ- 
ence in the ice tints, just as rivers 
entering a bay or lake leave a clearly 
defined, marked ])y the vary- 
ing shades in the water. The surface 
of the great glacier is one network of 
crevasses, many of them filled with 
deep water, of a clear blue. These 
crevasses are not very wide, one can 
easil}' leap across them. The highest 
point is near where the Seward 
Glacier debouches into the Malaspina, 
and from there the plateau undulates 
in a gradual descent to its borders. 
It is simpl}' a prairie of ice, the clear 
part of which is of much greater 
extent than the debris-covered mar- 

gin. The intense silence of the ice 
plateau impresses one as in contra- 
distinction to the constant sharp, 
cracking rifle-like re])orts, and the 
roaring and grinding of the ice rivers. 
The water caused from the summer 
melting of the ice drains down 
througli the crevasses to the bottom 
of the ice field, and there joins the 
waters that run under the tributary 
glaciers, but what becomes of this 
vast quantity of water eventually, no 
one can say. 

Yakutat and Di.senchantment Bays 
are usually covered with bergs of all 
sorts, sizes, and shapes, and it is at times almost impossible to make 
way into them in a steamer, but small 
boats or canoes can usually find a path 
through the ice pack. There is danger 
in getting very near either the 
Hubbard or Dalton Glacier for the 
reason that the sudden breaking and 
rising of the submerged ice foot or the 
vertical .splitting off of the cliff occurs 
every now and then during the 
summer, and a very small berg car- 
ries an immense force with it quite 
sufficient to wreck ainthing that floats 
in these waters. The bergs can be 
distinguished from one another in 
most cases, that is, those that come 
from the submerged ice foot, from that have broken from the face 
of the cliff", by their colors, the ones 
that are from the submerged part 
of the glacier, are usually of a dark 
blue, and those from the exposed face 
white, some of them are covered with 
deposits of gravel, and sand with which 
the portion of the glacier from which 
they have been broken has been 
covered and which has been ground 
and worked into the ice until it has 
almost become a part of it. 

There is still another type of glacier 
among the Alaskan ice rivers, which 
is verj' often overlooked altogether by 
explorers and that is an Alpine 
Glacier, so completely covered with 
sand, gravel and soil that it is usually 
passed over entirely and not recognized 
as a glacier at all, such as the so-called 
Black Glacier. 



This covering of debris is simply 
the natural accunuilation from sand 
and earth slides from the sides of the 
canon or valley in which the glacier 
flows, and as it recedes natural h^ un- 
dermining the sides of the valley, 
bringing them down upon it until 
it is completely covered and only 
recognizable at all in sjiots where 
the covering is not thick enough 
to hide the ice entirely. Some 
of these glaciers show evidences of 
extremely rapid recession, so much so 
as to leave the plain inference that 
either the Alaskan snowfall is infin- 

plctely filling Disenchantment Ba}- 
northeast of Haenkc Island is a small 
illustration of the rapidity with which 
the ice is disappearing. 

There is a nameless charm in this 
land of rivers, lakes and mountains of 
ice with its endless daj's of northern 
svinshine, its deep dark fjords in which 
always there resounds the thunder of 
the ice artillery, a charm as undefin- 
able as it is subtle but which when 
one has once tasted of it draws him 
back as surely as the song of the 
Lorelei drew the ill-fated mortal who 
heard her voice. 

Juneau, Alaska 

itely less than formerly or the summer 
heat greater, or both . On the moraines 
where vegetation has begun, it has 
spread rapidly. The growth attained 
by plants, shrubs, and even trees 
during the short summer is wonderful, 
and it is only a question of time when 
these ice-clad shores will blossom with 
all the luxuriance of the North Tem- 
perate Zone. 

The glaciers are growing less ; every 
year sees greater and greater recessions, 
the fact that only a hundred years ago 
the Hubbard and Dalton Glaciers 
formed one immense river of ice com- 

Tlie formation of ice known as Pied- 
mont Glaciers has at no such ver}- dis- 
tant day covered the whole coast 
country of Alaska where the com- 
paratively level land between the sea 
and the mountain ranges was wide 
enough to admit of the accumulation in 
llic wide valle\sof the interior country 
there nuist yet be seas of 
ice covering what will at some epoch ol 
the world's histor>' be fruitful soil. 

There exists a very decided idea 
among people generall> that the 
Alaska climate is an Arctic one and 
in the interior of course it is, but on 



the coast the mercury seldom registers 
as low as zero and then remains at tliat 
degree of frost only for a very short 
time, the winter storms are severe but 
are usually of rain and although snow 
sometimes falls to a great depth it does 
not lie very long being quickly melted 
by the heavy rains or a decided rise 
in temperature. 

At the time the United States ac- 
([uired Alaska from Russia and indeed 
more or less ever since, there has been 
no lack of detraction in congress and 
the press directed at the country. Any 
one who knows anything of tlie facts 
must admit that we acquired an enor- 
mously valuable territory for a com- 
paratively small consideration. 

The rainfall is excessive and that is 
the greatest discomfort of the climate 
the summer temperature (June, July 
and August) will average about fifty- 
five degrees seldom rising above sev- 
enty-five degrees and the winter about 
thirty-five degrees. Very seldom does 
the mercury reach the freezing point, 
inland however beyond the mountain 
ranges the winters are excessively cold. 
The cause of the mild coast climate is 
of course due to the Japan current as 
it is called. It is a stream of warm 
water analagous to the Gulf Stream of 
the Atlantic. 

Sunnncr in Alaska is delightful 
when bright, Init the sunshine is 
never to be depended on. Showers 
are frequent and sometimes verj- 
heavy. During the winter months, 
the rainfall is almost continuous. And 
to this excessive moisture and bright, 
warm days of summer are to be attrib- 
uted the marvelously rapid growth of 
the Alaskan mosses and wild flowers. 
The verj' glaciers themselves are 
sometimes turned into ^•eritable flower 

gardens, .so wonderfulh quick does 
Nature work in this far north land. 

There is wealth of forest, princi- 
]);ill\- cypress and spruce. The yel- 
low cedar is the most valuable timber 
of the country. It is common to all 
the islands, and along the mainland 
of .southeastern Ala.ska grows wher- 
ever there is room for a tree to 
grow. It averages between a hun- 
dred and a hundred and fifty feet 
in height, and from three to five feet 
in diameter, and is one of the 
valuable timber products of the whole 
coast. Ivvery one knows of the 
salmon and .seal fisheries and of the 
mineral wealth of the countr>'. Only 
the merest idea can be had now, but 
the little that is known proves beyond 
a doubt that were it oul}- for its mines 
alone, Ala.ska would be a "good 
buy " at the price the United 
States gave for it. Mr. Seward 
claimed for Alaska the future ship- 
yards of the world, but the days of 
wooden ships are ; .still there are 
many other uses, although more 
ignol:)le ones, perhaps, to which the 
Alaskan cedar can be 
it even more valuable 

An Alaskan forest is indeed one of 
the most beatitiful scenes that can be 
imagined. The trees rise straight for 
a hundred feet or more before they 
branch out their round, smooth 
trunks, .set close and true, as though 
grown in a nursery. Underfoot is a 
perfect carpet of, piled like vel- 
vet and as soft to the step. Ferns 
and mosses abound, and the luider- is almost impa.ssable, the sylvan 
beauty is luiparalleled, and all this in 
a land of glaciers, rivers, mountains, 
.seas of everlasting ice. 

put, rendering 

than for ship- 

^^^^ / -S^ Bi 



THE theory of popular go\x'rnmeiit 
is that all public questions shall 
be considered on their merits, and 
that every citizen will express him- 
self upon them as his conviction of 
duty to the countr}" shall dictate. It 
is supposed that questions will be pre- 
sented without ambiguity or other 
disguise that the people may act 
understandingly. In the early period 
of the government under the Consti- 
tution, this theory was followed with 
a large degree of fidelity, and patriot- 
ism and statesmanship possessed a 
dominating power. Under the admin- 
istration of Washington there were 
differences in construction of the Con- 
stitution and on questions of general 
policy, but there were no partisan 
contests as really there w^as but one 
political ])art3-. Oi:)position did not 
crystalize into organization, but dis- 
satisfaction increased during the term 
of the elder Adams to such an extent 
that in tlie fourth presidential cam- 
paign two parties w^ere formed, and 
since thr.t time our political contests 
have been fought between two or more 
parties with more or less zeal and 
bitterness. Organization is essential 
to success in j^ropagating a sentiment, 
in .securing the adoption of particular 
measures ; and for considerable lime 
parties were conducted for these pur- 
poses. Kven in those days of virtue 
and patriotism a man now and then 
appeared who sul)ordinated the public 
welfare to an ambition for per.sonal 
preferment, but the demagogue and 
the manipulator were not as successful 
as they have since become. While 
part}- organization and discipline are 
essential to the advancement of a cause 
they are no less potential agencies in 
securing preferment to who are 
governed l)y personal ambition, and 
hence the patriot and the demagogue 


for opposite reasons have joined their 
efforts in giving to parties the most 
effective organization and enforcing 
the most rigid discipline. 

Contemporaneously wdth partj^ or- 
ganization, the political strategist 
appeared, and his power at all times 
has been measured by the organization 
and discipline which he has been 
ah\e to create and ei'force, and that 
party which possesses these elements 
in the greatest degree is most subject 
to the domination of the political tac- 
tician. Statesmanship and political 
strategy may be regarded as antagon- 
isms, and in our contests the latter has 
quite as often as the former secured 
victor}' in elections. vStatesmanship 
seeks to promote the public welfare 
through candid argumentation of real 
and essential issues, and the adoption 
of measures in legislation and admin- 
istration resting upon sound principles. 
The interests of the country being 
widely diversified and often conflicting, 
the strategist finds it important to the 
accomplishment of his object to dis- 
guise issues, to make ambiguous plat- 
forms, to appeal to local or partizan 
prejudices, and thus to prevent an 
intelligent and fair expression of the 
popular judgment. 

The success of the .strategist has 
l)eeu so abundant that the effect has 
1)een to divert the powers and direct 
the efforts of many young men who 
have aspired to public positions, from 
the study of great principles and the 
advocacy of wi-se measures, to the 
invention and execution of plans for 
securing desired election results. If 
there is decay and degeneration in 
statesmanship, as is generally believed, 
it is because the people have become 
so inattentive to their public duties or 
.so demoralized that the strategist has 
l)cen able to give character to our 



political methods. It is undeniable 
that at times, at least, party attach- 
ment and prejudice have been so ab- 
normally developed that it is almost 
truthful to say that judgment and 
conscience have been given up to 
caucuses and conventions, and the 
doctrine inculcated and believed that 
their action absolves from moral 
responsibilit}'. Individualitj' has often 
been crushed out by organized action. 
Gerrymandering to defeat, a fair pop- 
ular expression, is the work of the 
strategist, and every election crime is 
his invention, all of which is not 
unfrequently defended or palliated on 
the ground of party exigency, and 
dignified bj^ calling it strategy instead 
of crime. Wise legislation and the 
better policy have often been defeated 
or postponed and the wheels of prog- 
ress arrested or turned back to advance 
the interests of locality, party or 
individuals. The celebrated Kentucky 
resolutions of 1 798 and those of Vir- 
ginia of 1799, though intended merely 
to be declaratory of the true principles 
of constitutional interpretation, were 
distorted into justification of States' 
rights, nullification and even secession 
and rebellion. Though it was a great 
political and moral question, the strat- 
egists induced the Whig party to 
declare that it would discountenance 
and the Democratic party that it 
would resist the agitation of slavery 
in and out of congress. By strategy 
for more than a half century freedom 
was subordinated to slavery. 

The session of congress immediately 
preceding a presidential election is 
more or less devoted to making capital 
for party, to framing issues that will 
avoid antagonism, with little regard 
for principle or consistency, and during 
such session the most adroit and 
experienced strategists are called into 
service. The present session is no 
exception to the rule, and the manceu- 
vering is more than usually interest- 
ing to obser\-e because each party has 
a majority in one of the branches. 
The Republican party has possession 
of the executive branch of the goveni- 
VoL II.— 10 

ment and the object of the opposition 
is to manoeuvcr it out. The party 
out of power is forced to be the 
aggressor, and the other holds a de- 
fensive position. Unless the former 
can point out misconduct in adminis- 
tration or errors in policy, coupled 
with a suggestion of something better, 
it is to be presumed that the people will 
sustain the statu quo. As there is no 
charge of dishonesty or inefficiency 
against the incumbent administration, 
the attack must be upon the general 
policy. The session has proceeded 
far enough to have disclosed the lines 
of the attack to be made b}- the Dem- 
ocratic House of Representatives. 
The last congress is charged with 

extravagance ; 

the billion dollar 

congress " is a designation repeated as 
flippantly as the cry ' ' turn out the ras- 
cals " in the campaign of 1SS4. A 
strategy of the present house is to 
appropriate less than its predecessor 
that it may go to the country on the 
plea of economy. The aggregate of 
the appropriations of the last congress 
is put in the foreground, while the 
items that make up that aggregate 
are studiously kept out of view. 
Wisdom and econom}- are not proved 
b)' amounts merely. Whatever is 
necessarj^ should be granted. 

This country will not be developed, 
and made prosperous through parsi- 
mony, but as a rule all should be ap- 
propriated, for which an equivalent 
will be received by the people. It 
has several times occurred within the 
last fifteen 5-ears that appropriations, 
far short of what were absolutely ne- 
cessary for the public service, were 
made for the purpose of affecting the 
elections and when it was well known 
that the deficiency must be supplied 
at the next session and by the same 
congress. The strategy* of the pres- 
ent house is to withhold money, and 
the senate is able to thwart it b}' 
granting all that is reasonably re- 
quired and leave it to the house to 
assent or take the responsibility of 
crippling the government. The tac- 
tics of refusing money, which have in 



past campaigns deceived the people, 
will be of doubtful value under the 
conditions which now exist. It maj^ 
please the miser to refuse appropria- 
tions for carrying our mails upon the 
sea under our own flag, but it will dis- 
please those who believe in develop- 
ing our commerce, and that America 
should be relieved from dependence 
upon other nations. It will be bad 
tactics to refuse money for rapid in- 
crease of the navy, or to build ade- 
quate coast defences, or to improve 
rivers and harbors that transportation 
may be facilitated and cheapened. 
The attempt to repeal the sugar 
bounty law under the demagognical 
plea that the growers of wheat, corn, 
and cotton get no such favor will not 
be successful. The people know that 
until sugar was put on the free list 
we were paying $60,000,000 in duties ; 
and we are also expending in foreign 
nations for this article $70,000,000 
annually ,_ while we do not buy wheat, 
corn and cotton. By producing our 
own sugar we avoid an enormous de- 
pletion of our resources, and what is 
still more important we will give em- 
ployment to a large number of people. 
The time has come when, how shall 
we employ our people ? is the most 
important question before the country , 
it is the greatest problem to solve in 
in all populovis nations. By putting 
sugar on the free list and granting a 
bounty, the consumers were saved 
during the last year fully $50,000,000. 
It is incontrovertible that, in order to 
succeed in sugar production with our 
better paid labor, there must be pro- 
tection either by duty or bounty, and 
until one-half of what we consume is 
produced at home, the bounty will be 
the cheapest way to encourage the 
industry. Surely no congress dare 
refuse the money to pay pensions to 
soldiers. If appropriations are less, it 
will be for the reason that some of 
the expenditures described will be 
cut off, or the government in busi- 
ness branches will be put on short 

The money question is troublesome 

to both parties, and more especially 
the silver coinage feature. It is not a 
party question, but there are friends 
and opponents of free coinage in both 
parties. As represented in the popu- 
lar branch of congress a large majority 
of the Democrats are lor the measure, 
and a minority of the Republicans. 
The strategists of both parties are 
laboring to devise a plan by which a 
direct issue can be avoided. It 
is a question that should be settled, 
but apparently the people are to be 
denied the opportunity to vote directly 
upon it so far as the two great parties 
are concerned. The effort is to shuffle 
it off through a proposition for an 
international conference in order to 
postpone the question beyond the 
election, and in the hope that the 
country will be satisfied with this 
political husk. The time was when 
an international conference with a view 
of agreeing upon a common basis was 
a reasonable proposition, but confer- 
ences have been tried and have failed 
to produce any good result ; and an 
assent to bi-metallism in international 
transactions need not be expected so 
long as the leading commercial nation 
of Europe continues to be the clearing 
house of the world, and all balances of 
trade are paid in gold in her chief cit)\ 
Bi-metallism will neverprevail through 
diplomatic efforts ; a policy in the 
nature of coercion is necessary. Some 
great nation must lead off, whether 
others follow or not, and the United 
States is the one to take the initiative, 
because we produce one-third of the 
. silver of the world, and if our policy 
is American in all its features we will 
be too independent to be injured by 
the action of any or all other nations. 
The Napoleonic policy was to fight 
first and negotiate afterwards. It 
would do us no harm to adopt it on 
this question. There can be no doubt 
that a large majority of the American 
people favor free silver coinage, and 
they ought to have an opportunity to 
disclose their will. The strategists of 
both parties arc laboring to subordin- 
ate the money question and to make 



the tariff the leading issue of the 

It must in truth be said that the 
republican position on this question is 
undisguised, and that the democratic 
strategists are taxing their wits to 
devise some way to make a successful 
attack upon it. During the first 
fifty-five years of our existence under 
the constitution there was substantially 
one opinion on this question and it 
was in favor of the principle of pro- 
tection to American labor and encour- 
agement to manufacturing indus- 

In 1844 a new theory was promul- 
gated in the national democratic plat- 
form and it was to impose duties upon 
foreign commodities for the sole pur- 
pose of raising revenue, ignoring the 
development of American industries 
and protection to American labor. 
This has been the issue ever since that 
time. The real issue of 1844 was ob- 
scured by the interposition of Texas 
annexation, and until the war of the 
rebellion, by the slavery question. 
The necessities of the government 
during the war, and for many j^ears 
thereafter, required such duties as 
would give ample protection. As the 
debt and expenses of the government 
were reduced, conditions became such 
as to cause a revival of the free trade 
issue. It is an issue that the democrats 
avoided for a considerable time, and 
never but once have they made it the 
paramount question and that was in 
1884. Their favorite strategy has 
been to make an ambiguous platform. 
That of 1 884 was so ambiguous that 
Mr. Randall supported it on the ground 
that it recognized the protective prin- 
ciple and Messrs. Carlisle, Morrison 
and others because it did not. They 
must have been sincere because their 
votes were different on the Morrison 
Tariff Bill in the Forty-Ninth Con- 
gress. In his message to the Fiftieth 
Congress the democratic president 
construed for the first time the platform 
on which he was elected. He gave 
utterance to the free trade views which 
originated with John C. Calhoun and 

which under his dictation were put 
into the platform of 1S44. The dem- 
ocratic House of Representatives 
passed a bill reflecting the views of 
the President. The convention of 
1888 reafiirmed the platform of 1884 
in phraseology equally ambiguous, 
except that it indorsed the President's 
message and the free trade Mills' bill. • 
This effectually removed the ambigtiity 
in the minds of the people and the 
verdict of the country was in favor of 
the protective principle. 

The Fifty-First Congress proceeded 
to carry out the instructions of the 
people. The measure known as the 
McKinley law was resi.sted by the 
democrats both on principle and in 
detail. It was made the prominent 
issue in 1890 and the democrats carried 
the House of Representatives by an 
unprecedented majority. As in the 
Forty-Ninth and P'iftieth Congresses 
they had attempted a thorough re- 
vision of the tariff on free trade lines 
in the face of a republican senate ; it 
was presumed that they would proceed 
in the same way in the present con- 
gress. The result of the election in 
1890 caused many republicans to fear 
that the issue upon the McKinley law 
in 1S92 might prove disastrous. The 
Hon. Mr. Lodge of Massachusetts, in 
an article in one of our magazines, 
predicted that the issue of this year 
would not be upon the McKinley law 
but upon a bill of revision similar to 
the Mills bill, which would be framed 
and passed bj- the present house. This 
may have suggested to the dem- 
ocratic strategists the policy that has 
been adopted in dealing with the 
tariff. The great body of the dem- 
ocrats in congress agree with the 
principle embodied in the Mills bill, 
and if they followed their convictions 
would re.sort to a complete revision 
rather than to the plan of " punching 
holes" in the law. This plan is in- 
tended to leave as much of the law open 
for attack as possible and to avoid the 
issue of protection in the impending 
election. They hesitate to repeat what 
proved to be a blunder in 18SS. It is 



curious tactics, for it is fair to presume 
that what they do not attack in the 
McKinley law is deemed by them to 
be unobjectionable. If they leave the 
protective principle in the law un- 
touched to a great extent it is hoped 
that the protection democrat will be 
satisfied, and as all the proposed 
changes are in Ihe direction of free 
trade, it is supposed that the free 
trade element will be appeased. There 
is a further feature worthy of notice 
and it is, that raw materials which are 
produced at home are placed upon the 
free list. The New England States 
produce but little raw material while 
they manufacture largely. This gen- 
erosity is an appeal to the venality of 
the New England manufactures and is 
designed to have a specific political 
effect. I^ate elections show that it is 
not impossible for the democrats to 
carry several of those states which may 
be necessary to their winning the 
presidency ; and this concession to the 
New England manufactures will also 
break the objectionable effect to an 
extent of the free silver coinage senti- 
ment of the southern and western 
democrats, in New England where 
mono-metallism is dominant. 

Whether so disposed or not the 
republicans are not in a position to 
successfully mislead the people. They 
have possession of the executive 
branch of the government and have 
made a record. Upon the tariff their 
views are unmistakably in favor of 
the protective principle of the McKin- 

ley law as an entirety, but admitting 
that in some of its details there may 
be errors which .should be corrected. 
On the silver question the}- stand com- 
mitted to the Windom law and in 
matters of appropriations they favor a 
liberal increase of the navy, coast de- 
fenses, improvement of rivers and 
harbors, encouragement to the build- 
ing of a merchant marine, adequate 
buildings for the transaction of the 
public business, a l:)Ounty for the 
encouragement of sugar production, 
and the existing pension laws. Their 
strategy is to defend these measures 
before the country, and to force the 
democrats to show their hands upon 
all these subjects. 

The country would be better gov- 
erned and elections would be pure if 
there was an utter absence of strategy 
to secure mere party ascendency or 
personal aggrandizement. It is com- 
forting to know that partisan feeling 
and party discipline have been grow- 
ing weaker within the last few j-ears, 
and that the power of the strategist 
and boss is waning. A stronger in- 
dividualism is being developed as 
intelligence increases. Appeals to 
local or class prejudices are less effect- 
ive and the tendency is to get back 
to primeval principles and restore the 
government to popular control under 
the theory on wliicli it was constructed. 
There are many hopeful signs that the 
manipulator will ere long be .shorn of 
his strength, and that mere political 
strategy will become a lost art. 



It is said that human nature needeth hardship to be strong, 

That highest growth has come to man in countries white with snow, 
And they tell of truth and wisdom that to northern folk belong, 

And claim the brain is feeble where the south winds always blow. 

They forget to read the story of the ages long ago ! 
The lore that built the pyramids where still the simoon veers, 
The knowledge framing Tyrian ships, the greater skill that steers, 

The learning of the Hindu in his volumes never done — 
All the wisdom of Egyptians and the old Chaldean seers 

Came to man in summer lands beneath a summer sun. 

It is said that humr.n nature needeth hardship to be strong. 

That courage bred of meeting cold makes martial bosoms glow ; 
And they point to might}" generals the northern folk among, 

And call mankind emasculate where southern waters flow. 

They forget to look at histor}^ and see the nations grow ! 
The cohorts of Assyrian Kings, the Pharaoh's charioteers. 
The march of Alexander, the Persian's conquering spears, 

The legions of the Roman, from Ethiop to Hun — 
The power that mastered all the world and held it years on years 

Came to man in summer lands, beneath a summer sun. 

It is said that human nature needeth hardship to be strong. 

That onl}' pain and suffering the power to feel bestow, 
And the}' show lis noble artists made great by loss and ^^Tong, 

And claim the soul is lowered that has pleasure without woe. 

They forget the perfect monuments that pleasure's blessing show ! 
The statue and the temple no modern artist uears, 
Song and verse and music forever in our ears. 

The glory that remaineth while the sands of time shall run — 
The beauty of immortal art that never disappears 

Came to man in summer lands beneath a summer sun. 

The faith of Thor and Odin, the creed of force and fears, 
Cruel gods that deal in death the icebound soul reveres, 

But the Lord of Peace and Blessing was not one ! 
Truth and Power and Beauty, Love that endeth tears. 

Came to man in summer lands beneath a summer sun. 



BY I. L. G. 

DREAMS are very unsubstantial 
food for thought, and yet, how 
often do we awake to the inex- 
orable morning light dumbly feeling 
that our journey ings, during the mys- 
terious unconscious state, have in 
them more of actuality than the pro- 
saic happenings of everyday life. 

We are, more or less, capable of 
distinguishing between the illusions 
following physical disturbances and 
those resulting from an excited mental 
condition. But, when the tired body 
and restless brain are alike in repose, 
we maj^ permit ourselves to feel that 
our dreams are a phase of life, and 
not a fancied vision. Sometimes 
these dreams are vague. Familiar, 
3'-et unknown, faces rise in space, 
intangible, transparent and altogether 
wanting in solidit}^ which we vainly 
endeavor to separate from the surround- 
ing haze. Then again they are accu- 
rately, clearly and delicately defined 
as by a silver point in the hand of a 
master, and compact as a picture in a 
frame ; a picture, whose mysterious 
legend we cannot unfold though we 
may interpret it as we please. 

It is now some months since I had 
the dream which I am aljout to relate, 
rather to look at it by the light of 
other eyes than to hope to amuse or 
interest. It was more of a real occur- 
rence to me than many an incident in 
the past. I shall not attempt to fill 
in by explanation, but relate simply 
as though I described a picture. 

I seemed, with many others, to be 
living in a stately home of great archi- 
tectural beauty. All that could sat- 
isfy the human in us was there, ex- 
quisite furni.shings, light and space. 
The mistress of the mansion was a 
lovely, .soft-voiced, majestic woman, 
who was at once hostess and guardian 
of our lives and, while not a task- 

mistress, gentlj^ admonished us for 
neglected work — work that was suited 
to our strength and capability — and, 
in many cases, adapted to individual 
fancy. She was not niggardly in 
rewarding for good work, and con- 
stantly pressed on us the hospitalities 
of her magnificent domain. 

Our perception of the beautiful was 
quickened. Each day the curtain 
was swept from before a noble gallery 
of art, and we reveled in pictures that 
nev^er grew old. The dreamj^ beauty 
of the soft landscapes, rugged rocks 
and dashing streams gave a sense of 
freshness and added variety. Perfec- 
tion in form and feature and decided, 
yet delicate coloring, characterized all 
the pictures there. 

Delightful gardens were thrown 
open for our gratification. There, 
amid sweet-smelling flowers, shrubs 
and umbrageous trees was a heaven- 
inspired orchestra and sweetest music, 
subtle and calming, filled its hearers 
with an ecstas}^ not to be described. 

And yet, I was discontented. My 
spirit craved for something higher 
and nobler. It pleaded for freedom, 
beat against the confining walls, and 
longed for time to be no more. But 
the soft voice said : ' ' Peace, it is not 
yet time." 

The days passed on ; months, years 
flew over me and still I was an unfet- 
tered prisoner. From time to time 
our party was augmented by others, 
some of whom were joyous and pleas- 
ant guests taking no thought for 
aught but the present, the rest were 
silent and morose ; no effort made to 
please satisfied them, and they in time 
departed from our circle as mysteri- 
ously as Ihey had come. There were 
many, like myself, who chafed against 
the apparent restrictions, yet they 
could not withstand the pleadings of 




the grand and lovable mistress of our 
lives, and passively suljinitted to their 
fate. But over me the old unsatisfied 
longing gained power day by day. 
My existence seemed utterly useless, 
the occupations of e very-day life so 
petty that I tired of them almost 
before well begun. Once I voiced 
my rebellious feelings to one whom I 
had chosen as a companion, a maiden 
in whom was embodied all that was 
delicate and pure. I said : 

" Oh, to be free from these confin- 
ing walls ; to rise above all that holds 
me down ; to breathe the pure air in 
which dwell those beings who are 
above and beyond the materiality of 
our present state ; to soar untram- 
meled in the space above, is my ab- 
sorbing desire ! ' ' 

"Indeed, I like it here," said she, 
"It is so delightful discovering 
strange new places every day. Our 
pleasant associates, too ; yes, they 
are charming. Besides, I am looking 
and waiting for that which I feel 
puzzled to name and which I fear I 
shall never find, but I keep hoping 
that the next day may reveal it to me. 
Strange, is it not?" And a gleam 
came into her sunny orbs as she con- 
tinued : ' ' The certainty I have that 
it is something I had once in my pos- 
session and have lost but I cannot 
imagine what it is. Oh ! I am con- 
tent, believe me." And brightly 
smiling she bounded away. 

Had I ever felt as she ? Was there 
ever a time when I could say, I like 
it here? Restlessly I wandered up 
and down. I met an old man, bent 
and gray, leaning heavily on his staff. 
I spoke to him. 

" Do you remain long here, or are 
you, too, eager to go home ? " I said. 

He regarded me intently for a short 
space, and at last in a tremulous 
voice, replied : 

" I do not know when I go ; truly 
I cannot say. My children are here, 
many of my old friends tarr>' on, 
and I find it very pleasant. I do 
not think I shall be in a hurry to 

I turned from him, and presently 
met a young man, athletic and 
handsome he swung along. A sad, 
haras.sed look on his face made me 
believe he could not be satisfied. 
" Find it tiresome ? " was his answer 
to my enquiry, "anxious to go back 
home ? Oh, no ! the Ijest of it is to 
come. I am just beginning to feel 
interested. No, no ! this is too de- 
lighttul to give up." 

I reproached myself for my discon- 
tent, but could not .sympathize with 
those who clung so tenaciously to the 
present existence. 

Can you, then, conceive of my joy 
when a day came that the crj- went 
ringing through the halls, " Time to 
depart ! Time to depart ! Time to 
depart ! " I noticed that none of 
in the room with me had seemed to 
hear as I did, but with careless indiffer- 
ence, each pursued his occupation. 
There were some who laughed gaily, 
chatted and danced merrily and others 
worked diligently ; the student quietly 
read his book and made notes on the 
margin, as usual. I was astonished 
at the apathy with which they re- 
garded the clarion summons, but lost 
not an instant, hastily I gathered 
around me my wrappings, for, as I 
approached the open door, the chill 
air struck me. Passing into the outer 
chamber, which was filled with efful- 
gent light, I was joined by my com- 
rade, who, with sober face and a sad 
drooping of the dainty mouth, said : 

"I do not wish to go. but I may 
not remain here longer. ' ' 

We hastened on, down broad marble 
stairs, through spacious corridors, each 
succeeding one more and more dimlj' 
lighted, until at last obscurity pre- 
vailed. By groping, we reached the 
open doorway that led to the free air. 
I felt a delicious sense of satisfaction 
as I drew in the draughts of pure 
ether that appeared to pass through 
and through me, until at last my 
whole being seemed purified. All 
that I now desired was light, that my 
eyes might gaze on the great and un- 
known world outside the confines of 



raj' late home, passing through the 
open door, we found a darkness 
deeper than the mind can picture. 
Tlie space was void of moon and stars, 
and ga\"e back no soft gleam of float- 
ing cloud, no promise that the sun 
would rise on the morrow. The air 
was chill and motionless. Strange, 
quiet sounds fell on the ear. 

With clasped hands we stood, fear- 
less and unquestioning, and in perfect 
faith advanced at the command of 
our friend, whose vibrating voice 
called to us from out the gloom. 
Guided by an vmseeu power, for our 
eyes saw nothing, we approached until 
we stood by the side of a long, low 
chariot or car, then a mystic lumin- 
osity, which seemed to exude from 
her revealed our friend seated in the 
far corner holding in her arms a fretful 
infant, whom in her loving way she 
gently soothed. She said a few kind 
words of regret that we were to part. 
I eagerly enquired, "May I come 
again, to tell you of my happiness? " 

With a look of ineffable love she 
smiled into my eyes, vouchsafing no 
reply. At this instant my attention 
was caught by a movement, noiseless 
as the sweeping clouds, and I dis- 
cerned the faint outline of an upright, 
silent form. A sensation of dread 
now took possession of me and I 
clung to the hand of our hostess. 
Gaining courage therefrom, I looked 
at the unknown and asked : 

"W^hoare you?" 

Shuddering I clo.sed my e3'es for it 
was a sight to freeze my blood and 
numb my tongue. Gaining courage 
I leaned forward and endeavored to 
pierce the darkness. Nearer still, I 
pressed, and found that the spectral 
light had distorted to demoniacal 
features, a face, pale and delicate as 
a snow-drop, with sad, soft, dark 
eyes. The lower part of the face ex- 
pressed decision and resolution while 
the Ijroad waxen brow told of scons of 

With a sigh of relief I turned to 
look on the home that had sheltered 
me for .so long a time. A fine mist enveloped it leaving but a 
shadowy outline to indicate its place, 
while a faint light showed to me 
a host of slaves moving hither and 
thither before it. Some of them were 
black and hideously repulsive and they 
leaped and frantically gesticulated. 
Thc}^ carried sharp, glittering knives, 
cruel looking instruments. Others 
again, were beautiful in feature and 
almost white, their movements slow 
and languorous and in their hands 
were curiously shaped vessels. Many 
of those forms were clearly visible, 
the rest, merely spectral. 

Astonished, I said, "Strange, I did 
not know you had these servants. 
lyOng as I lived with you I never .saw 
them in attendance." 

' ' They are not ni}^ servants. I need 
but one, ' ' said she. ' ' They are — ' ' and 
her voice was low and sorrowful — 
' ' they are the hand-maids of Death ; 
her train of attendants who lie in 
wait for unsuspecting mortals and 
at last bring them to the portals 
of the world on whose border we 
are now waiting. This, my child, 
is the Chariot of Death which conveys 
those who are done with life to the 
Great Beyond." 

"If this be Death, this glorious 
being, and those her slaves, this 
her chariot, then, who are you ? 
And who am I ? What am I ? 
Now that I .see Death, am I a spirit? 
Tell me, I pray you ! I have waited 
so long." 

" I am the .spirit of life," she said, 
I come, I go. It is my work to 
foster the life of each mortal, to 
make all things reasonabh' just and 
perfect, to provide occupation and 
relaxation, above all to combat 
Death in every po.ssible way, to 
supply antidotes to the poisons 
administered by her slaves ; poisons 
that afflict the body and exhaust the 
.spirit. This frail child in my arms 
may not encounter the journey of life 
beyond a short sjiace. We wait but 
to .see shall Ivife or Death ])revail." 

' ' Why is Death so cruel i' " I cried, 
"why the slow poison? TIil' (]uick 



knife ? And why all the agony of 
living, encompassed as we are b}^ 
lurking, demoniacal savages ? ' ' 

"That, you could not understand. 
It is Ijej'ond you. Not even Death 
herself may know and I dare not seek 
the knowledge. L,ife to many — to all 
— is a con.stant struggle. The strong- 
est find it wearisome. To the weak it 
is mere existence. True, life has many 
attractions. The earth is beautiful, 
and there are indomital)]c s]Mrits, 
who make a success of that which is 
misery to another, and who nobly fulfil 
the duties imposed on them . Life must 
terminate. Mortals dread their inev- 
itable fate. Who is there, then, in 
perfect health that would willinglj- 
encounter the unknown future ? ' ' 
"Strange" she mused, "that Death 
should be so feared ! Life is but the 
childhood of the perfection that comes 
from death." 

Missing ni}- companion from my 
side I started toward the house, hoping 
to find her there, ignoring the warn- 
ing voice that called to me, ' ' You 
maj^ not return ! You may not re- 
turn ! ' ' 

I hastened on, but, to my consterna- 
tion, found that a stream of water 
flowed between me and the home of 
other days. Dark, deep and sullen, 
it majestically rolled. The slaves 
were no longer on the other side. In- 
stead were many whom I had known 
and loved in the past, that now seemed 
so far away. They wept and wrung 
their hands, uttering the while, woeful 
and piteous cries. My heart ached 
for their sorrow, and had it been pos- 
sible I should have gone back to share 
their grief. 

Returning, chilled and wearied, I 
encountered dark shapes, moving rest- 
lessl}' hither and thither ; while the 
trailing garments of ethereal forms 
noiselessly swept the earth and mys- 
terious sounds, like the soft sighing of 

pine leaves, were breathed on the 

" May I enter now?" I cried, "a 
cold wind blows, and I have tarried 

' ' Come, ' ' was the response, in a 
strange, sweet voice, ' ' the horses are 
growing impatient." Even as I 
looked there appeared to me number- 
less attached to the chariot. 
Those near by were distinct, and away 
in the distance I could make out 
through the deepening mist a moving 
haunch, an arching neck, while the 
muffled thud of their hoofs aud their 
subdued snorting fell dully on my 
ears. I found my.self seated in the 
car and felt a warm kiss on my brow. 
A dreamy sensation of perfect rest and 
contentment came over me, and then 
Life and Death and all else faded 
away. The voices of mourning became 
hushed to a faint wail, and I, and the 
little child, alone in the car, seemed 
moving with wonderfully easy swift- 
ness through space. No fear, no 
terror of the unknown, disturbed the 
pure, steadfast faith I had in the 

We advanced through thick dark- 
ness and an unmoving atmosphere. At 
last the morning star, calm and bright, 
shone out. We left the chariot, and 
hovered as birds in the illimitable, 
silent empyrean. Star after star 
revolved about us, sending forth scin- 
tillating gleams of light. Broken 
strains of sweet music added joy to 
my senses. A glorious iridescent 
light gleamed from afar. Cloud-like 
forms approached, and with an exult- 
ant feeling, I dared to say, "This is 

A sense of sinking, a horrible 
weight. I loosed my hand from that 
of my companion, that I might not 
drag her down, and with a convulsive 
effort. I unclosed my eyes to another 
pitiless day. 


THE question of the value of Lower Cali- 
fornia is one which will continually rise 
to the surface and is of more or less interest 
to the Pacific Coast in general. The Cali- 
FORNiAN begins with the present issue a 
series of articles which will appear from 
time to time on this little known region, in 
which will be pointed out its productions 
and possibilities of all kinds. The present 
article refers to the valuable pearl fisheries 
of the Gulf of California, of which the city 
of La Paz is the centre of interest. The 
author, Mr. Townsend, is a special agent 
of the Department of the Interior, authorized 
to investigate the subject in the interests of 
this government. The value of these fish- 
eries, which are rarely heard of, is not gen- 
erally appreciated, and so far as it relates to 
pearls themselves, the illustration of the 
ten-thousand dollar pearl, a life-sized cut 
of which is given in the paper, is suggestive 
of the value of the fisheries. The Cali- 
FORNiAN is indebted to Mr. George F. 
King, gem expert of Messrs. TifFanj' & Co., 
New York, for several fine cuts of pearls 
from this vicinity, but, unfortunately they 
were not received in time for use. 


There is no question regarding the im- 
portance or the value of the Pacific Coast 
States to the Nation at large. This is con- 
ceded everywhere, yet, so far, it has been im- 
possible for this section to obtain the recog- 
nition it deserves and should have. Cali- 
fornia should be represented in the Cabinet 
at Washington, and it is to be hoped that 
the next President, be he a Republican or 
Democrat, will bear in mind that the 
Pacific Coast is a factor in the development 
of the country at large and should receive 

suitable recognition. The Pacific Coast is 
an empire in itself. Oregon, Washington, 
California and Alaska represent untold 
riches awaiting development, but until the 
region in question can catch the public ear 
it will remain in the background. The 
coast line of California has two harbors of 
the first class — San Francisco and San 
Diego, On every hand it is conceded that 
the coast adjacent to Los Angeles should 
have a harbor that will be an improvement 
on the present one, yet representatives in 
congress are unable to secure an adequate 
appropriation simply because the majority 
of members are possessed with a dense 
ignorance of the actual requirements in the 


In the present issue is given a second 
paper on the glaciers of the Pacific Coast, 
a description of wonders that have not been 
dreamed of by the masses of the people. 
Thousands of tourists go yearly to Switzer- 
land to visit the famous glaciers of the 
Alps, in many instances not knowing that 
in their own country, reaching down from 
their own mountains there are rivers of 
frozen snow that when compared to the 
glaciers of Europe, completely overshadow 
them. The Hubbard Glacier shown in the 
accompanying article is one of the most 
magnificent spectacles ever looked upon by 
the eye of man, while a little farther to the 
north is the famous Malaspina, brought 
before the public lately by Russel, that is 
one of the wonders of the world, a gigantic 
field of ice representing six hundred square 
miles, formed by a score or more of glaciers 
that reach down to it, and may be traced, 
winding their way into it to I^iccome lost. 
An interesting point in all this is llu- fact 




that all these glaciers are receding, the tes- 
timony of observers two hundred years ago 
showing that the ice docs not reach down so 
far at present as it did then, suggestive that 
the climate of the North is milder. This 
article and others to follow is published 
with the hope that it will spur Americans 
on to fully investigate these wonders at our 
doors, and open the waj' for the tourists of 
the world. We have a Mount Blanc in 
St. Elias with its (nineteen thousand five 
hundred feet) that has defied some of the 
best Alpine climbers of the country, while 
as for glaciers, those of the Alps sink into 
insignificance beside these American giants, 
that take their place beside the big trees, 
the Yosemite, Niagara, and other American 

The articles on the Chinese, especially 
their customs and ways, have aroused great 
interest throughout the country, if we may 
judge by the letters and communications on 
the subject. The famous contract and its 
translation, a literal bill of sale of a 
Chinese woman, has been placed in the 
hands of thousands of workers throughout 
the country, and will undoubtedly do much 
good in tending to break up these infamous 
practices in this countr}^ It should not be 
understood, as it has been in some instances, 
that the best element of the Chinese in this 
country is in favor of opium dens and woman 
slavery. They are not, and in this connec- 
tion we publish the following from the 
Hon. Thos. D. Riordan, addressed to the 
Rev. Dr. Masters : 

San Francisco, April 7th, 1S92. 
Doctor F. J. Masters : 

Dk.\R Sir — In response to j'ours of April 
2d, will say that the Chinese merchants of 
San Francisco held a public meeting about 
ten years ago, at which they passed resolu- 
tions to the effect that a petition be sent to 
the United States Congress requesting the 
passage of a law absolutely prohibiting the 
importation of any opium except for medic- 
inal purposes. Whether the petition was 
sent or not, I am unable to say, but the 
action of the merchants was extensiveh- 
publi.shcd in near!}- all the papers. The 
merchants to-day would be ver\' glad to 
have such a law passed, and for various 
reasons : First, they recognize the fact that 
il is injurious to their people ; secondly, they 
derive no profit from its sale ; the only 

profit that is derived from handling the 
drug consists in either smuggling it into 
the country, or in the surreptitious manu- 
facture of the domestic article ; thirdly, the 
opium traffic is a source of constant annoy- 
ance, expense and blackmail to the Chi- 
nese people. Any other information that I 
can give you on the subject will be most 
cheerfully given. 

Yours Respectfully, 

Thos. D, Riordan. 

THE position of DR. MASTERS 
The papers on the Chinese by the Rev. 
Dr. Masters have been misunderstood by 
some, and an editorial in The Californian 
appears to some of his friends to place him 
in an erroneous position, and we gladly give 
place to the following letter, in which his 
position and that of The Californian is 
fully explained : 

San Francisco, Cal., May 3d, 1S92. 
Professor C. F. Holder, Editor Californian 
Illustrated Magazine : 

Dear Sir — In your last number of The 
Californian, an editorial note referring 
to my paper on " Opium Smoking " 
says : "The paper is presented as one of a 
series to illustrate that the Chinese are not 
a desirable addition to our population." 
As you did not intend to convey the impres- 
sion that I had written with any such object 
in view, I shall feel obliged if you will 
allow me to offer a word of explanation to 
my friends, many of whom have under- 
stood the clause to mean that I am writing 
a series of articles in favor of the exclusion 
of the Chinese from this countn,-. That 
highbinders, procurers of female slaves, and 
opium smokers are an undesirable element 
of our population I have no doubt. The 
same may be said of our anarchists, 
rustlers, prize-fighters, dnuikards and 
keepers of saloons, dives and bagnios. If a 
whole race is to be condemned and excluded 
because crime and \-ice are found among its 
people, what will become of us? 

My papers on " Highbinders and Opium 
Smoking" were written not to urge exclu- 
sion, but to expose evils and A-ices that are 
condemned by the better classes of Chinese 
in our midst, and to suggest where the 
remed}' can be found andapplied. With 
wiser laws, purer courts and stronger gov- 
ernment, the Chinese might become "the 
most law-abiding element of our popula- 
tion. I am Yours Truly, 

Frederic J. Masters. 

The object of The Cai,iforni.\n is to point 
out in these articles some of the great ulcer 
spots among the Chinese in America, fully 
expose their methods and so enable Ameri- 



cans to co-operate with law-abiding Chinese 
of the better class in stamping out the evil. 
The papers are but the first in a series, and 
will be followed by others upon social evils 
among American commvmities, showing 
the evils that exist, what philanthropy is 
doing, and what can still further be done 
by all classes co-operating to crush out 
these evils. 

IT is a fact that there is a vast amount of 
unoccupied land in California. It is also 
conceded that this State is a poor man's 
paradise — that he can live here in greater 
comfort than in any land under the sun. 
This is not surmise but a demonstratable 
fact. The question of greatest importance 
to California, then, is to see these broad 
acres dotted with homes, induce tillers of 
the soil to come here, bring their wives and 
families and develop the riches which the 
soil contains. Many and varied attempts 
are made to accomplish this. Local papers 
contain descriptions of the charms of the 
locality which they represent. The people 
organize Boards of Trade, Chambers of 
Commerce, and pamphlets are jiublished, 
and sent broadcast over the world — all at- 
tracting the attention of vast numbers of 
people, and it has become a byword that 
this State is better advertised than any 
region in America, and one that cannot be 
controverted. It is a question whether we 
should stop here, whether this method alone 
is suflScient. California of all States does 
not desire a pauper population, and it is 
known that many foreign governments find 
it the most economical method to ship their 
poor here or to some other State, trvisting 
by hook or crook to get rid of them. Thus 
it is that every State in the Union has 
paupers and professional incompetents that 
sooner or later become a bvirden upon the 
people and State. California is an empire 
in itself; within its borders it has all cli- 
mates and jjroductions from every zone. It 
would seem then that there should be some 
method, some system and limitation to 
the invitation we send out. In short we 
should make our own selection instead of 
inviting the world. The counties of South- 
ern, Central and Northern California, with 
their great and diverse possibilities could 

well afford to send responsible agents to 
Europe to carry the story of the possibilities 
of the regions they represent to the better 
class of people m Europe, the well-to-do 
farmers and agriculturists, and thus by 
dealing directly with them, show them 
exactly what to expect. The raisin and 
wine men of Spain and France would be at 
home in California while they would be 
lost in Nebraska, and so on ; the selection 
might be made from the people most desir- 
able and the best equipped for the country 
and the work to do. Agents well provided 
with California literature in the French and 
Spanish language, could be sent to these 
countries with profit. They should lecture 
in the well-to-do towns and follow the sug- 
gestions of Walter Raymond, the excursion- 
ist, who sends a stereoptican lecturer 
throiigh the Eastern resorts in the summer, 
picturing the delights of a winter in Cali- 
fornia. This could be done in Europe and 
emigrants obtained who would be not only 
adapted to the work here, but who would 
possess means sufiicient to establish them in 
the land of their choice. 

One of the interesting features of the 
World's Fair is to be the Psychical Science 
Congress, which will be held in connection 
with the World's Fair. Dr. Elliott Cones, 
Vice-Chairman of the Congress, has been 
especially active in llie matter, and the result 
will be one of especial value to science. 

The committee of this congress believes 
that the time is propitious for a public dis- 
cussion, by leading thinkers of all countries, 
of certain phenomena which may be classi- 
fied under the general head of Psychical 

It is proposed to treat these phenomena 
both historically, analytically and experi- 
mentally. The following synopsis of work 
is indicated for the congress, subject to such 
modification as occasion may seem to require, 
and especially to such changes as may result 
from the expression of the views of those 
addressed in this preliminary announce- 
ment : 

I. a. General History of P.sychical phe- 
b. The value of human testimony con- 
cerning these phenomena. 



c. Results of individual effort in the 

collection of Psychical data and 
in the solution of the problems 
arising therefrom. 

d. The origin and growth of Societies 

for Psychical Research, and the 
results which they have thus far 
2. Detailed consideration of the various 
classes of Psychical phenomena, of the theo- 
ries offered for their elucidation, and of the 
further problems that demand investigation. 
The questions to be discussed may be 
grouped provisionally under the following 
heads : 

a. Thought-Transfcrance or Telepathy — 

the action of one mind upon another 
independently of the recognized 
channels of sense. The nature and 
extent of this action. Spontaneous 
cases and experimental investiga- 

b. Hypnotism or Mesmerism. Nature 

and characteristics of the hypnotic 
trance in its various phases, includ- 
ing Auto-Hypnotism, Clair^-oyance, 
Hypnotism at a distance, and Mul- 
tiplex Personality. Hypnotism in 
its application to Therapeutics. 

c. Hallucinations, fallacious and veridi- 

cal. Premonitions. Apparitions of 
the living and of the dead. 

d. Independent Clairvoyance and Clair- 

audiencc. Ps\-chometry. Auto- 
matic Speech, Writing, etc. The 
Mediumistic Trance and its relations 
to ordinary hypnotic states. 

e. Psychophysical phenomena, such as 

Raps, Tablc-Tippings, Independent 
Writing, and other spirituistic mani- 

f. The relations of the above groups of 

phenomena to one another ; the con- 
nection betw^een Psychics and 
Physics ; the bearing of Psychical 
Science upon Human Personality, 
and especially upon the question of 
a P^uture Life. 
The C.vlifornian wishes to call the atten- 
tion of its readers to the fact that this con- 
gress desires to have an advisory council 
that -wnll be international in its make-up, 
and the Societj- vaW gladly receive sugges- 
tions from all interested in the matter. 

Communications may be addressed to Dr. 
Elliott Coues or John C. Bundy, World's 
Congress Auxiliary, Chicago, 111. 

AT one time there was almost a supersti- 
tion that a man whose name began with 
"C" could not become President, because 
so many had been aspirants and had failed. 
Among them were the two Clintons of New 
York, Crawford of Georgia, Calhoun of 
South Carolina, Clay of Kentucky, Clayton 
of Delaware, Cass of Michigan, Collomer of 
Vermont, Chase of Ohio and Cameron of 
I'ennsylvauia. Cleveland's success opened 
a ray of hope to those whose names begin 
with that unfortunate letter. 

On the other hand it was deemed great 
good fortune to possess a name with the 
" on " in it, because so many had been suc- 
cessful. All the Presidents, except one, 
who were re-elected had such a name. They 
were Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Mon- 
roe, Jackson and Lincoln. In the latter 
the "1" in the last syllable is silent, and 
hence the pronunciation is the same as in 
the other cases. If the present incumbent 
of the presidential office is re-elected, an 
addition will be made to the list. 

It was also believed that a nomination of 
one who had been a Senator or more espe- 
cially one who was a present Senator would 
turn out unfortunately in the election. 
De Witt Clinton, Clay, Crawford, Cass, and 
Blaine who were or had been Senators, were 
all defeated ; on the other hand, Monroe, 
Jackson, Van Buren, W. H. Harrison, 
Pierce, Buchanan and Benjamin Harrison, 
had all been, but were not Senators at the 
time of their election. Garfield was Senator 
elect. It is true that there have been a 
large number of Senators who have aspired 
to the presidency and have not succeeded. 
The reason is that if they have ser\-ed 
long and more especially if they have been 
conspicuous, they have by speech or vote 
been compelled to act upon a great variety 
of questions, and have displeased elements 
or interests which have antagonized them. 
It is this which ordinarily renders the nom- 
ination of a Senator unad\-isable notwith- 
standing the bad luck that has attended 
senatorial aspirants, there have been and 



are many men who seek the Senate as a 
stepping-stone to the Presidency. 

The nomination of a soldier is deemed an 
augnry of success. The soldiers elected 
were Washington, Monroe, Jackson, W. H. 
Harrison, Taylor, Pierce, Grant, Hayes, 
Garfield, and Benjamin Harrison. Burr in 
iSoo, Jackson in 1824, W. H. Harrison in 
1836, Fremont in 1856 and McClellan in 
1864 were defeated by civilians. Two 
soldiers were defeated by soldiers, Scott by 
Pierce and Hancock by Garfield. Soldier 
candidates have defeated civilians in twelve 
elections, and civilians have defeated sol- 
diers in five. It is quite natural that soldiers 
should be preferred because they have given 
the highest proof of self-abnegation and 

At the beginning of the government an 
election to the Vice-Presidency was regarded 
as a designation to the succession, and the 
theory' was carried out as to John Adams 
and Jefferson. The idea was never followed 
thereafter except in the case of Van Buren, 
who succeeded Jackson. It has become the 
practice to nominate a man who has become 
a proper subject to be shelved. 

Before the War of the Rebellion, the 
South actually had the Presidency fifty-two 
years, and the North twenty years. If W. 
H. Harrison and Taylor had time to serve 
out their terms, the South would have had 
the Presidency just twice as long as the 

The aggregate of the terms of the Presi- 
dents elected east of the Appalachian 
Mountains is fifty-six years, and that of 
those elected west, when the present term 
shall expire, is forty-eight years. 

Since 1S48 neither of the great parties has 
nominated a candidate south of Mason and 
Dixon's line, though one wing of the Dem- 
ocratic party and the American party in 
i860 chose their candidates south of that 
line. For twelve years more than two- 

thirds of the Democratic electoral votes have 
been cast in the South, yet the party has 
not the generosity to nominate a presiden- 
tial candidate from that section. 

Four Presidents have died in office and 
were succeeded by Vice-Presidents, three of 
whom betrayed their party and one, Chester 
A. Arthur, remained true. 

One ex-President served in the House of 
Representatives and another in the Senate, 
The oldest man elected to the Presidency 
was W, H. Harrison and the youngest was 
U. S. Grant. The Adams and Harrison 
families have each given two Presidents to 
the country. 


The Missions and Mission Indians should 
be well represented at the World's Fair, 
and in this connection we are reminded ol 
the excellent display made by the Pasadena 
Art Loan Association a year or so ago, at 
which all the attractive and artistic features 
of these people were presented — their art 
work, lace, baskets and stone work. If the 
idea of the art loan could be carried out in 
Chicago, and the same exhibition given 
there that thousands saw at Pasadena, the 
display would be a valuable addition to the 
fair. At an early day The Californian 
will publish an article on the subject, show- 
ing what California could do in this con- 
nection, and doubtless the question will be 
taken up and pushed through to a success- 
ful issue. The Missions, the Indians and 
their early history are among the most 
attractive features of California of to-day. 
In them we find our State history and the 
astonishing spectacle of a race of haxdy 
people that were almost wiped out of exist- 
ence in a few hundred years, and who are 
now not much more than a memorj^ in the 
land which they formerly held by sovereign 
right and power. 



THE Pacific Coast world of letters has 
suffered a loss in the past month in the 
death of Emily Tracy Y. Parkhurst. Mrs. 
Parkhurst was connected with The Cali- 
FORNIAN as an assistant editor, was a con- 
tributor to its columns, and wrote its 
literary reviews. She was a woman of rare 
promise, possessed of great talent, which, 
combined with executive ability, made her 
a prominent figure in many assemblies. 
Her especial work was the formation of the 
Pacific Coast Woman's Press Association. 
A few years ago she traveled through the 
State and made the personal acquaintance 
of all the Pacific Coast writers, her object 
being to advance the interests of women 
writers — bring them out and aid them in 
obtaining a field for their work. In this 
she was extremely successful. She gathered 
about her hundreds of contributors to the 
literary press of the day, and finally 
organized the Press Association, of which she 
became Secretary. The work thus accom- 
plished did much in encouraging women to 
make a fight for themselves, and by her 
means many are now self-supporting who, 
previous to the movement, realized little or 
nothing from their literary work. Mrs. Park- 
hurst combined rare executive ability with 
literary discernment and taste, and was a 
brilliant organizer. At the time of her 
death, she had plans laid out for work that 
would have appalled many. One was a 
thorough investigation of the possibility of 
woman's work in horticulture and agricul- 
ture in this State. This was not theory, as 
the plan included a system by which 
women could enter the lists with men in 
farming and market their products. Few 
women had so large an acquaintance ; few 
will be missed by so great a number, and so 
a well-spent bright life is ended — apparently 
cut short, yet leaving a rich heritage, a rare 
example to those who are left behind. 

The history and experience of The C.\li- 
FORNIAN is interesting in connection with 
new publications in showing that there is 
always a field for a new periodical, if the 
latter is suited to the time and place. The 
success of The Californian at the begin- 

ning of its first volume is far beyond what 
its projectors anticipated at the end of the 
first year, and demonstrates the fact that 
there is room for an illustrated magazine of 
the very first class on this coast — one that 
shall take a stand with the great Eastern 

We find on the table "Verses " by Rachel 
Bassett Holder, a well-known Minister of 
the Society of Friends of Lynn, Mass. The 
poems which make up the little volume 
nearly all bear the imprint of the intense 
religious thought that held among the fol- 
lowers of George Fox, thirty or more years 
ago. The author wrote them from time to 
time during a long lifetime of good works 
and deeds, but would never consent to their 
publication, believing that it was not con- 
sistent with complete humility to hold up 
such productions to the public gaze. Many 
were so notable, showing so many evidences 
of the bright genius that smouldered under 
this restraint, that they have been collected 
from various sources and published by her 
granddaughter, Rachel Aldrich, of Bloom- 
iugton, 111., for private distribution. The 
author died nearly thirty years ago in Lynn, 
and it is interesting to note, inherited her 
taste from her grandmother, and left a son, 
Joseph Bassett Holder, and grandson, Chas. 
Frederick Holder, both of whom produced 

One of the most delightful books for 
children for the year is "Five Little Pep- 
pers Grown Up," by INIargaret Sidney. 
Published by G. E. Lathrop & Co. T2mo., 
fully illustrated. I1.50. 

The first "Peppers" book," Five Little 
Peppers and How They Grew," was a revel- 
ation, in its way, of the happiness that may 
be enjoyed in the humblest home, if only 
there be genuine, unselfish family love to 
smooth over the rough places and brighten 
the dark hours. It was simply a record of 
plain, matter-of-fact happenings, vivified 
with the inspiration which comes of looking 
above and beyond them, and so getting out 
of the dead level of every-day care and fret. 
Its effect was magnetic. Not children only, 




but all who love children, were charmed 
with the bright, tender, touching stor}', and 
the fame of the book spread like wild-fire. 
It was inevitable that there should be a 
sequel, and "Five Little Peppers Midwaj' " 
was written to satisfy the demand for 
"more," which came in letters from all over 
the country'. This told the story of the 
"Peppers" in the new home where they 
had gone to live with their friend and patron, 
old Mr. King, in a big city mansion. But 
even this did not satisfy the legion of enthu- 
siastic readers, and so a third volume has 
appeared, and in " Five Little Peppers 
Grown Up " we have the story of the boys' 
young manhood and Polly's sweet maiden- 
hood, while Phronsie, the pet of the house- 
hold, is fast growing into a big girl. It is 
almost a pity they should grow up, especially 
winsome Phronsie, but they are all delight- 
fully attractive in their new spheres, and 
brave, earnest and cheery in whatever they 
undertake. Polly insists upon starting out 
as a music teacher, and not only succeeds 
in the technique of her work, but also in stim- 
ulating her young pupils to higher efforts. 
Of course she has hosts of admirers, and it is 
a matter of intense interest which one of her 
eager lovers the little maiden will accept. 

Ben and Jasper begin their business 
careers, and Joel and Dave are college 
students with the usual experiences of young 
collegians. There are some graphic descrip- 
tions of the book publishing business in 
which Jasper engages. Various new char- 
acters are introduced, and the story winds 
in and out among them all with that bright 
sparkle of animated life which marks all of 
Margaret Sidney's writings. 

Throughout the story one has a delightful 
consciousness of the growth in noble char- 
acter and the stimulus that comes from a 
fine ideal skillfully wrought into practical 
living. And yet there is no preaching, 
save indirectly by example ; and the young 
people are bright and rollicking, healthy and 
hearty, and enjoy life without stint. It is 
books like these of the "Peppers" series 
which inspire and encourage young people to 
be brave and true, manly and womanly in all 
the duties and relations which encompass 
them. Their healthful spirit is contagious, 
and they prove a power for good in every 
community where they are introduced. 

graphic and forcible style, all the events, 
circumstances and surroundings which 
changed George Bidwell from as honest a 
young man as ever left a Puritan home to 
engage in business in New York, into one 
who, at the age of forty landed in old New- 
gate, London. 

After what the London Times calls "The 
most memorable trial within living mem- 
ory," he, with three others, was sentenced 
to penal servitude for life. 

After fifteen years of incarceration he re- 
gained his liberty. 

Encouraged by Charles Dudley Warner, 
he wrote this book which has already won 
the approval of eminent people on both 
sides of the Atlantic. 

While it is not a religious work it is one 
which parents may safely place in the hands 
of their children. After reading this book 
any young business man who may be 
tempted to get himself out of a financial 
corner by doubtful methods will recall this 
story, and if he is wise pursue the straight- 
forward course. 

The author's adventures in France, Ger- 
many, South America, the collapse of the 
one million-pound scheme against the Bank 
of England, his being hunted through Ire- 
land by the famous Bow-street police, rivals 
fiction. The thirty-seventh chapter begins 
one of the most graphic accounts ever writ- 
ten of English prison life. 

An unique chapter is that which contains 
the complete series of English Tickets-of- 
Leave, in fac-simile, the originals of which 
were issued to the author and to Sir Roger 
Tichborne, the famous "Claimant," whose 
life George Bidwell saved while both were 
fellow-prisoners at the great penal estab- 
lishment of Dartmoor, England. 

624 pages, 100 illustrations. The Case, 
Lockwood & Brainard Co., Hartford, Conn. 
Sold by subscription. 


This work is of dramatic interest — one 

which proves that "Truth is stranger than 

fiction." It is the history of a human life. 

In its pages are depicted in a simple, but 

Fkw people understand head or tail to 
the " Silver Question," and there is a grave 
doubt in the minds of many whether the 
American statesman who talks so glibly 
about free coinage always understands exact- 
ly what he preaches. Messrs. G. P. Putmaii & 
Sons of New York have issued a little volume 
entitled " The Question of Silver," by Louis 
R. Ehrich of Colorado, whirli answers many 
(luestions, and puts the subject in a ])lain 
niaiiner before the reader. We coninicnd 
the little volume withmit reserve to any one 
who desires to oblain the ])illi of tlie sul)ject 
without watling through a large amount of 
drv in;iller. 


The California Hotel 











Openftt 'December, IS90, 











TKp> r^nlifnrnin '^ unsurpassed in st>ie of service by the best hotels 
• of the United States. Heretofore there has been no 

strictly first-class Hurupcan-plan hotel in San Francisco. 



Dry Goods 

Office in New York 

51 Leonard Street 

Office in Paris 

28 Rue de la Victoire 





Dress Making Department 
Silk Department 

Woolen Dress Goods Department 

Laces, Ribbons, Gloves, Fans 

Domestic and Linen Departments 

Curtains, Portieres and Rugs, 

Hosiery and Underwear 
Cloaks, Jackets, Ulsters 


N. W. Cor. Kearny & Post Sts. 



^ New Book on California 



Vice-President California State Medical Society, Member of the State Board of 
Health, and of the American Public Health Association. 


" The Mediterranean Shores of America* 

or, the Climatic, Physical and Meteorological Coyiditions of Southern California. 

125 Pages. 

With colored maps and illustrations ; tlie most complete and exhaustive treatise on thi» 
subject. Every tourist, physician and invalid should by all means read this book. 

Address F. A. DAVIS, Medical Publisher. 
No. 1 23 1 Filbert Street, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Kindly mention Thb Californian when you write. 

The Evangel of the Temperance Cause. 

"The Junior Partners" 

Price of Cloth Binding, Price in Half Turkey Morocco, 

$2.50. $3.50. 

It is no exaggeration to say that this is the best temperance story ever written. — San Fran- 
cisco Chronicle. 

The delirium scene is a masterpiece of literary ssill, and soon it will be heard declaimed by 
public elocutionists all over the land. — Stockton Mail. 

It is written in elegant and graceful iliction, and will doubtless meet with merited success. 
— San Francisco Morning Call. 

"The Junior Partners" is a remarkably strong realistic temperance work, a transcript of real 
life and full of interest. — Chicago Globe. 

J. STUART & COMPANY, Publishers, 

1 1 70 Market Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 







From Goodwin s Improved Book-keeping and, Business Manual 
(giKDaiiUid j. "I learned ilic science of book- kce pint; 
from your work in than three weeks, and am ikjw 
keepins three different sets of books. What I learned 
from your work in so short a time cost a friend of mine 
$600 and over a year's time. — Tjiom.\s T.^ntish, Skow- 
hegan, Maine. March .'9. 1S90. " You illustrate what I 
never saw in any other work of the kind — p) actical hook-- 
keepiu";." — V,. H. \Vii,iii;k, book-keeper for I'ratt 6c 
Inman. iron and steel, Worcester. Mass. " Without the 
aid of a teacher. I studied your V)ook just eight weeks, 
sent my work to you for examination, and succeeded in 
obtaininsj your • audit.' I then came to this city without 
ever havin,tr seen the inside of a set of books, and im- 
mediately took contrt)! of a set of double-entry books for 
the firm, whose receipts during 1S90 were about $1,500,000, 
I am now the firm's chief accountant and have five direct 
assistant book-keepers under me. It is said — and I do 
not think exaggerated -that I have the largest set of 
books in Indianapolis. The above surely stand as self- 
evident facts that the channel of success was opened to 
me through the medium of j-our book. " — W. O. Shirev, 
Iiead book-keeper for The Parry Manufacturing Co.. road 
■carts and road wagons. Indianapolis. Ind.. P'eb. 23. 1S91, 

A-i'i'-Size of book y'^xiu'., inches; pages 293: printed in 
red and black; richly bound: ,i-',.}4-1 Cf)pies sold and 3.062 
testimonials receiveci >ip to Thursda\'. April 2S, 1S92. 
Price !S:{.00 isent postpaid upon receipt of pricei. 
Fourteenth edition published May. i^yi. 

CiT THIS ot"T AND B.\VK IT, as it will Hot appear again. 
You will surely have to liave the book sonii' day, if not 
at once. It is not a lu.xury. but a «/'(V',v,v//r— particularly 
to \.\\^ proiryessi-ie. Send for descriptive pamphlet. 

Address orders exactly as follows : 


R. 282. 1215 Broadway. New York 


'^^^-^^-^ IN PRIZES 


1st prize, S50; 2(1. S25; 3d, Si5: k% $7; 5(1), S3 


what famous sayings are recorded in our annals as 
having been uttered by well-known Americans on 
historical occasions ? Take lor example Captain 
Jas. Lawrence's dying cry: "Don't Cive up the Ship " 


For Full Information, Send for Copy of 

American Notes and Queries 



1 Oc per number 





Orange Groves 
^"^ Orange Lands 

In Califurnia 

Send your name and address 
or call on 


Redlands, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

320 JflH^^A\^ iT 

"-'- - - ^^w ^ 


roi\ S^K^AtlS Of oyi\ ^riGi^/\\/iHs') SK fflis RlBU(ATiort. 







of Com 

"'""' Electric Liirhtinir 



Power, Miningand Railway Plants 


Fort Wayne Electric Company 


California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington and Arizona 




... OF THE 

35 '^^^^' Montgomery Street 


WOOD ARC Lighting 


WOOD POWER Generators and Appliances 

FORT WAYNE DIRECT CURRENT Incandescent Apparatus 

WORKS: Corner Vallejo and Davis Streets 

Corner Mission and Fremont Streets 

San rRANCisco. California 


Is the leading city of the Southwest; is 
in the centre of one of the richest agri- 
<:ulturai centres of the countrw 

For Particulars 

Address, President of the Board of Trade. 

An Article on Phoenix 

A finely illustrated article on Phoenix 
will appear in the July issue of the 
Californian Illustrated Magazine. The 
article was intended for June but the 
publishers finding that adequate illu>- 
trations could not be made b\- that time 
were obliged to defer it until the follow- 
ing issue. 


no "T 1^ I 

In addition to being favorite in Fall and Wintt-r. 
it is most desiraliU'. cool and dtdightfnl for Sprine 
imd Summer visitors. Located in tlie heart of NKW 
YolUC ( rrv, ai Fifili Avenne and "v^th and -Vitli 
streets, and overlookinir Central Park and Plaza Si|uare. 
A marvel of Inxnry and comfort. Oonvenient to 
I>laces of amnsement and stores. Fifth .Vvenne Stages. 
Cross-Town and Belt Line horse cars pass the doors, 
'rerminal station Sixth . Avenne Klevated Koad within 
luUl a block. Oondnctcd on the .\merican and 
Kuropean plans. The water and ice nsed are vaporized 
and frozen on the i>remises and certified as to puritv 
l.y I'rof. Chas F. Chandler. SVMMKR K.\TKS. 

The Californian 


San Fraucisco Argus 
This magazine has a field and a future before it. 

Redlands Citrograph 

It is the equal, typo^aphically, of the best Eastern 
magazines, and from a literar>' point of view, it is 
more interestiug to the people of California than any 
other publication we have yet seen. This magazine 
is a credit to the editor and publishers. 

Fresno Republican 

It is the best effort in the magazine line yet at- 
tempted in this State. It has a local triune and every 
promise of success. 

Boston Herald 

Has more the spirit of success in its pages than 
any Pacific Coast publication we have yet seen. 

Pomona Times 

The most distinctively Californian of any magazine 
ever published west of the Rocky Mountains. 

Los Angeles Journal 

The success of the publication is assured, for the 
Pacific Coast has long waited for a magazine of sotne 
literary merit, and will not be slow to appreciate it, 
now it has materialized. 

Ventura Observer 

We commend this beautiful monthly to the readers 
of the Observer. 

Pasadena Star 

Has earned for itself a place within the pale ot 
American magazine literature. 

Santa Clara Valley 
Up to the full standard of a high-grade magazine. 

Woodland Mail 

Is finely gotten up and compares very favorably 
with its Eastern competitors. 

St. Louis Observer 

Starts off with articles of a high literaiy character, 
showing that there is a great deal of enterprise 
behind it. 

Hartford Post 

Among the best literary monthlies of the country. 
It is well illustrated, and the fact that it comes from 
the extreme western border of our land gives it addi- 
tional interest. 

Eureka Standard 

It maintains the high standard which its initial 
number indicated . . . The magazine takes rank 
among the first in the Nation. 

New Orleans Picayune 

This Californian Illustrated Magazine is a 
welcome addition to the usual monthly file, and 
shows that the West Coast in matter and manner is 
not far distanced by the East. 

New York Christian Intelligencer 

It certainly is the leading magazine of the Pacific 

El Paso Mercury 

The Cahfornian will rank with Harper's, The 
Century, Scribner's and other first-class monthlies. 

California's Young Man 

The California Illustrathd Mag.a^ine has 
struck a lead which will witi it unlimited fame in the 
minds of the reading and thinking public in its series 
of articles on the Chinese question as actually con- 
fronted by people on the Pacific Coast. 

Los Angeles Porcupine 

It is of as high order of merit as the leading East- 
ern magazines. 

Phillipsburg (Pa.) Journal 

One of the finest magazines we have seen . . . 
Should be in everj' American home. 

New York Christian Intelligencer 
The magazine is a success. 

New York Christian Advocate 

The young monthly is to be highly commended 
and will be heartily received. 

California Christian Advocate 
^\'orthy of any such enterprise in our country. 

New York Congregationalist 

It is bright and enjoyable in substance and exter- 
nally attractive. 

The California Crown Vista 
Equal to the leading magazines of the East. 

Coast Advocate 

It ranks with the leading magazines of the country 
— equal in tone, contents and appearance to any of 
the Eastern productions. 

Los Angeles Porcupine 

At last we have a distinctively Californian Illustrated 
Magazine, in which we may take a just and pardon- 
able pride. The Californian for April is a number 
that should be found in every home in the State. 

The Antioch Ledger, Cal. 

This is undoubtedly the best magazine ever pub- 
lished in California and should be a welcome visitor 
to every home in the State. 

Monterey New Era 
Beautifully Illustrated. 

Petaluma Argus, Cal. 

The Californian Illustrated Magazine for 
April is a superb number, abounding in excellent 
reading and fine illustrations. 

Woodland Tilail 

The Californian Illustrated Magazine for 
April is beautifully illustrated, many of its articles 
being embellished bv artistic sketches making the 
issue the peer of any of the elaborately illustrated 
magazines of the East. The magazine is an lionor to 
California and we bespeak for it long life and pros- 

Annals, Watertown, N. V. 

New periodicals arc springing up on all sides, but 
il is rarely that one iiiiiMcdialclv takes a place in the 
front rank as does the Caluornian Ili.ustratisd 
Mag.'VZINE * * that compares favorably with the 
best of our large magazines, and may well claim an 
honorable position alongside of the Cenitiry. * * The 
Californian is a first-class magazine, and we wish 
il the success it well deser\'es- 




■ OF ■ 


Science Text-Book Series. 
"Clear descriptiou and graphic representation, and 
not a metaphysical account of classification, are what 
•re gfiven. We recommend the work as a very service- 
able manual."— jV. K. Critic. 

LIVING LIGHTS. (Animal Phosphorescence.) 

Chas. Scribner'S Sons, New York. 
Sampson, Low & Co., London, Publishers. 

" A charming book . . . full of fascinations; a mine 
of interesting knowledge. . . . In publishing works 
of this class, Charles Scribner's Sons are doing valuable 
■ervice to the reading public."— Ulica Ptesi. 

A FROZEN DRAGON, and Other Tales. DODD, 

Mead & Co., New York, Publishers. 
" Boys and prls, for whom this book is designed, can- 
not fail to find it of absorbing interest. Mr. Holder has 
the faculty of the late Prof. Proctor of making the facts 
of science as readable as fiction." — S. F. Chronicle. 

THE IVORY KING. (The Elephant.) Sampson, 
Low & Co., London. Chas. Scribner'S 
Sons, New York, Publishers. 
"Enjoyable from beginning to end ' — N. Y. Critic. 

Boston, Publishers. 

" The author has accomplished a work for which he 
was better fitted than any man in America. ... A 
delightful birthday present to a bright boy or girl." — 
Albany Ev'g Journal, Aug. 2, 1888. 

" It is a delightful little volume, packed full of quaint 
out-of-way knowledge, and made exceedingly Interesting 
by the author's very vivid style of description." — Chicago 

& Co., London. Chas. Scribner's Sons, 
New York, Publishers. 
"One of the most remarkable of recent publications." 

— Christian Union. 

Boston. Chas. Dillingham & Co., N. Y., 
" Invaluable as a guide to all of Pasadena's charming 

«nvironments." — Los Angelts Tribune. 



IN Science 

No. 1 



Charles Frederick Holder. 

Handsomely Illustrated. 

"The story is not only told most pleasingly for the 
class for which it is designed, but will be found full of 
value for advanced students." — Inter-Ocean, April 19. 

" A fine contribution to the literature which has grown 
up about the name of the famous scientist." — Rochester 
Herald, April 20. 

"It is a delightful book, and in many respects the 
most sympathetic story of the great scientist's life that 
has yet appeared." — Boston Gazette, April 25. 

" It is an admirable volume. . The skill shown 

in blending the personal flavor with the scientific career, 
and making each illustrate the other, is very great" — 
Chicago Times, May 2. 

" Mr. Holder has made the hazardous attempt to write 
a narrative of a great man which shall appeal to the 
mature, and the older of ou"- children, and he has suc- 
ceeded . . . One of the best and most useful books of 
its class that has appeared during the present year." — 
Detroit Free Press, May 3. 

"Charmingly told and liberally illustrated." — Cincit^ 
nati Times-Star, April 30. 

"The early bent, the growing and strengthening char- 
acteristics, the physical sufferings and the ripened 
serenityof the man are beautifully and feelingly related." 
— Times, Kansas City, May 11. 

" An admirable work . . . There are other lives of 
Darwin, notably, one by his son ; but there is none which 
tells just what one wishes to know about him so com- 
pactly and satisfactorily as t\ns."— Indianapolis Journal, 
May 18. 

" A valuable popular biography of a great and profound 
student of nature." — Brooklyn Eagle, April 20. 

" Of the many biog^raphies and sketches of the life of 
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F. A. SHEPARD, Santa Barbara, California. 











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• Miscellaneous . 

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but it remains the same. For me its balmy airs are always blowing, its summer seas flashing in the 
sun; the pulsing of its surf-beat is in my ear; I can see its garlanded craigs, its leaping cascades, its 
plumy palms drowsing by the shore, its remote summits floating like islands above the cloud-rack; 
I can feel the spirit of its woodland solitude; I can hear the plash of its brooks; in my nostrils still 
lives the breath of flowers that perished twenty years ago." 

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For Tickets or further information, call on or address JOHN D. SPR^CKl^I^S & BROS. 
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T'rriu Liiii.-Noo-Ai-NA Falls, YoSEMiTR 
Paj^e 164 


IllMsUatfil 1)\- Constance Snow and from iilioloj^raphs 

AI,OHA: Poem 


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The Californian 

The reception which has been accorded the Californian all over the country, 
and the daily increasing patronage from every State in the Union justifies the 
publishers in increasing the size of the magazine and the numl)er of illustrated 
articles. The issues of Volume II contain one liundred and sixty pages, inaking 
more reading matter and more illustrations than any ilkistrated magazine ])u])lished. 
It is especially gratifying to the publishers that while the jieople of the Coast have 
responded to their efi\)rts in so liberal a way, the demand for the Californian is 
increasing over the entire country — suggestive of the interest taken in the West 
by the East. The object of the Californian is to do good : to afford good 
reading on the subjects of the world to its thousands of readers, to point out to 
the people of the East and Europe the advantages of life in the Western Country, 
its beauties, its marvelous climate, and to spread before the people east and 
west the good things wherever found. The Californian is an " organ," controlled 
entirely and exclusively by the great party that is for the right, for honest 
government, good morals and general elevation all along the line. Previous 
to this all the large illustrated magazines have been published in New York, 
it being believed that the conditions were such that a magazine that entailed large 
expense could not exist outside of the great metropolis of the East. The 
Californian has demonstrated that this is a fallacy. It has been in the field but 
seven months and already has the largest issue of any illustrated magazine of the 
first class published wesl of New York. It owns its own j)lant, i)rints its own 
editions from presses ordered for the purpose, and has grown so rapidly that every 
month has demanded an increase in room, and the magazine now gives employment 
to four or five hundred people. 


The publishers are arranging for an English Edition that will appear in London 
simultaneously with the issue in San Francisco, thus avoiding the delay, which at 
present exists owing to the distance between San Francisco and New York. A 
separate ofiice will be maintained in London, and the Magazine distributed from 
there over all Europe. 


In answer to many inquiries, it may be said that the Californian, while it 
devotes the majority of its space to the west, is cosmopolitan, and will provide its 
readers with as great if not greater variety of illustrated reading matter than any 
other magazine. Its field is the world. 


It should be said that the Californian desires the best of everything. Articles 
of all kinds, upon all subjects, and from all parts of the world. The same rules 
apply here as in other magazines. 


The August Californian will contain a number of striking and interesting 
papers ; the city of San Francisco will be described and tlioroughly illustrated 
by a resident who has made a thorough study of the conditions that hold here; 
a timely article will be on the Yellowstone Park; a (California Art Loan; 
a Suggestion for Chicago and the World's Fair, will be beautifully illustrate<l ; The 
History of Yachting in California; a valual)le jjaper in the scries on tiie Chinese, 
by the Rev. Dr. blasters; a seasonable paper on the nomination and election 
of Garfield, by Ex-Governor Sheldon, giving some hitherto unknown facts; a paper 
on Presidents, by Dr. W. H. Channing, one of the inventors of the Fire Alarm 
Telegraph ; " Black Fellows of Australia;" Moran ; " Some Heads of Napoleon," 
and others are a few suggestions of the richness of this issue. 

The Californian Illustrated Magazine, 





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ll'ftk (IIIL-NUU-AL NA l^Al.l.S YOSL.MITE 

The Californian 

Vol. U 

JULY, 1892 

No. 2 



THERE are two Italics — Italy of the 
Italians, and that "paradise of 
exiles, ' ' the stranger's Ital}'. Side 
by side with the history, the tradition 
and the poetry of the cue, touching, 
intermingling with it a foreign charm, 
is the history, the tradition and the 
poetry of the other. Nowhere is this 
dual individuality more visibly present 
than in the Flower City. English 
singers have chanted her, 

" Ilcr grave, gra}- palace-fronts, her lily- 
And curves of Arno bright, 

have glorified her suns and skies, 
her valleys and hills, her groves and 
gardens. When the voice of Italy was 
hushed, they were singers of English 
race who took up the silence and made 
it vocal with the wrongs, the woes, and 
finally, with the risen hope of Italy. 
They have made her story and her 
life their own ; in return their lives 
and stories have become a portion of 
herself, and in the most Italian of 
cities, the music of the English poets 
echoes harmoniously with the Tuscan. 
The longer you live in Florence the 
more vou become conscious of this 
double life, beating hard and fast, the 
one half upon the other. Wander 
where you will, on ever}^ hand there 
will arise scenes and objects with 
which you have so long been familiar 
through the phantom existence of a 
poet's verse, that now you are tempted 
to take the real for the phantom and 
say, not " here is a bit of Florence I 
Vol. II— II 165 

have known in Browning," but. 
' ' here is a bit of Browning in Flor- 

The very stones which say to you. 
"Dante, Angelo, Savonarola," say 
also "Browning, Byron. Shelley." 

Ever}' walk in Florence is, of neces- 
sity, .somewhat in the nature of a 
pilgrimage to the poets, but there are 
certain spots which constitute them- 
.selves Meccas most naturally. One 
such lies in Oltrano ; you mav visit it 
some morning when you are following 
Arno with lingering feet while your 
eager e^'cs run all the way up to the 
Vallombrosan mountains, or to where 

" Fiesole's embracing arms enclose 
The immeasurable rose." 

Very likely it will be such a day as 
Mrs. Browning sings of : 

' ' Such a day 
As Florence owes the sun. The sky above 

Its weight tipon the mountains seemed to 
And palpitate in glory, like a dove 
Who has down too fast, full-hearted." 

There are such da^'s in Florence. 
Cross the loveliest bridge of all. the 
Ponte Triuita, stopping a moment, as 
you are sure to do, to look at 

" Golden .\mo as it shoots away 

Through Florence's heart, beneath her 
bridges four — 
Bent bridges, seeming to strain off like 
And tremble while the arrowy undertide 
Shoots on and cleaves the marble as it goes 
And strikes up palace walls on either 



There are five bridges now. Ivcave 
them all and follow the narrow street 
to its terminating square be}ond. A 
shabby little square it is ; one you 
would pass fifty times, otherwhere, 
unuoting, but which here you will not 
pass. Like the antique tomb it 
says to every traveller : ' ' Sis^e 
l^iaior / " for this is the Piazza San 
Felice. Yonder is the tiny "Church 

the memory and the love of the two 
poets. A marble tablet in the wall 
records that " Here wrote and died 
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, who in 
the heart of a woman vuiited the 
learning of a scholar and the genius of 
a poet, and made with her \erse 
a golden link between Hngland 
and Italy. Grateful Florence placed 
the memorial." Here the wcnran- 

Alt; > 

*\ W^^^' 

The Ciiildcn Arrrn 

" Whence came the clear voice of the clois- 
tered ones 
Chanting a chant made for niidsunmur 

nights ? 
I know not what particular praise of God, 
It .always came and went with June," 

to the ears of the poLl 1 drowning, 
where on the little terrace built above 
the .street, he 

" IJreathed the beauty and llie fcarfuliuss of 

and fashioned I'oinpilia's .'^even-fold 

This is Casa Guidi, still sacred to 

" Wrote a meditation and a dream 

Hearing a little child sing in the street." 

From tliese windows she beheld 

" Ten thousand eyes of I'loreiitincs 
Strike back the triumph of the I,ombarcl 

and witnessed 

"The armaments of Austria (low 
Into the drowning heart of Tuscany." 

Yonder is llie Tiui Palace, where 
the Grand Duke Leopold took that 
oath which, henceforth stood " among 
the oaths of perjtu'crs eininent," and. 



up that narrow stretch to the bridge, 
Mrs, Browning :i little hiter "saw and 
witnessed how Grand Dukes eonie 

From the quiet depths of Casa Guidi 
issued such strains of ])oetry as one 
would think must still leave an echo ; 
and if, as Hawthorne held, inanimate 
surroundings may become vitalized l)y 
association, these walls — if any — must 
thrill with the magnetism of a living 
love and a deathless music. 

Not far from Casa (Uiidi, nearer 
Anio, is the Convent of the Carmine, 
that cage whence the slender lyippo 
lyippi, madcap monk and marvelous 
painter, escai)cd, as often as beneath 
his window 

" There came :i liurry of feet and little feet," 

Or the moonlight on Santa JMargherita 
took the shape of the gentle novice, 
lyticrezia, and lured him thither. ' 'The 
Carmine's my cloister," say we, rc- 
memljering, and listen involuntaril}- 
to catch some stray echo from that 
flower song : 

" Flower o' the broom, 
Take away love and our life is a toinb !" 

Flower o' the rose. 
If I've been merry what matter who knows ?" 

What matter, indeed, now that the 
dust of centtiries is on the laughing- 
lips and wondrous fingers. Does it 
even matter that to us he is almost 
more Browning's I^ippo Lippi than 

A stone's throw from the Carmine 
lives to-day a poet, a poet of whose 
books it might often be said as it was 
of Hugo's " Shakespeare," that their 
gravest fault is the omission of the 
words, "A Poem" from the title 
page. Among a hundred tender 
passages of the kind, this poet has 
written of the citj^ she loves so well. 

" Where lies the secret of the spell 
of Florence ? a spell that strengthens 
and does not fade with time. Perhaps 
it is because her .story is so old and 
her beauty is so young. Behind her 
lie such ab3\sses of mighty memories. 
Upon her is shed such a radiance of 
sunlight and life. The stones of her 

are dark with the blood of so many 
generations, but her air is bright with 
the blo.^soms of so many flowers, even 
as the eyes of her people have in them 
more sadness than lies in tears, while 
their lips have the gayest laughter 
that ever made music in the weariness 
of the Avorld. 

"Rome is terrible in her old age. 
But Florence, where she sits throned 
amidst her meadows white with lilies, 
Florence is never terrible. Florence 
is never old. In her infancy they fed 
her with the manna of freedom, and 
that fairest food gave her eternal 

" Who having known her can for- 
sake for lesser loves ? Who having 
once abode with her, can turn their 
faces from the rising sun and set the 
darkness of the hills betwixt herself 
and them ? " 

Elsewhere, with the same passionate 
beauty of expression, she names her — 
' ' the fairest city of all the empires of 
the world," the of cities, as 
Paris is the Aspasia, — "the daughter 
of flowers, the mistress of art, the 
nursing mother of liberty and a.spira- 

It is in one of the most sombre of 
Florentine palaces that Otxida dwells — 
so nuich a name and a shadow to the 
outside world that she seems to live 
there only as the Brownings .still live 
in Casa Gtiidi, the Hawthorues at 
Bello.^guardo, and poor old Landor in 
liis Fie.solan Fden. 

Westward from Ouida's palace and 
the Carmine, high above Arno, stands 
Bellosguardo it.self — Tuscan Bellos- 
guardo, where Mrs. Browning 

" Standing on the actual, blessed sward 
Where Galileo stood at nights to take 
The vision of the stars * '•■■ * found it hard 
Gazing upon the earth and heaven to 
A choice of beauty." 

Galileo's villa is here ; here. too. 
the Hawthornes dwelt and drew all 
the poets about them. Here the heart- 
stricken Browning passed his "Apo- 
calyptic month ' ' after Death passing 
through Casa Guidi had .sealed the 



loveliest chapter in the life of any poet. 
Just as then : — 

" From the outer wall 
Of the garden drops the mystic, floating 

Of olive trees. 

And as then : — 

" Beautiful 
The city lies along the ample vale. 
Cathedral, tower and palace, piazza and 

The river trailing like a silver cord 
Through all." 

Rn:>kin's Francesca — herself both 

' ' By a gift God grants me now and then * * 
Who walked in Florence beside her men." 

Across the Arno from Bellosguardo 
is the Cascine — pleasure park of the 
pleasure-loving Florentines, but mem- 
orable to us as the spot where was 
written that loveliest of poems — 
Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind." 
Who has walked in the depths of 
those ilex avenues and seen the 
scurrying of autumn leaves before the 
wind, but has walked there with 
Shelley ? All Florence, in carriage 
and on foot, takes its pleasure here 

Statue of CiranJ Duki' IVrJInanJ 

poet and painter — had once her home 

here also. And it may have been 

from this villa, though I fancy it was 

from llic loftier, lovelier height of 

fic-solc, that Robert Browning mused 


" The valley beneath where, white and widt- 
And washed by the morning's water-gold, 
Florence lay out on the mountain-side ; 
River and 1;ridge and street and square 
Lay mine, as much at my Ijeck and call 
Through the live, translucent bath of air, 
As the sights in a magic crystal ball." 

Others since Browning have had 
that vision, even to the noting — 

dail}', l)tit to who know the place 
is hatmted by an " misecn presence " 
beside which llie ga}' Florentines flit 
by, tlie most unreal ghosts of all. 
Shelley has pa.s.sed here ; for us that 
is the history and the poem of the 

There is in Florence whicli 
speaks of him. We all know how he 
laiuiched his cockle-shell boat on Arno 
to the horror of the IHorentincs and 
his own delight and we all know his 
fragment of " Ciinevra ; " but vShelley 
never greatly loved Florence and the 



Cascine remains tlie one place in it 
closely linked with his name. 

There are a hundred memories we 
have not time to j^ather in tlie brief 
space of a morning. We will not stop 
" to eat an ice at Donay's tenderly," 
nor to look at the "bold, bright Per- 
seus " in the lyOggia ; scarcely ev'cn to 
note the violet-laden stone. 

" Where Savonarola's soul went out in fire." 

If we pause a moment it shall be to 
listen while 

as he rode on that day, centuries ago, 
when glancing up at the palace window 
he caught the vision of the Riccardi's 
bride. Palace and window still are 
there, but the " passionate, pale lady's 
face" no longer leans from Robbia's 
cornice ; even the "empty shrine " is 
gone. vSix steps away in the Chapel 
the lovers sleep, or should, had not a 
subtler craft than Robbia's constrained 
their " frustrate ghosts " to haunt the 
square in broad, Italian da\light. 
Who looks shall .see them. 

In Sant.i Croces llolv Precincts 

" The Duomo bell 
Strikes ten as if it struck ten fathoms down, 
So deep, and twent)' chnrches answer it." 

But at the Piazza of the Sa^iiissima 
Ayinunziata we may pause altogether 
with a clear conscience and putting 
aside Andrea's frescoes think first of 
Browning. P'or here in the open 
.square just as he was placed by "John 
of Douay " rides the Grand Duke 
Ferdinand. "Empty and fine as a 
swordless sheath," — .so he rides 

Another square in Florence belongs 
to Browning, by association — a memor- 
able .'square framed by the venerable 
church of San Lorenzo and the Riccardi 
Palace; adorned by the statue of "Gian 
of the Black Bands ; " with Angelo's 
dread marbles but a step away in the 
New Sacristy and felt even here. But 
it is memorable for something else 
too, for here on a certain morning — 

("June was the month — Lorenzo named the 



and precisely on that palace step 

" \\1iicli meant for lounging knaves of the 
Now serves re-venders to display their 

Robert Browning picked np a l)Ook 

"Small-quarto size, part print, ])art manu- 

A book in shajx', but realh- jiure, crude 

Secreted from man's life Avhen hearts beat 

And brains, high-blooded ticked two cen- 
turies since ' ' 

Just sttcli dingy vohinies lie on just 
such nitilti-furnished stalls to-day, but 
the magician with his ring has van- 

How like Byron 
it is that the one 
place in Florence 
he has made his 
own should be 
Santa Croce — the 
mournful and the 
mighty . I sup- 
pose, indeed, it 
would be impos- 
sible to enter that 
jewel - case, the 
Tril^ttna of the 
Ufizzi, where 

" The Goddess loves 
in stone and fills 
The air around 
with beauty," 

withottt a thought 
of I>yron, as to .salute the greater 
\'entis of the Louvre in any other 
words than Heine's : 

" Ivver blessed Goddess of beauty and fuir 
beloved I^ady of INIilo." 

But, though Byron may have 
glanced at the Ufizzi, it is only at 
Santa Croce that he lingered. Ivnter 
its dusk, stand l)efore its tombs and 
mighty cenotaphs, one by one, and 
abotit the weight of oppressive 
silence yoti will be lifted into audible 

"Dust which is 
Even in itself immortality," 

is gathered here. 

" Here repose 
Angelo's, Alfieri's bones, anil his. 
The starry Galileo, with his woes ; 
Here Macchiavclli's earth returned 
whence it rose." 


What ungrateful Florence failed to 
do the 3'yngli.sli poet has done for 
Florence ; he has brought back the 
scattered a.shes of the " all-Etrti.scan 
three," and, re-united in his verse, 
for the first time Italy's great dead 
sleep together. His reward is this : 
Borne away from Greece, rejected 
from Westminster Abbey, exiled from 
that sweet .spot in Rome where his 
brother poets. Keats and vShelley, lie, 
lie has made for himself a moiuiment 

of .song in this 
Pantheon of the 
' ' Etrurian Ath- 
en s , " Sa n t a 
Croce, more than 
marble memorial. 
" Still graves 
when Italy is 
talked upon ! " 
wrote Mrs. Brown- 
ing, and it is near 
the grave of Eliz- 
abeth Barrett 
Browning herself, 
in a lovely, for- 
saken place, the 
very home of sol- 
itude and silence, 
where even the 
dark cedars have 
])tit on a garment of, that we 
nuist seek the memorial of another 
English i^oet, Walter Savage Landor. 
Not fir are the graves of Arthur 
Hugh Clougli, of the sctilptor 
Cxreenotigh and of our own .soldier- 
preacher, Theodore Parker. 

Lnndor's home was not in Florence, 
l)ut in " Milton's p'iesole," or as he 
liimself called it, "Immemorial Fie- 
.sole." A charming walk still leads 
to the stately and .sombre Villa Landor 
where are his " citron groves," where 
still "a thou.sand cedars raise their 
heads," and in the distance Valdarno 
and \', now as then, double 
their beauty by one another's. Driven 
from liis lionie in his old age, Landor 




found a refuge in the tenderness of lips at certain hours and aspects of 

Robert Browning, but steadfastly 

mourned for his lost paradise to the 

da}^ of his death. A mournful old 

man, a very Lear of poets, who wrote 

his biography in four lines on his 

seventy-fifth birthday. 

' ' I strove with none, for none was worth the 
Nature I loved and next to Nature, Art ; 
I warmed both hands before the fire of life ; 
It sinks, and I am ready to depart." 

It is to the grave of Landor that 

Swinburne came, 

' ' As one whose steps half linger. 
Half run before, 
The youngest to the oldest singer 
That England bore." 

And above it he ut- 
tered the lament so '^ 
lovely one cannot for- ^ 

bear to recall it. • 

" Back to the Flower-town, 
side by side, 
The bright months bring, 
New-born, the bridegroom 
and the bride. 
Freedom and Spring. 


" The sweet land laughs 
from sea to sea, 
Filled full with sun ; \vijva.iL 

All things return to her, /^ VV'llSi 
being free, ■'' %\ —^ 

All things but one. 

" In many a tender wheal- 
cn pk)t 

Flowers that were dead ' - ^j!?>'-is^: 

Live, and old suns revive, 

but not '^''^ 

That holier head. 
* * -x- * 

" But thou, his Florence, to thy trust 
Receive and keep — 
Keep safe his dedicated dust. 
His sacred sleep ; 

" So shall thy lovers, come from far, 
Mix with thy name 
As morning star with evening star 
His faultless fame." 

With that " youngest singer" liini- 
self, there is no spot in Florence — if 
it be not this — which is expressly 
associated, as Santa Croce with Byron, 
the Cascine witli Shelley, and so 
many places wilh the Brownings ; 
but there is no poet whose music will 
rise more (iiiickly to the liearl and 

X' lUmU'lBlf': ! ^ ' — ^.-~^~~ 

;^,J»i,UIII«Iiia|J r •■ 

Florence. No one has sung so truly 
' ' the lily of lands ; ' ' none has so well 
understood the charm 

" That binds with words and holds with 
eyes and hands 
All hearts in all men's lands ;" 

none has so grieved for her 

" Bays unplucked, her laurels unentwined 
That no men break or bind, 
And myrtles long forgetful of the sword. 
And olives unadored ;" 

nor has any triumphed so in her 

When spring comes upon Valdarno 
with a rush of light and flush of blos- 
som, he greets her : 

"Oh, heavenliest I'lor- 

ence ! — from the mouths 

of flowers 
Fed by melodious hours, 
From each sweet mouth 

that kisses light and air. 
Thou whom thy Fate made 

As a bound vine or any 

flowering tree. 
Praise him who made them 



And he has listened 

' ' Where spring hears loud 
through her long-lit vales 
Triumphant nightingales, 
In many a fold of fiery 

foliage hidden, 
Withheld as things for- 
__^_^ But clamorous with innu- 

"''_"- ■-- ^ meral)le delight 

-- ,'-' In spring's red, green and 


With the red, green and white 
comes another memory of Swinburne. 
We who were in Florence last vSep- 
tember were the startled witnesses of 
a solemn and beanlifnl sight. The 
chance instill to Italy's most sacred 
tomb, fltmg from a wanton heart 
which, seeking to dishonor Italy, ran 
the grave risk of twice dishonoring 
France — wrapped Italy in flags from 
Turin to Naples. We beheld the 
tortress-palaces of Florence blossom 
into the tricolor. Very beautiful she 
was — ^our h'lower City l)ecome a City 
of Flags ; and above all that stir of 
silken banners, 



"Green as sunimer, and red as dawn, and 
As the live heart of lij^ht," 

and above the clamor of Florentine 
voices chanting Garibaldi's hymn, 
there seemed to thrill the words of 
freedom throtigh the lips of the Eng- 
lish poet : 

" I were not Freedom if thou wert not free, 
Nor thou wert Italy." 

Since Italian air will hold a strain of 
English music at stich a time, one can- 
not but believe some ripple of song from 
these many alien lips will mingle with 
the flowing of Arno while there re- 
mains a stone in Florence to echo either. 



Though other lands have liquid words 
To voice in melting tones their love, 
Among them all, none seem to move 
The love-mood of enamored souls 
As three sweet syllables that rise 
From out an earthly Paradise, 

They bring the sweetness of the breeze 
That steals perfume from rarest flowers, 
Among the fairy island bowers 
Of southern seas, the lyric note 
IvOve warbles there, the sweetest word 
That mortal ear has ever heard. 

This swan-note of a loving race 
I cradle in the flowers of love 
I send my faith to thee to prove. 
And when upon thy lips it lives, 
I would that I were there to hear 
Thee speak the word I hold so dear. 



IN that small i)(jrli<j!i of the J'acific 
Coast now known as Mariposa 

County, Nature, a long, long a.'on 
ago, designed and executed a work of 
planetar\- decoration that exhibits lier 
wonderful handicraft on a scale of 
marvelous splendor. It took her 
thousands of jears to complete the 
task, and for other thousands her com- 
position of grandeur and beauty re- 
mained unknown and unvisited save 
by the fauna and avifauna of its en- 
virons. Later on the aboriginal forest 
man found his way to this masterpiece 
of physical effort and skill and made 
it his hunting-park, calling it Ah- 
wali-ncc. After that for untold gen- 
erations it was still unapproached by 
civilized man. 

Cradled in the vSierra Nevada Moun- 
tains and walled in with a frame- 
work of stupendous cliffs and Titanic 
rocks that are crowned wnth pinnacles, 
towers and mighty domes and silver 
streaked with cascades and waterfalls, 
no other valley in the world can rival 
that of A h-cvah -)/('(' in sublimity and 
com]:)inations of the beautiful and 
grand. As you moxe from point to 
point, panorama after ])anorama of 
ever-changing views succeed each 
other. Here the magnitude and 
solemnity of granite forms, rising 
thousands of feet above you insjnre an 
emotion akin to awe ; there the ])icture 
of a slumbering lake, .set into the 
.scene like a mirror framed in .sculp- 
tured adornments and draped with 
green garlands, lulls the mind to the 
sweet contemplation of nature's love- 
liness ; anon structures of architectural 
design, massively magnificent, excite 
wonder and astonishment ; here the 
rainbow of the cascade's iridescent 
spray fascinates the delighted eye ; 
there the turmoil of rushing waters it ; now the «jf 

arboreal roj'alt)' evokes reverential 
admiration, and now floral beauties 
charm you with the joyou.sness of 
their rich colors. 

Nor is the mind less appealed to 
through the medium of the ear. The 
thunder of the cataract, the sweet 
music of the singing brook, the whis- 
pers of a smoothl\- gliding stream, 
pensive in anticipation of its leap into 
the air ; the din and uproar of the 
eager rapid in its ha.ste to display the 
glories of a waterfall ; and the silence 
that reigns in the still alcoves of the 
dimly lighted forest, each and all offer 
their didactic salutations to the .soul. 
'Tis a terrestrial uranus, this valley of 
Yo.semite, fit for the abode of Jove 

From San Francisco it is not very 
far away. The wild duck might rise 
from the water of the ba}' an3^wliere 
betw-een this cit}- and Oakland and 
after an aerial trip of not more than a 
couple of hours take his rest on the 
glassy bosom of Mirror L,ake ; for in 
an air-line the Yo.semite is not more 
than one hundred and fifty miles dis- 
tant from vSan hVancisco. To reach 
it by rail and stage, however, we wing- 
less bipeds nuist travel two hundred 
and sixt>' miles, and crawl on the 
journe\- many times the number of 
liours that our two-legged table dainty 
would require. lUit there are those 
who come two thous:\nd six hundred 
miles and farther than that to .see this 
wonder spot, and we inxilcour readers 
in all parts of the United vStates and 
Fairope to pay a mental \isit to it. 

As an introduction to this former 
paradise of the Indian — -the my.sterious 
deep valley — let us look back on the 
course of time and witness the legend- 
ary fight that changed alike the name 
of a tribe and that of the \allcy. It 
was an exploit which in a Roman 


1 .£ 



amphitheater would have wrung 
applause from morituri gladiators. 
In this retrospection we see a young 
chief of the powerful tribe of the 
Ah-wah-7icc-chccsy^A\\Cin\'g his way with 
stately tread among the rocks and 
boulders to Mirror Lake. He is un- 
armed, having no other predatory 
design than the capture of a few 
trout. Suddenly he is confronted by 
a full-grown grizzly bear. But the 
descendant of Ah-wali-nce scorns to 
yield to the monster's imperious claim 
to right of road, and seizing the dried 
limb of a tree, storm-torn from its 
parent stem, does fierce battle with 
the beast. Little recking of wounds 
received from the flesh-tearing claws 
with blow after blow he batters out the 
grizzly's eyes, and the victory is his. 
We hear his tribe greet him for his 
dauntless courage with the proud title 
of Yo Sem-i-iee, the great or full-grown 
grizzly bear. On our pathway back 
from the misty land of tradition we 
find musty records of his children and 
his children's children bearintr the 
same name until the whole tribe 
assumes it as a mark of superiority 
over all other Indian clans. 

California is indel^ted for the pres- 
ervation of this euphonious and com- 
memorative name to Dr. L- A. Bunnell 
who has supplied the Clio of the 
Pacific Coast with a truthful account 
of the discovery of the valle}' by white 
men. He accompanied the expedition 
that first entered it and without giving 
minute details suffice it to say that the 
Indians of the vSierra, determined to 
repel the gold diggers whose encroach- 
ments alarmed them, committed nu- 
merous murders and robberies during 
the latter part of 1850. These out- 
rages caused the formation of what 
was called the Mariposa Battalion, 
composed of volunteers and assigned 
by Governor McDougall to keep in 
.subjection the Indian tribes on the 
east of the San Joaquin Valley. About 
March, 1 851, this command under 
Major Savage entered what was known 
as the " My.sterious Deep Valley " the 
vaunted strontrhold f)f the VosfDii/rs 

who boa.sted that if their white foes 
ever entered it they would be coralled 
like a band of mules or horses. 

Ten-ie-ya was their aged chief, and 
long did he and his people guard the discovery of the entrance 
to their valley home. The chief 
himself declared, when the discovery 
w^as accomplished, that he had "made 
war upon the white gold-diggers to 
drive them from the mountains and 
prevent their entrance into AJi-7uah- 
iiee." But these same gold-diggers 
determined to bring the Indians into 
reservations, marched under the 
guidance of a friendly Indian in .search 
of the mountain fastnesses of the tur- 
bulent bands. As the command 
approached the canon, the aged 
Ten-ie-ya tried by concilation to save 
his valley from intrusion and his tribe 
from annihilation. A great "medi- 
cine man," an old friend of his father, 
had w^arned him that when the horse- 
men of the lowlands entered 
Ah-wah-nee, his tribe would be de- 
stro3^ed. So war having failed, he 
approached the invader and promised 
that his people would come forth from 
their my.sterious abode. But he covild 
not avert the doom pronounced b}- the 
old "medicine man." The invaders 
continued their march. White men 
rode into the deep valley. The doom 
pronounced by the old ' 'medicine man" 
was quickly fulfilled, and in the .sum- 
mer of 1853, Ten-ie-ya and his tribe 
were no more. 

But it was not the white man's 
doing ; their extinction was accom- 
plished by a retaliatory act of ven- 
geance. Ten-ie-ya, after having 
remained for .some time on the reserva- 
tion to which he and his tribe were 
remo\-e(l, was allowed under a solemn 
promise of good behavior, to return 
with his family to his old home. 
Other Yosemites soon stole away and 
followed them. Then they resumed 
their predatory and murderons pro- 
pensities, and late in May, 1852, 
killed two men, members of a party 
of five prospectors who had entered 
the valley. A detachment of regular 

The Cathedral Spires, Yoseinite 



troops was sent against them, but 
Teii-ie-j-a and all l)ut five of his l)and 
escaped and soug'ht refug^e ainon.g' the 
Monos who extended to them hospi- 
tality and shelter. No fear of punish- 
ment, however, no dread of the white 
man's vengeance could keep them long 
from their loved home in the Deep Val- 
ley. Thither the)' returned and short! >• 
aftenvard, with base ingratitude, 
made a raid into the country of the 
Monos, capturing and driving off a 
band of horses. Erin^-s soon followed 
them. Like sleuth hounds the 
wronged Monos tracked the thieves 
and fell upon them while torpid with 
gluttony and feasting on horseflesh. 
Only eight of Ten-ie-ya's band 
escaped, the women and children 
being carried away captives. 

When the command came suddenly 
into full view of the valley fi'om the 
plateau now called IMount Beatitude, 
the gaze of every trooper in it was 
riveted on the stupendous cliff El 
Capitan, and his mind was staggered 
at the immensity of rock that reared 
its .summit thirty-three hundred feet 
above its base. Dr. Ikmnell was .so 
impressed with the ine.Kpressible 
grandeur of the whole .scene that his 
eyes filled with tears under the 
influence of exalted emotion. And 
.so it is with all who behold for 
the first time this wonderful prodigy 
of nature ; the intensit}- of feeling is 

That evening round the campfire, 
at the .suggestion of Dr. Ihinnell, the 
question (^f naming the valley was 
discussed, and many names, foreign, 
romantic and .scri])tural were proposed. 
The doctor, howex'er, with better 
ta.ste, pleaded well in favor of retaining 
the Indian word Yosemiie, which was 
adopted when I lie (luestion was put to 
the vf)te. 

Such is a ])rief account ot the hrst 
entrance by white men into the V^allcy 
of Yo.semite. Vox .several years, how- 
ever, little was thought and little was 
.said of its manxlous grandeur, and it 
was not until the visit to it, made in 
the.summer of i.S55,by J. M. Ilutchins, 

the editor and publisher of Hutchin % 
California Magazine, that the atten- 
tion of the public was directed to it. 
On the return of Mr. Hutchins his 
enthusiastic description of the sublim- 
ity and beauty which he found 
" materialized in granite," and " crys- 
tallized in o])ject forms," aroused 
curiosit}-. During the year 1856 two 
brothers, Milton and Houston Mann 
completed a trail from the South F'ork 
of the Merced River to the Yo.semite, 
and opened it as a toll trail for the 
accommodation of visitors, who hence- 
forth kept flocking to this panorama 
of majestic views. 

In tlie fall of the .same year, a 
pioneer house of primitive coiLstruction 
was commenced b}- Anderson, Rams- 
dele, Coward and Walsworth, and 
finished during the following year l^y 
Cunningham and Beard.sle}^ wdio 
bought out the interests of the above- 
named partners. In 18S8 a more sub- 
stantial hotel was erected for S. M. 
Cunningham, and opened and kept for 
him by Mr. and Mrs. John S. H. Neal, 
the first hotel keepers in Yo.semite 
\'alle>-. The first white woman to 
\isit it was Madame Gautier, the 
landlady of Franklin, Mariposa. 
I'ollowing in the wake of the above- 
mentioned early structures was the 
old Ilutchins House, a more commo- 
dious building and better supplied 
with conveniences for the comfort of 
visitors. These were theuni>retentious 
pioneer erections that marked the ad- 
vent of the white man at ^Ih-wah-ncc, 
and his introduction of the luxuries of 
civilized life into the former habitation 
of the savage grizzly bear, and no less 
savage aboriginal man. In contrast 
with these })rimiti\e Iniildings, which 
have disappeared long ago, are the 
fine edifices that now-a-days .supply 
visitors willi most of the luxuries 
whicli nuxlern imjirovemcnts and 
refinement li:i\e added to tlu' comforts 
of mankind. 

Could we transport our.selves to a 
.seat on the fleecy clouds as they float 
.slowly down the slopes of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains, and linuer fondlv 

Bridal \'eil Fall, Yosemite 



over the Valley of the Yosemite, from 
that lofty place of observation we 
should regard it as a deep and some- 
what gloomy looking chasm cut into 
the Cordilleras and having a mosaic 

with somber green and here and there 
a glassy mirror set into the level 

But this bird's-eye view reveals 
nothing of the extraordinary magnifi- 


Stoneman House, Yosemite 

flooring of picturesque but irregular cence that greets us when we descend 

designs and variegated coloring. At to Earth and enter the valley as 

the bottom of this ab3'ss, drawn from ordinary mortals. lH:)]lowing the 

one end to the other, we should see a footsteps of the j)ioncers of 1851, we 

glittering, erratic line of silver, fringed are astounded at the heights of the 

Vol. II— 12 

Half Dome and Glacier Point Rock, Yosemite Valley 

I 82 


perpendicular walls of pearl gra)' 
granite that rise from their bases to 
elevations var3'ing from three thousand 
three hundred feet to six thousand 
feet ; at the massiveness and stern 
individuality of colossal forms, and at 
the bewildering variety and graceful- 
ness of rocky minarets and spires, 
domes, gables and battlements that 
crown the walls, and down these 
almost vertical cliffs leap numerous 
waterfalls, making sheer descents of 
three hundred and fifty feet or two 
thousand feet ; then the bounding 
waters hurry in cascades onward to 
another plunge. 

The valley is as lovely and beauti- 
ful as its setting is grand and awe- 
inspiring. Solemnity and exaltation 
of mind are produced by contempla- 
tion of the primeval rocks ; the views 
of the fairy valley which they inclose 
delight the senses and instill joy into 
the heart. It is a glorious composi- 
tion of park-like grounds and natural 
lawns, groves of trees and flowering 
shrubberies, rich meadow lands and 
garden patches aglow with bright- 
colored petals, and through it winds 
the beautiful Merced, a crystally 
transparent stream flowing tranquilly 
along between banks now decked with 
azaleas and syringas, now over-arched 
with cedars, silver pines or oaks. 

This idyllic spot is about seven 
miles in length, and v^aries in width 
from half to three-(|uarters of a mile. 
At one place the measurement greatly 
exceeds the average width, the dis- 
tance lietwecn Yosemite Fall and The 
Sentinel being two and a half miles. 
According to the report of the Com- 
missioner of the General Land Office, 
Washington, D. C, the total area 
comprises eight thousand four hun- 
dred and eighty acres, three thousand 
one hundred and sixly-nine of which 
are meadow land. The general trend 
of the valley is northeast and south- 
west. There are three entrances to it 
— two at the lower end and one at the 
upper, along a tributary of the Mer- 
ced. Leading to the former, there 
are seven different routes bv rail and 

.stage, all of them branching off from 
the main trunk line, the Central 
Pacific Railroad from vSan Francisco to 

On entering the Yosemite by the 
southeast side — the road above pro- 
posed — the main grand object that 
arrests attention is the mighty granite 
projection, Kl Capitan, which towers 
in front of us, a veritable Titanic 
salient to a Titanic mitral elevation, 
and as we ride along we feel our 
insignificance with those perpendicu- 
lar cliffs, rugged in face and capped 
with battlements, looking down upon 
us. On our right, in contrast with 
the severity of this imposing embodi- 
ment of grandeur and bulk — the type 
of eternal solidity — is the beautiful 
Bridal Veil Fall, in whose wavy 
sheets of spray and gauzy drapery the 
water sprite would love to sport, deck- 
ing herself with its rainbow jewelry 
and folding around her diaphanous 
form robes of opalescent hues resplend- 
ent with the sunbeam's painting 

Our road lies principally through 
woods of lofty pines and firs, and park 
lands grooved with groups of cedar or 
of oak. Crystal streams, whose waters 
have dashed themselves down preci- 
pices thousands of feet deep, in order 
to join the Merced on its to the 
parent ocean, occasionally cross our 
path, gurgling softly in gentle con- 
trast with the uproar of their fall, and 
scarcely rippling, as though exhausted 
with the turmoil and struggles of their 

Fit crowning to the temple beneath 
them, almost opposite El Capitan, 
the Cathedral si)ires from amid a ])ro- 
fusion of pimiaclcs and minarets that 
adorn the roof; and beyond, to left 
and right of us, the Three Brothers 
repose and the vSentincl stands, eternal 
watchman o\er the \alle>' and the 
impregnable castle, in front of which 
has been, and will l»e, liis post for 
countless years. And now we catch 
a glimpse of the np]K'r jiortion of 
Yosemite Fall, an<l a little fiirther on 
of North Dome. Roval Arches and 

The Sentinel, from tlie \'alley 

1 84 


Washington Tower. The glory of 
the scenery increases as we advance 
to the head of the valley. On our 
right, Glacier Point rock, overlooking 
an abyss three thousand two hundred 
and fifty-seven feet deep, and before 
us is the mist-robed Cloud's Rest, far 
away beyond that wonderful moun- 
tain rock Half Dome, the loftiest and 
most sublime pile in the Yosemite. 

This last stronghold of Nature, 
sometimes called South Dome, long 
defied man's efforts to scale its almost 
precipitous wall, nor was it until 1875 
that its storm-swept summit was trod- 
den by human foot. In the summer 
of 1869 Mr. Hutchings, with two com- 
panions, made a desperate and danger- 
ous effort to climb it, and succeeded in 
a.scending to within four hundred and 
sixty feet of the top, when their 
further progress was brought to a 
standstill by rock presenting an al- 
most vertical face to them, " its sur- 
face overlaid and overlapped, so to 
.speak, with vast circular granite 
shingles about eighteen inches in 
thickness." Other attempts were 
made with similar want of success ; 
but on October 12th, 1S75, George G. 
Anderson, a young Scotchman, stood 
on the defiant Dome's summit, the 
first human being to tread upon its 
granite crown. 

The accomplishment of this daring 
feat was the result of patient courage, 
unflinching nerve and untiring per- 
severance. Having tried in vain to 
.scale the height with boots and 
without them, in stocking feet and 
barefooted, Anderson adopted the plan 
of drilling holes in the rock and there- 
in fixing iron eye-bolts to which he 
fastened a stout rope. As he drilled 
each liole the pins below him were 
his only foothold during the greater 
part of his perilous ascent. After the 
intrepid Scotchman had shown the 
way and provided comparative safety 
by attaching a strong rope to the eye- 
Ijolts all the way to the .summit, 
others followed and a few days after 
his achievement Miss S. Iv. Dutcher of 
San Francisco had llie courage to 

make the ascent and win the distinc- 
tion of being the first of her .sex to 
look down upon llie X'alley of the 
Yo.semite from the top of the half 
dome. Other ladies have since fol- 
lowed her example. The summit of 
this magnificent child of the Sierra 
contains an area of over ten acres, 
raised nearly five thousand feet above 
its, and the view from this com- 
manding position is the climax of 
.scenic grandeur in the Yo.semite. 

Having arrived at the head of the 
valley we find three smaller ones con- 
verging into it ; are called 
respectively Tenaya, Merced and lUill- 
ouette Canons, the first entering the 
main valley from the northeast and 
the last from the southeast, the Merced 
Caiion, or Little Yo.semite Valley as 
it is indifferently designated, opening 
intermediately between them. The 
Illillouette Caiion, also, is known by 
other names, to wit : the South Caiion 
and the Tu-lu-la-wi-ak Caiion. These 
upper branches, .so to speak, of the 
Yo.semite are especially beautiful for 
their entrancing variety of scenery. 
Here are to be seen many of the un- 
rivaled waterfalls that add so much to 
the fame of Ah-wah-ncc. Here, too, 
lies Mirror Lake, that marvelous ex- 
hibitor of aqueous refaction of the 
rays of light ; and here reclines that 
independent, isolated, bold in its 
outlines and strong in its individual- 
ity, the Cap of Liberty. But we must 
vi.sit each vale singly, in order to 
rightly judge of tlicir respective merits 
as scene contril)ulors. 

Following the .stony patli once 
trodden by the Ah-7vah-nec.-chcc c\\\Qi, 
who gained for him.self and tribe the 
name of Yosemilc, we arrive at Mirror 
Lake, the exquisite beauty of which 
and the majestic grandeur of its sur- 
roundings admiration to the 
highest pitch, r'ringed with graceful 
arborage and flowering slirul)S reflect- 
ing on its ruffled surface the mighty 
forms that close it in, blending its 
loveliness with their austere sublimity, 
this enchanting spot would entice the 
Naiads and Dryads of ancient /ore to 


El Capitan. Yosemite 

1 86 


make it their favorite haunt. Looking^ 
up the deep gorge, down which, leap- 
ing from rock to rock, ghding by 
crags, seething and heaving and hura- 
ming, the waters of Tenaj-a Creek 
skurry- onward to find peace in the 
bosom of the lake, we behold INIt. 
Watkins with his summit four tliou- 
sand feet a])Ove us. To the right of 
him towers Cloud's Rest, two thousand 
feet still higher, while directly east of 
us the Half Dome, a moiety of his 
huge mass split off and scattered below 
in Cyclopean fragments by some con- 
vulsive throe of nature, defiantly 
his proud head. 

Rapt into ecstasy by the glories of 
the place, sing .some pleasing strain, 
some poet's song, and the echoes will 
repeat it over and over again to j^ou, 
now in soft, musical whispers, now in 
tones of louder harmony, until the 
rocks are vocal with melody, and you 
could fancy that fairs* choristers ha\-e 
taken up your song in symphony. 

Leaving this romantic spot, we will 
follow the trail leading up the north 
side of the Merced River, and enter 
the Little Yo.semite Valley. Having 
skirted the base of Grizzly Peak, we 
presently arrive at the Vernal Fall, a 
perpendicular sheet of water al)Out 
eighty feet wide at the top with a ver- 
tical length of four hundred feet at an 
average stage of the water. As the 
stream that forms it strikes the granite 
basin at the foot of the fall, clouds and 
waves of spray roll up and forth, 
glorious with evanescent rainbows 
that come and go with the surging 
mist billows. 

Our progress now is upward by a 
sinuous trail, leading over a steep hill 
some eight hundred feet high, on 
arriving on the top of which we are 
rewarded by a scene of imposing at- 
tractiveness. It is the picture pre- 
.sented by the Cap of Liberty and the 
Nevada Fall in combination. The 
Cap of lyiberty, which in l)oldness of 
outline and dignity of repose is con- 
sidered by many as second only to Kl 
Capitan, rises, an isolated mass of 
rock. ci'j"liteen linndrcd feet above its 

elevated base : and from its .summit, 
b}- those who care to struggle up its inaccessible side, a magnificent 
and extensive view is obtained. Prom- 
inent features of the Yosemitc are 
visible on all sides ; the tops of El 
Capitan and The Sentinel, Glacier 
Poi'.it, Yosemite Fall and Grizzly 
Peak, Half Dome and Cloud's Rest, 
with many another production of 
Nature's handiwork. 

And grand among these grand 
objects is the Nevada Fall. Here the 
whole body of the Merced River 
plunges down through the air six 
hundred feet, with a roaring and a 
rolling up of volumes of snow}^ spray 
and surging l)illows of white foam as 
it strikes the pool below. Sa3-s Prof. 
J. D. Whitney: "The Nevada Fall 
is, in every respect, one of the grand- 
est waterfalls in the world ; whether 
we consider its vertical height, the 
purity and volume of the river wdiich 
forms it, or the stupendous scenery by 
which it is environed." The Merced, 
after taking this tremendous leap, 
rushes impetuously, madly on dowm 
the Diamond Cascades, tossing up 
glittering jewels in its wild career, 
thence with reckless speed it hurries 
along the Silver Apron into the 
Ivmerald Pool. And so down cataracts 
and rapids, along sloping chutes, 
.swashing through deep narrow chan- 
nels, past oppositig rocks and bowlders, 
the irresi^■.tlI)le river hastes onward to 
the .smooth, peaceful valley below, 
where it slackens its headlong speed 
and re.stingly flows on with gentle cur- 
rent. clamor is hushed into 
low murnmring cadences ; its seething 
broken waves subside into .smiling rip- 
ples, and it reverentially nuwes slowly 
on its wa}' as if subdued and over- awed 
by the frowning forms and mighty 
cre.sts which look down on its sinuous 

At the mouth of the South Caiion is 
the Tu-tu-la-eri-ak Fall, four hundred 
feet high. Of this gor!';e, we gain a 
.splendid view from Glacier Point ; 
we have, loo. from this lofty .stand- 
])oint. ;i \iew which none but those of 

Ne\aJ;i F;ills, Yosemife 



the steadiest nerve can indulge in 
without shuddering and experiencing 
a dizziness of brain. On the edge of 
an abyss three thousand two hundred 
and fifty-seven feet deep, we look 
down upon the upper portion of the 
Yosemite Valley. Seen from that 
great height, immense trees shrink 
into insignificance, large dwellings 
are dwindled to the size of match- 
boxes, and Mirror Lake seems but a 
bright fountain-basin in the deep 
Tenaj-a Canon. Speaking of his own 
experience on Glacier Point, Derrick 
Dodd, the humorist, remarks : "It 
is something to stop the beatings of a 
chamois' heart to * '-^ * glance 
down into the bottomless, awful gulf 
below. It causes spiders of ice to 
crawl down one's spine." 

The loftiness, picturesqueness, num- 
ber and variety of the waterfalls 
constitute a principal feature in this 
wonderful physical combination of the 
vast and immovable with beauty and 
motion, of suljlimc dignity and awful 
severity with smiling loveliness and 
charms of winning grace. During 
the period of the rains and as long as 
the melting snow continues to con- 
tribute a liberal supply of water, the 
number of the Yosemite waterfalls is 
considerable. As the summer ad- 
vances and the aqueous supply 
becomes exhausted, many of them 
disappear entirely, and others, which 
made a pretentious show during the 
rainy months, are reduced to mere 
fluvial threads, which the winds make 
laughing-stocks of and dissipate in 
fleecy mists before they can reach the 

Fed mainly l)y the milling snows 
of the Sierras around Mt. Hoffman, 
the Yosemite Fall is well supplied 
with water during the whole sunnner, 
although the volume dimini.shes as 
the season advances. The stream 
which forms this glorious ornament of 
the valley leaps into it from on high 
more than two thousand five hundred 
feet ; not in a single bound, but in 
three successive dashes, designated as 
the Upper, Middle and Lower Falls. 

The Upper Fall has a sheer descent 
of about one thousand five hundred 
feet ; the Tvliddle, six hundred and 
twenty-six feet, including the Cas- 
cades, and the Lower, four hundred 
feet. As we approach Yosemite Fall, 
we realize to a full extent its magni- 
tude a;id grandness ; its resistless 
force and merciless strength ; its over- 
whelming splendor and beauty ; and 
its imperviousness and indifference to 
opposition. To appreciate this ava- 
lanche of water, spray and mist, and 
the awfulness of the dark, overhang- 
ing walls of granite, between which it 
charges, we must stand at the foot of 
the Lower Fall. 

Though waterfalls still thunder as 
they dash themselves into the caul- 
drons below, or gently sing whilc 
trickling down the granite walls, 
though the eternal rocks still tower 
above the recumbent valley as they 
did when Ten-ei-ya had his retreat 
there ; yet could that chief revisit his 
former home, so anxiousl}^ kept from 
the knowledge of the white man, his 
savage heart would crack with grief 
when he beheld the changes wrought 
after the occupancy of Yosemite by 
his civilized foes. Where his band 
was wont to steal noiselessly along 
trails, skirting dizzy heights, level 
and safe roads have been cut in the 
solid rock, where his wigwams were 
pitched, scarcely distinguishable from 
the surrounding woods or talus. 
Spacious edifices have been reared 
capable of accommodating hundreds 
of guests ; meadows whereon he 
pastured his stolen horses have been 
cultivated and arc dotted with or- 
chards and gardens ; carriage high- 
ways seam the valley, and pleasure 
boats float on Mirror Lake and the 
waters of the Merced ; and lovers can 
wander without fear where white pros- 
pectors were murdered by the Ycsem- 

Yo.semite is no longer the inho.spit- 
able mountain-fastness that it was of 
yore. Hotels invite guests with the 
proffer of comfort and good cheer : 
livery stables provide carriages for 



the indolent and riding horses for the 
more energetic sight-seer ; art studios 
and photographic galleries afford visi- 
tors the opportunity of taking home 
with them faithful ])aintings and sun- 
painted pictures of their favorite 
scenes, as reminiscences of the feelings 
they experienced while gazing on the 
unparalleled grandeurs of Yosemite. 
All the other accompaniments of a 
growing community are found in the 
revolutionized order of things in 
AJi'ivaJi-nee. There is a general 
merchandise store and a butcher shop, 

a pie and pastry shop, a cabinet shop 
and a blacksmith's shop ; children 
frequent a ])ublic school, and the 
devout attend their chapel ; Wells, 
Fargo & Co. ha\e their agent there, and 
post and telegraph oflices supply ready 
means of communication with the out- 
side world. The valley of the Great 
Grizzly Bear has cast off the mantle of 
seclusion, which for thousands of 
years concealed its wonders from civ- 
ilized eye, and has become a world- 
widely known resort of lovers of 
Nature from all parts of the earth. 

The Domes, from the .\lerceJ River 



EIGHTEEN centuries and a quarter 
ag-o on the shore of the most 
beautiful bay of the Mediterranean 
stood, busy with life, an ancient town 
whose origin is lost in the mists and 
mN'ths of antiquity. Built on an 
eminence favorable as a vantage- 
ground against hostile pttack, and 
lying on the verge of the sea with the 
river Sarnus, then navigable, flowing 
at no great distance from its south- 
eastern gate, it was admirably situated 
both as a commercial town and mili- 
tary station. But. apart from these 
advantages Pompeii possessed attrac- 
tions in the beauty of its surrounding 
scenery and in its delightful neighbor- 
hood that drew towards it the luxu- 
rious and refined Roman and made 
it and its vicinity a resort of the 
wealthy. In its benign and pleasant 
retreats senators and statesmen and 
wearied advocates sought repose. 
There Cicero had a villa ; so also had 
the emperor Claudius, whose little son, 
Suetonius tells us, was badly choked 
there Ijy throwing up a pear and 
catching it in his mouth. Indeed so 
glorious was this Italian paradise, .so 
genial its climate, .so fertile its .soil 
that the slopes of the treacherously 
slum])ering Vesuvius, five or six 
miles away, were decked with 
beautiful villas and the .shore line 
of the bay was fringed with lovely 
gardens and bright villages all the 
way to Naples. 

But it is the city proper that we 
propose to see, not its sul^urban decora- 
tions and delights, and we will .steal 
back along "the corridors of time " 
and visit the ancient city a few years 
before the date of the catastrophe 
which destroyed it. Ascending a 
flight of steps leading from the city at 
the gate of Hcrculancum wc find our- 
selves on the ramparts which consist 

of an earthen terrace fourteen feet wide 
sustained by thick walls, the outer one 
including the parapet, being twenty- 
five feet high and the inner one still 
higher by several feet. Both walls 
are capped with battlements and square 
towers are erected on them at irregular 
intervals. Strong .stone buttresses, 
built at suitable distances apart, sup- 
port the walls against the lateral 
pressure of the earthen rampart. As 
we make the circuit of these defenses 
we observe that sharp angles are 
avoided, the base line for the greater 
part being curvilinear and in its gen- 
eral figure similar to the longitudinal 
section of an egg, one sharp angle 
onlj^ occurring and that at the apex. 
They are pierced by seV'Cn gateways, 
the important of which is the 
one just mentioned. It is guarded by 
two sets of gates .so that assailants, if 
they gained the first doors could be 
attacked from an opening in the arched 
roof above them and be destroyed 
before they could force the second set. 
This gateway in its arrangements is 
not unlike .some of the gateways of 
old London wall with its large central 
arched entrance and two small side 
entrances for the accommodation of 
foot passengers. The main entrance 
is fourteen feet .seven inches wide and 
eighteen or twenty feet in height, the 
smaller ones are four feet six inches 
wide and ten feet high and unlike the 
central one are arched along their 
entire length. 

vStarting in an easterly direction and 
making the circuit of the whole line 
of the ramparts we successively pass 
over the gateways opening on to 
the roads leading to Vesuvius, Capua, 
Nola, Sarnus, Nuceria and vStabiae, 
and designated by those names, 
of Nola and Stal)icc being of greater 
antiquity than the rest which are ot 


pomp;: II 


more recent Roman construction. As 
we gradually turn northward along 
the southwestern portion of the wall 
we come to an eighth entrance into the 
city which we will call the Sea Gate. 
It consists of a long vaulted passage 
which leads up a steep ascent towards 
the forum. These mural defenses are 
not all of the same age, the towers 
and some portions of Ihc wall being of 
much later date than the original 
parts of the structure. The unrestored 
parts are built of large well hewn 

mile and its greatest breadth less than 
half a mile — not an extensive site for 
a populous town, but variouslj- esti- 
mated at having domiciled from 
twenty thousand to fort)- thousand in- 

Descending the flight of ten steps, 
which we find most inconveniently 
high, we enter one of the principal 
thoroughfares, a narrow, crooked and 
irregular street, in places not exceed- 
ing twelve and fourteen feet including 
a raised causeway ou each side for foot 

General \'iew. Showing N'esuvius 

pieces of stone fitted together without 
mortar and exhibiting their antiquity 
by presenting few vertical lines. The 
battlements and upper portions of the 
walls display a more advanced knowl- 
edge of architecture, the regular 
masonr\- of the Greeks having been 
adopted in their construction. 

Having arrived again at the Hercu- 
laneum gate we have made a circuit of 
nearly two miles, the walls inclosing 
an area of about one hundred and 
sixty-one acres, the greatest length of 
which is little over three-quarters of a 

passengers. On the right we pass the 
house of a musician and imagine we 
can hear him giving instructions to his 
piipils and catch the sound of their 
tUites : to the left is a thcnnopolium 
or shop where hot drinks are sold. 
The raised causeways are thronged 
with people passing to and fro, for this 
is one of the j^rincipal ways leading to 
the forum, the business centre of 
Pompeii, the resort of pleasure-seekers 
and idlers, of traders and professional 
men. Passing on our way a public 
fountain distant about three lumdred 



yards from the gate, we find that the 
street which we are following divides 
into two branches, and turning to the 
left we reach the forum which is 
situated four hundred yards from the 
Herculaneum gate. 

It is a spacious inclosure one hun- 
dred and sixty j^ards in length and 
thirty-five yai'ds in breadth, and with its 
porticos which flank it on three sides, 
occupies an area five hundred and 
twenty-four feet long and one hundred 
and forty feet wide. Its porticos are 
surmounted by a gallery and it is 
surrounded by splendid public build- 
inars. On its east side stands the 
Pantheon or temple of the twelve 
principal gods ; the Curia, or senate- 
house, where the town council holds 
its meetings ; the temple of Mercur}- ; 
and the public building erected by 
Eumachia, the priestess. On the west 
side is the Basilica, or court of justice, 
the largest structure in Pompeii, two 
hundred and twenty feet long by eighty 
feet wide, and next to it the temple of 
Venus, the finest edifice of its class in 
size and beauty to be found in the 
city. At the north end of the forvim 
stands the magnificent temple of Jup- 
iter and at the northeast corner are 
the public granaries and the prisons. 
On the northwestern corner spacious 
baths are situated. 

This quarter of the city constitutes 
the focus of active life, for hither grav- 
itate all grades of society, from the 
devout worshiper with his pious offer- 
ings to the gods to the cheating trader 
who woos the fa\-or of IMercury with 
ill-gotten gifts ; from the prcctor on 
his tribunal to the captive in the 
dungeon ; from the talented advocate 
to the frivolous lounger ; from the 
wealthy, proud patrician to the low- 
born beggar of alms. In that spacious 
meeting-place, the forum, the people 
deliberate on public affairs, ])olitical 
contests are decided, and orators deliver 
their harangues, in its gallery the 
public revenue is administered, and 
under its porticos numerous traders 
ply their business, and money- 
changers keep their stalls, while 

crowds of idlers and lookers-on add 
to the throng and the tumult. 

Leaving this centre of activity and 
movement we proceed to wander 
through the town, the general plan of 
which we find to have been regularly 
laid out, most of the streets being 
straight and generally intersecting 
each other at right angles. They are 
of different widths, \-ar3-ing from eight 
or nine feet to about twenty-two feet ; 
the broadest we traverse is not thirtj^ 
feet wide. These widths include the 
raised footpaths, invariabl}' constructed 
on each side, and in places are so nar- 
row that one can stride from one cause- 
way to the other. In the wider 
.streets raised stepping-stones are 
placed in the middle for the conven- 
ience of pedestrians — very necessarj- 
accommodations during the season of 
the winter rains, when the carriage- 
ways flow with torrents of water. 
We notice, too, that these raised stones 
cause little inconvenience to the 
drivers of the ancient biga, or two- 
horse chariot, the wheels of which 
pass freely between them and the curb- 

The streets are paved with large 
polygonal blocks of hard, basaltic 
lava, and we stand for a few minutes 
and watch workmen repairing a pave- 
ment by fitting pieces of iron into 
holes that had been worn in it at the 
jointure of several angular points of 
the lava. In a similar manner the 
rai.sed footpaths are paved, though 
the wider ones are generally covered 
with stucco and occasionally with a 
coarse mosaic of l^rickwork. 

As we pass from street to street we 
find little of the external magnificence 
we had noticed in the ])ublic Ijuildings 
grouped around the forum. Tlie are squat and low, rarely ex- 
ceeding two .stories, and present to 
the street for the most part bare, 
blank walls ])ierced on tlie upper 
.stories onl\ 1)\- small, insisrnificant 
windows, .some of wliicli are glazed 
with glass, others clo.sed with wooden 
shutters. As we ramble on, the 
town seems to us a gloomy onr in the 







greater portion of it, witii its narrow 
thoroughfares closed in by dead walls 
plastered or painted in different colors 
according to the taste of the owners, 
and we find relief from the monotony 
of the aspect when we enter streets 
where the residences of the wealthy 
and dwellings of tlie ])rincipal inhabi- 
tants are sitviated ; for the fronts of 
these houses are occupied by shops, 
sometimes so numerous as to form a 
continuous row. 

They are queer little places these 
shops of the Pompeiians, and few of 

resenting two men carrying a wine 
jar and do not doubt that we are in 
front of a wine-shop ; there, across 
the street, we observe a sign with a 
painted goat on it as the indicator and 
regard it as suggestive of milk and 
cheeses. But such signs are not con- 
fined to trade only, for in another 
street, which passes by the baths near 
the forum, we notice a rude painting 
of two persons fighting while their 
teacher looks on holding a laurel 
wreath, and we know thereb}- that we 
are at the establishment of an in- 

l:.\cavatiim in l'ti)j;ress 

them have communication with the 
mansions or public buildings to which 
they belong. They seem mere in- 
dentures into the main l)uildings. 
Most of them have a small aixirtment 
in the rear, and many of them an 
upper room used as a bedchamber. 
Insignificant as they seem to us they 
enliven the scene, and we mark the 
luimerous signs that decorate their 
fronts and indicate the trade carried 
on within. Here we stop and look 
at a colored terra-cotta bas relief rcp- 

structor in arms, or keeper of gladi- 
ators. The landlord of the Klephant 
Inn displays a painted representation 
of that animal as his sign. 

Presently we enter a small street 
which we will call the Street of 
Lupanar, and before us are the Great 
Baths, or Thermtc vStabianoe. Here 
an agreeal)le interruption to the dull, 
gloomy a])pearance of the thorough- 
fiires we have just passed through 
greets us. We have found another 
(juartcr where liveliness, movenient 

» -'-•■ y^-^' I-.-'- -.y . 



and excitement arouse energy and 
interest. A row of shops, interrupted 
only by the two entrances to the baths, 
extends along the whole of the west- 
ern and southern sides of the struc- 
ture, and the owners are busy with 
their customers who almost jostle each 
other on the narrow causeway. The 
hum of traffic and the human voice 
strikes pleasantly on the ear, while the 
costumes of a bygone people, the 
painted walls and signs, the quaint 

stalls, and places where hot fancy 
drinks are sold ; there are oil shops, 
paint shops and color factories ; fullers 
and tanners and dyers ha\-e their 
yards, and saddle and hamessmakers 
their workshops. We can buy glass- 
ware and bronzeware, fishing nets and 
weights and scales to weigh our fish 
with ; inkstands, bells, locks and 
hinges ; single or double-wicked 
lampsof bronze or earthenware ; cook- 
ing utensils of every description ; 

House of the Tragic Poet 

little salerooms and workshops, in 
such dimiiuitive contrast with the 
great stores and factories of modern 
times, fascinate us. All is so new to 
us and yet so old. 

And what a variety of articles and 
objects are manufactured, bought and 
.sold, in these Pompeiian cells of indus- 
try and trade ! There arc cook-shops, 
and shops where fruits dried and fruits 
preserved in glass jars are sold ; there 
are fiour mills and bakeries and pastry 

vases, plates and dishes, and cash- 
boxes to keep our monc}' in. These 
have narrow slits in them to conven- 
iently deposit the coins and yet pre- 
vent extraction of them by petty 
filchers. Silversmiths and jewelers 
have their workshops and sculptors 
and painters their studios. What an 
apocalyptic chapter in the history of 
a people's occupations and habits 
of life do we find in this .visit to 
Pompeii ! 

House of the Great Palcony Fountain 

Vol. II— I -^ 



Having taken this cursory g^liinp-^e 
at Pompeii with regard to the exter- 
nal appearance of the town before its 
destruction, let us visit a few of the 
ruins and see what their disentonib- 
ment reveals to us. 

First we will enter the baths last 
mentioned, for they constitute the 
most spacious and most beautifulh- 
decorated public establishment of the 
kind in Pompeii. Turning out of the 
street of Lupinar into that cjf Hol- 
comus, we arriv'e at the principal 
entrance, and, passing through the 

orated with paintings, arid immedi- 
ately in rear of the one at the south 
end of the bath is the dcstridarium, 
where the operation of preparing for 
the bath who had been engaged 
in exercising in the palcestra was per- 
formed. This consi.sted in scraping 
off the body tlie perspiration and the 
oil and sand used \)\ athletes in their 
games. The outside walls of these 
apartments are ornamented with 
pauitings and fantastic and other 
designs in stucco. 

On the east side are the more lux- 

Cast of Human Body taken from the Ruins of Pompeii 

vestibule, we enter a large quadrangu- 
lar court, .surrounded by a jiortico 
supported l^y i)illars. This enclosure, 
forty yards long by twenty yards 
wide, .served as a gymnasium for 
athletic games and On its 
.south side there are only the painted 
walls that clo.sed in the .shops on the 
street of Holconius, h\\\. on the west 
is the large nalatio or swimming bath, 
with a spacious apartment at each end 
u.sed by the bathers as dressing-rooms. 
These apartments are highly dec- 

urious baths, .so much indulged in by 
the ancient Italians. Here we .see the 
/?i^idan'ian, the tcpida) iuni and the 
caldai /N»i, the cold, tepid and hot 
baths, with their appurtenances of 
furnaces, Ixiilers and water pipes, with 
the sweating-room and dressing-room, 
and all the vitensils and furniture 
recjuisite for this elaborate lavatory. 
As we i)ass from bath to bath and from 
apartment to apartment, the remains 
reveal to us relics of marble or mosaic 
floors, the architecliual adornments 



and the paintint^s that ornamented 
the walls. On the north side of the 
paltrstra are the women's haths, which 
were not so ])rofusely decorated as 
those appropriated to tlie nsc of the 
male sex. 

Leaving the baths 1)\- the entrance 
from the Street of Stabile, we follow 
that njad southward, and in a few 
hundred yards arrixx- at the theaters. 
There are two of these structures 
situated close together, llic larger one 
capable of seating five tlu>usand spec- 

the sky, though an awning was 
stretched over it tor the protection of 
the spectators against the sun or rain. 
The smaller theater was a remarkable 
excei)tion to this rule, being provided 
with a permanent roof, which is sup- 
jxjsed to have been of w(xk1. 

Hehind the large theater is the 
School of the Ciladiatcjrs, a rectangu- 
lar enclosure, (jne hundred a:id eighty- 
three feet long by one hundred and 
fort>- -eight feet wide, surrounded by a 
colonnade and portico, around which 

Cast of a Doj; taken from the Ruins of Pompeii 

tators, the other hardly having accom- 
modation for one-third of that niunber. 
The first is formed on the .slope of a 
hill, and was entered from above 
through a large open-arched corridor 
that surrounded the whole cavea. It 
was entirely faced with marble, the 
benches, orchestra, stage, and the 
permanent scene, with all its orna- 
ments, being of that material. Like 
all principal theaters of ancient Italy, 
this place of amvisement was open to 

are the sleeping (luarters of the 
.soldiers or gladiators, who once 
trained within that ancient structure. 
As only weapons and accoutrements 
of gladiators and no .soldier's arms 
have been found in the ruins of this 
Iniilding, it is generally conceded that 
it was used as a training school for 
irladiators, and not as a .soldier's bar- 
racks, as was suppo.sed when it was 
first excavated in 1776 and several 
following years. The lodgings above 



mentioned have an upper storw mak- 
ing the number of the rooms sixty-six 
in all. The upper story has been re- 
stored in one of the angles, as will be 
seen by referring to tiie illustration. 

Five hundred j^ards away, in the 
southeastern angle of the city wall, 
stands the amphitheater where hvinian 
beings were compelled to fight for the 
anuisement of spectators who loved to 
gloat their eyes on exhibitions of 
bloodshed, and where combats took 
place between wild beasts, or betwceu 

standing-room for many more. At 
each end of the ellipse was an entrance 
into the arena, through which marched 
those who were about to die or con- 
quer. Through other openings the 
wild beasts, whose dens were con- 
structed under the slope on which 
the people sat, rushed upon their vic- 

We will visit one more public 
building before seeing the interior of 
private houses. It is an edifice that 
has greatly perplexed antiquarians. 


bea.sts and men, when some aspirant 
for popularity courted fiivor b\' in- 
dulging the public in their taste for 
cruel sights and deeds. 

This great circus is oval in form, its 
greatest length being four luindred 
and thirty feet, and its breadth at the 
ividest part three hundred and thirt>- 
five feet. With its twenty-four rows 
of seats, to wliicli the spectators were 
admitted l)y tickets, it afforded sitting- 
room for ten thousand persons, while 
on crowded occasions there W'as 

and has alread}- been alluded to as llic 
Pantheon, a name api)lied to it ^vlKn 
first discovered. The reason for tliat 
was the finding of twelve stone pedes- 
tals placed in a circle round an altar 
in the center of the area, which w'as 
one hundred and twenty feet long l)y 
ninet>' feet wide. These ])edestals 
were supposed to lia\'e supported 
statues of the twelve siiperior gods, 
the Dii Moqiu, whence the name 
ascribed to the l)uilding. This idea, 
however, is now almost universally re- 





jected, and the more probable theory 
that the edifice was dedicated to the 
worship of Augustus and the use of 
his priests, the Augustals, is pretty 
generally accepted. Augustus, it is 
knowai, was the object of great vener- 
ation at Pompeii, and the paintings 
on the walls and the statues of the 
imperial family .support the supposi- 
tion that the place was consecrated to 
him. The statue of Livia, his wife, is 
remarkable for the skillful execution 
of the drapery, and is one of the best 
that has been found at Pompeii. 
Those who reject the idea that this 
temple was a Pantheon conjecture that 
the twelve square posts were not 
pedestals for statues, but bases for 
pillars supporting a circular bviilding. 
Of al) the private buildings that 
have been unearthed at Pompeii, not 
one surpasses in interest, extent and 
display of luxury the suburban villa, 
known as the house of Diomedes. 
This stately mansion was built on the 
slope of a hill just outside the gate of 
Herculaneum in the street of the 
Tombs, and received its name from a 
sepulchre situated direct!}^ in front of 
it, which bore the name of Isl. Arrius 
Dioinedes. Who its possessor was is 
unknown, but that he was a man of 
wealth, luxury and refined taste, the 
ruins of his magnificent \illa prove. 
Nothing that coidd contribute to a life 
of elegant ease and enjoyment was 
wanting in that beautiful country 
abode. It had its gardens and ter- 
races and ornamented porticos, its 
courts and fountains, its corridois and 
trellises. Its halls and chambers, its 
numerous apartments, decorated vv-ith 
beautiful frescoes and architectural 
designs, its marble and mosaic floors, 
its bathrooms, subterranean galleries, 
and cool cellars with wine jars in 
them, ])roclaim it to luue been the 
residence of an ()[)ulent faniil\' sur- 
rounded by everything that could 
make existence ha])py ; but the dark 
and terrible day arrived and they all 
perished. When the vaults were 
excavated, the skeletons of eighteen 
adult persons, of a bo\-, and of an 

infant were foiind. They w^ere hud- 
dled together and beside them lay 
women's jewelry, bracelets of gold and 
rings with gems in them. Near one 
of the garden gates two other .skele- 
tons were found. Near one of them 
lay about one hundred gold and silver 
coins, near the other silver vases. 
The excavations of this house were 
carried on during the years 1772-4, 
and as the work proceeded ten more 
skeletons were exhumed in or near 
the So great a mortality in a 
single ruin would seem to indicate 
that the whole hou.sehold perished, 
master and wife, and children and 

In the limited space of a magazine 
article, it is impo.ssible to give any 
other than a general idea of such a 
building as theone just described, and 
it would be equally out of place to 
make mention of more than a ver}- 
few of the numerous private dwellings 
that have been unearthed, exceeding 
as they do, three hundred in number, 
and making us acquainted with the 
abodes of all classes of people. In 
general plan and arrangement the of Pompeii, with the exception 
of those of the humblest, exhil)it 
great similarit>'. The pi'incipal living- 
rooms were all on the groiuid floor, 
the upper .story being consigned to 
the slaves. The apartments below 
were grouped round an atrium or rec- 
tangular hall, which was almost always 
open to the sky, and in the better 
houses generall}' surrounded by col- 
lunns. Into this hall opened the 
rooms, the entrances to which .seem 
to have been only clo.sed with curtains. 
Worthy of mention is the house of 
the Tragic Poet, which was excavated 
in 1SJ4. It is con.spicuous for the 
great number and beauty of the 
paintings witli which it is adorned. 
In size it is not large as compared 
with some others, but its owner was a 
man of refined taste and cultivation. 
vSome of the magnificent frescoes that 
covered the walls h.i\-e been removed 
to the Museum at Naples, the rest have 



In the atrium of the buiUliug called 
the house of the Great Balcony there 
is an extremely pretty fountain. The 
house is a small one and received its 
name from the balcony which i)rojects 
several feet over the narrow lane in 
which the building is situated. 

The names by wdiich the houses in 
Pompeii are designated are either fan- 
ciful or have been arbitrarily given. 
Where a house has been distinguished 
by giving it an owner's name, the 
grounds for .so doing rest upon no good 
authority. This is not the case with 

the town have been examined. There 
is i^ositive evidence that after the 
destruction of the city on August 23d, 
A. D. 79, .searches for treasure, etc., 
were carried on for many 3'ears ; but 
in time its site and even name seem to 
have been forgotten, and it was not 
until 174S that it was discovered. In 
that year Don Rocco Alcubierre, a 
Spanish colonel of engineers, was 
employed to examine a subterranean 
canal that had actually been cut under 
the site of the ruins at the close of the 
sixteenth centur^'. From the time of 

,4t4?.4 ■•'■ 

Tomple (if Augustus, or Panthoon 

the house of Cornelius Rufus, which 
is a remarkable exception in this re- 
spect. It is a handsome building and 
at the left hand far corner of V\\i^alriiiiii 
is a marl)le bust of the owner, large 
as life, fniely executed and having his 
name in.scribed beneath il. 

The excavations at r()nii)cii, which 
have so extensively enlarged our 
knowledge of the occui)ati()ns and 
modes of life of the ancient Italians 
have been carried on for more tlum a 
hundred years, and there is no donbl 
that all the most important jiorlionsot 

Albucicrrc's discovery the excavation 
has been carried on with alternate 
spa.sms of energy and fits of indifter- 
ence. This irregular and ill-conducted 
work, carried on without definite ]-)lan, 
and havuigfor its only aim the finding 
of objects of value for the Royal Mu- 
seum, was disastrous to the preserva- 
tion of arcliitectural and oUicr details 
in bnildings. It was not until the 
a])pointment of Signor Giu.scppe 
iMorelli as director of the excavations, 
alter the establishment of Victor 
iCnnnannel's anlhoril\- in Naples that 



a proper system was put in operatifjii. 
This distinguished scholar and anti- 
quary adopted the pkui of restoration 
without removing a single stone or 
fragment of brickwork from its place. 
When charred wood is discovered 
sound wood is put in its stead, and as 
the volcanic deposits are carefully 
.removed, every piece of niasf)nry is 
kept in its place by i>rops. 

To vSignor Fiorellis' ingenuit}' we 
are, moreover, indebted for the pres- 
ervation of other evidences of the 
destroying volcano's work. The de- 
struction of Pompeii was not caused 
by a flood of molten lava ; t]:e high 
position of the town protected it from 
that fate ; it was submerged beneath 
a shower of pumicestones and ashes 
and a deluge of liquid mud, which 
penetrated cellars and places which 
dry cinders could not have reached. 
This volcanic mud enveloped the 
objects over which it flowed with a 
mold of plaster, which, drying and 
hardening, retained the forms of 
human and animal bodies that had 
been surrounded by it and had after- 
ward decayed. The idea occurred to 
Signer Fiorelli of pouring liquid plas- 
ter into the cavities thus formed in 
the hardened volcanic paste. His 
experiment was tried and proved suc- 
cessful. The casts of numerous 
human beings have been taken, and a 
ghastly collection of these records of 
death's most horrible doings has been 
made. These casts are painful to 

look u]Kjn, and the .stories that they 
mutely tell are touching in the ex- 
treme. The struggle and the 
final agony, the gestures of despair 
and the convulsive contortions accom- 
panying death by suffocation are all 
faithfully depicted. Some of 
casts are especially interesting, exhib- 
iting the texture of garments and the 
fashions and class distinctions in 
dress. Casts of many animals have 
akso been taken. 

The number of persons who perished 
is not considered to have been large, 
though nothing approaching an accu- 
rate estimate can be formed. It 
.seems that most of the inhabitants 
escaped, and the bodies that have 
been found were generally of 
persons who had fled to their cellars 
for safety and been there imprisoned 
and suflbcated. 

A flood of light has been thrown 
upon the manners and customs of 
ancient life in Italy by the excava- 
tions at Pompeii, while the knowl- 
edge of ancient painting derived 
thereby exceeds that obtained from all 
other .sources. The profusion of orna- 
mental works and objects in bronze 
and the elegance of design di.'=;played 
in that .second-rate provincial town ex- 
cite the utmost admiration, but the fres- 
coes and paintings have produced a still 
higher impression. When Vesuvius 
buried Pompeii in ashes, the volcano 
constructed a hidden magazine of 
knowledge for the use of future ages. 


A lady's jourxat. 

{CoDniiouYd ill Jauitary iiiiniher) 

[The histon' of the late war has been well treated in various publications, but that portion relating to 
the famous Dry Tortugas prison, where thousands of men were kept during the war, and where those connected 
with the assassination of President lyincoln were confined, has never been described, yet the events are now 
of great historical value. The island upon which the great prison was established was a sand bank cotnprising 
but thirteen acres, — one of the last of the keys representing the end of the great Florida reef. For seven or 
eight years a lady, the wife of one of the .surgeons, lived in this isolated spot and viewed all the incidents from 
the appearance of the first war cloud until the declaration of peace. The following chapters were not written 
or intended for publication, the events being jotted down simply for friends in the North; and The Cali- 
FORNIAN has been enabled to give them to the public in a series of chapters, believing that taany are of 
historical interest and value, and also as showing the singular life of a lady in one of the most out-of-the-way 
spots in this country.] 

AS I look down the vista of all 
r\ these j-eans that have gone it is 
hard to realize the isolation of 
Tortugas life ; the heat continuous 
for six months and more at a time ; 
the mosquitoes — a pest that at times 
te.sted our amiabilit}' to the utmost, 
obli.Ljinu- us to sit under tents of net- 


Added to all this there were times 
when the living was so deplorable, our 
appetites failed, and a liarmecide 
feast was always before us. 

We studied the cook books for re- 
ceipts that were only an aggravation, 
with the energ}^ of despair. 

The only variety in our walks was 
arovmd the seawall or on the ramparts, 
where the sky for nearly eight months 
in tlie year was one grand, burnished 
dome, that met the .seemingly illimit- 
able .sea in all directions, reflecting 
millions of rays of heat that look our 
strength and courage. 

Yet, with all this, there was little 
complaint ; I think all were heroic, 
and deserved more and credit 
for endurance than was ever received, 
for very much was enjo3'ed socially, 
and the residents of the i.slands did 
not grow weary of each other. 

The of March the .steamer 
lirickson came in and ran aground, 
having on board the remainder of the 
One Hundred and Tenth New York 

Regiment alread},- on the island, and 
fifty-seven additional prisoners. 

Pleasant weather continued into 
April ; the nights were cool and the 
da}-s not too warm for exercise ; we 
now had our first thunder stonu, which 
was a sign of summer. About the 
middle of the month I accepted an 

invitation from Mrs. W to \isit 

them as they were to leave Key West 
for the North the first of ]\Iay. 

The enjoyment is .still fresh will; 
me, and we renewed our friendship 
that had lost none of its tenderness in 
the da}S that had intervened, since 
we watched them sail away out 
into the night, leaving us alone .so 
many months l)efore. 

The time was filled with riding and 
meeting our friends w^ho came to see lis. 

Admiral Iiaily, wdio was now in 
command of the fiagship, and Captain 
and .Mrs. Temple, Mr. and Mrs. Iler- 
rick. Judge Boynton and many others 
were there whom it was always pleas- 
ant to meet. 

The feeling of secession was not 
appeased, and the undercurrent of 
animosit)-, like the ruinl)ling of a vol- 
cano, created an atmosphere that was 
anj-thing but cheerful. Hut it was 
not permitted to interkre witli tlie 
home life at head(|uarlers, which wa.s 
always a hap])y one. (rcneral Wood- 
bury was a man of tlie most sterling 




character, a true Christian, and one 
whose influence for ^ood unconsciously 
stimulated all who came in contact 
with him. Oenial, (juiet in his man- 
ner, with a keen sense of humor, he 
was a charming, and, aided by 
his wife, who in every wa)- supple- 
niented these many ennobling; quali- 
ties, their home was a model one 
wherever duty assij^'^ned them. 

We were just far enoUL;h from town, 
with pleasant people all about us at 
the barracks, and we tried to forj^^et 
the element of discord that was .so 
dominant there, and did enjoy very 
much, although there would a look 
of weariness and anxiety in the midst 
of it all, come over the face of the 
general that made it an effort, we 
knew, for him to always put the gloom 
and sorrow that so enveloped our 
beloved com^try entirely out of sight. 

The children were happy and we 
enjoyed all their pleasures, and a 
house full of their merry voices was 
an antidote for many outside evils. 

I remember a wistful look one morn- 
ing, that came back to me afterwards 
so strongly, I wonder I did not almost 
feel it as a premonition of sorrow in 
store for those so dearly loved. 

One of the boj-s had just finished 
his music lesson, given him b}' his 
mother, and they both had left the 
room. The general sat listening to 
the \'oices of the three boys who were 
going horseback riding ; he watched 
them as they rode away, and said 
"what a lonely house this will be in 
another month ; but if anythingshould 
happen to me — ' ' and his voice trembled 
as he added : "I am blessed with such 
a wife all will be well." 

How kind is Providence that hides 
the future and leads us gently on, 
how could we live and struggle with- 
out the hope that sustains us through 
all, in the blissful ignorance that en- 
folds us. 

Captain and Mrs. Hook had taken 
tea with us and spent the evening. 
and about nine, just as they were sit- 
ting down to a game of whist, Captain 
McFarland came in, saying that the 

admiral was very anxious about the 
steamer. Honeysuckle, and wanted the 
Tortiiiras to go in .search of her, .so 
another hour found us on board the 
schooner on the way to Fort Jefferson . 

The first (^f May another steamer 
arrived from the North, bringing tuo 
hundred and eighty prisoners from 
the Army of the Potomac. It was 
discouraging, but the military prisons 
were oxerflowing at the North, 
and there was not time to investigate 
and sift them out, .so really 
de.serxing imj^ri.sonment, and 
confuied for trivial offenses, came 
together, a motley, sorry-looking 

To our delight, another norther 
visited us, with the thermometer 
going down to sixty-seven degrees. 
We liailed each one as a reprie\e. for 
we rarely had them so late, and each 
one shortened the long summer. 

The birds came again, and we went 
on the ramparts to hear them, as the 
noise distincllN' reached us, and we 
could see the dark cloud they made 
as they hovered over Bird Key. At 
the same time we feasted on mutton 
and beef, ])rought by a supply boat, 
and it was the turtle .season, too, so 
that we lived on the fat of the land for 

The last of May the heat com- 
menced in earnest, coming to stay, 
and our outings were all upon the 
water. We remained indoors until 
five, then the boats were out, and for 
tliree hours we enjoyed the sailing. 

We made our first trip to Bird Key. 
bringing awa>- fully three hundred 
eggs. The workmen had long since 
di.scontinued their work on the fortifi- 
cations, and the l>irds had undisputed 
possession of the island. 

It was very exciting, the birds 
were in such vast numbers, paying 
very little attention to us until we 
shouted, when they would for a sec- 
ond cease their chatter, and with a 
simultaneous .•^cream that was deafen- 
ing,, looking like a dark cloud 
hovering over the island, and then 
return to their nests, not for the pur- 



pose of covering their eggs, as the sun 
was the incubator, but they fed the 
little helpless things with fish most 

The seventh of June found us again 
on the way to Key West, leaving a 
party on the wharf who had regretfully 
said good-bj-e, as taking two ladies 
away interfered sadly with our little 

The trip was very tedious, for we 
were becalmed part of the night and 
all day, drifting, and the captain's 
account of a similar time when he 
drifted way beyond Key West and did 
not get back for two weeks, when he 
was greeted as a shipwrecked mariner 
was not reassuring. 

But the day wore on without a 
breath of wind ; the sun was like 
glass reflecting the heat until our 
faces were blistered. 

We saw no sail or steamer until 
just before dark one day, a tug came 
in sight, which we knew must be in 
search of us ; in the course of half 
an hour it came alongside, and 
Captain ISIcFarland's cheery voice 
called out to know if we wanted a 
line. When he came on board our 
welcome must have Ijeen an assurance 
of our appreciation of his efforts. He 
said : "I concluded you be drift- 
ing around somewhere in this part of 
the Gulf, and as there was no sign of a 
breeze we started out, not expecting 
to go more than halfway, but the tug 
will take us in before midnight." 

By eleven we reached the wharf 
to find the steamer Admiral in ; 
but the passengers were too worn out 
to go on her, and so waited for the 
Pa/apsco, which was expected in a few 
days. The next day found us com- 
fortably settled at Captain McFar- 
land's, as his family had gone North 
a few weeks before, and he had room 
for all the party, and the few days of 
waiting were very pleasant ones. 

]\Irs. Hook called in the morning, 
asking us all to the barracks to tea, 
and Captain Hook told us that she 
was going North with my sister and 
Mrs. Holgate. 

Captain Hook was vory earnest 
about it, although we could see that 
his wife was consenting very reluct- 
antly to leave him, yet if she were 
going, the opportunity was one to be 
considered. I remember the evening 
as being exceptionally beautiful, and 
General Woodbury, who had joined 
us, proposed a walk on the piazza, 
daring which he talked of his family, 
the life at Tortugas and its quiet hap- 
piness, in a way that, as I looked back 
upon it a few weeks later, seemed 
almost prophetic. 

The next evening at Captain Mc- 
Farland's we had an impromtu re- 

The Admiral and his staff, Mr. 
Butterfield, the British Consul, Doctor 
Van Riper, Captain Ralph Chandler, 
Captains McCauley and Bowers, Cap- 
tain and Mrs. Hook, the Misses Fur- 
gerson and Bethel and Doctor INIitchel, 
in fact, all our friends came to say 
good-bye to my sister. It was long 
remembered as such a happy time, with 
no foreshadowing of the sorrow that 
was .so soon to follow. 

The next morning while we were at 
breakfast Captain and Mrs. Hook 
came in ; he on his way to the Fort 
where he spent part of each daj^ and 
she to tell us that she had a reprieve. 
She had promised faithfully that if 
Captain Hook would allow her to 
remain two weeks longer, until the 
next steamer, she would go willingly 
and there was a joy in her face that 
told its own story. Was it inspiration 
that had l)rought this change of plan ? 
Certainly it was a kind Providence. 

Mrs. Holgate and my sister left in the 
Patapsco that evening, and I went to 
Mrs. Hook to remain until the boat 
left for Tortugas the following night. 

We had a quick trip down, and the 
following day the Nightiugalc came in 
bringing .seventy more prisoners. 

The Tortugas on her return trip 
brought the news that Captain Hook 
was stricken down with yellow fever 
and the NigJitingale which came in 
two days later brought the .sorrowful 
news that our dear friend whom T left 



as well as usual only one week before, 
had succumbed to that terrible disease 
that we had all felt in his condition, he 
bore a certain immunity from con- 

Had Mrs. Ilook gone North as was 
at first planned, her first news would 
have been of her husband's death, 
and perhaps in those days of irregular 
mails it might have been two weeks 
before the sad news reached her. 

She went on the next steamer, but 
under what different circumstances. 

Reports abroad of the havoc made 
by the increase of the epidemic, shut 
us off from the world again, and it 
was with dread that we saw the 
schooner Tortiigas come in. 

The break -bone fever made its 
appearance again with us. 

The Colonel and his wife were 
among the first victims and few es- 
caped ; my son succumbed, then the 
Doctor, who could not give \\\) to it, 
and who went about doing the best he 
could, obtaining a few hours' rest when- 
ever the opportunity offered, until 
finally the whole island became one 
immense hospital. 

The heat was intense, the silence 
oppressive beyond description ; there 
were no soldiers for drill or parade and 
the gloom was indescribable. 

We were all ill at the same time 
with no physician ; five hundred at 
one time would scarcely cover the list 
of those ill with the fever ; thirty out 
of one company and all its officers, 
while those who were able to move 
about looked like glicsts. 

The mercury was one hundred and 
four degrees in the hospital. As each 
one rallied the}' would visit those still 
iu bed ; but no one seemed to gain 
vitality sufficient to throw off" the feel- 
ing that we were in some horrible 
nightmare. The disease was very 
prostrating and for days we had only 
the stewards to depend upon who 
were hosts in themselves. ]\Iy hus- 
band's steward remained with us 
nights inside the Fort and the steward 
of the One Hundred and Tenth was 
invaluable in his skill, attention and 

kindness ; but it was terrible beyond 
description, to be hemmed in by those 
high, literally red-hot brick walls 
with so much suffering sickness. I 
could look from my window and see 
the piazza, with beds brought out 
hoping for a breath of air to fan the 
burning brow and fever-parched lips ; 
there was nothing to brighten the 
cloud of despair that seemed to encom- 
pass the island. 

The mail .schooner, Tortiigas, came 
down but was put in quarantine for 
eight days. The yellow fever was raging 
with great fatality in Ke>- West ; even 
the old acclimated residents succumbed 
to it. The ships put out to .sea. 

In the midst of all this, news reached 
us that General Woodbury and Cap- 
tain McParland were ill with the fever 
and the painful suspense waiting for 
the delayed sailing vessels added to 
our depression, for vessels avoided us; 
no steamer came near us except Cap- 
tain Craven with his Monitor oi route 
for Mobile. 

He spent all the time he could with 
us. Fortunatel}-, it happened just 
after the Doctor's illness. Captain 
Craven brought all the latest news 
from Washington, but he seemed less 
cheerful than when he was with us 
before and talked constantly of his 
wife and children. Was it a premon- 
ition of the dark shadow hanging 
over him ? He brought their pictures 
up for us to see and after the vessel 
had coaled he invited the Doctor and 
my.sclf on board to lunch with him. 
I remember as we stood in the turret 
of the curious-looking half boat half 
sea monster, I said, "If this should go 
down how could \-ou escape ? ' ' 

He replied, "We should run up 
this ladder and jump from the top of 
the turret." My heart gave a little 
shiver as I said, " I trust you will not 
be obliged to resort to that." He 
was ordered to the monitor Tccumsah 
while a vessel that he was to be given 
the command of was being made 
ready, as the fight at Mobile was not 
expected to occupy much time. 

Wc watched her steam out of the 

2 lO 


harbor and until it was a mere speck on 
the top of the water, our hearts heavy 
with a premonition of coming sorrow. 

And it came, first, when the mail 
boat came in with the heartrending- 
news of the death of our dear friend. 
General Woodbury. 

Doctor Mitchel, who came down to 
\-isit us, was not well and looked worn 
and pale, but had he remained, we 
could not help feeling that he might 
have lived; yet, on the other hand, had 
he been taken witli the genuine yellow 
fever, at Tortugas, it might have been 
the .spark that in our deplorable condi- 
tion would have devastated the island. 

He returned to Key West, finding 
that my husband was able to attend to 
the hospital and the next boat l)rouglit 
a note from Captain McFarland telling 
us that his work was ended in less 
than a week from the time he left us, 
just as his "leave" expired from his 
own, the British navy, and his resigna- 
tion had been accepted from our army 
which came and was read to him 
within an hour of his death. 

We began to dread the incoming of 
the mail, fearing what might come 
next. We were weak and depressed 
enough to be almost superstitious. 
And the next news was the sad fate of 
Captain Craven. The Monitor was 
blown up in making the charge witli 
Farragut in Moliile Bay ; and so died 
one of the most chivalrous men of our 
navy. Captain Craven was a man of 
courtly presence, and his courtesy was 
the direct cause of his death. When 
the torpedo exploded beneath the 
Monitor, they felt her going and 
instinctively rushed for the turret, as 
he had told us he would do. As 
Craven reached the foot of the com- 
panion way, another man, I believe 
the pilot, reached it just 1)c-liiii(l liim. 
The Monitor was then making the 
final plunge and there was time for 
one to spring out and only one. 
Craven stepped back, saying, "After 
you, sir." The other sprang througli 
the opening and the commander went 
down, caught in the whirl of waters 
that burst through the hatch. 

{To be L 

All of these men were intimate and 
valued friends, and their deaths fol- 
lowed each other so rapidly, for it was 
not six weeks since the death of 
Captain Hook, that it was not strange 
that it was impossible to throw off the 
gloom which hung over us like a 

People finally began to rally, but 
very slowl}-, and the lethargy we had 
fallen into from all this sorrow and 
sickness was hard to shake off. I 
remember going out sailing, to meet 
the Tortugas, on the ninth of Septem- 
ber for the first time in three months. 

After awhile the ladies began to 
visit, getting together with their sew- 
ing, gradually falling into their old 
habits in a quiet, subdued way, with 
the feeling one has after watching 
with sickness so long they tread and 
speak softly as though the object of 
their care was still with them. My 
husband now took the entire medical 
charge of the prisoners; his sympathies 
were aroused when he treated them 
during the illness of the regimental 
doctor, and he found them in a terrible 
condition from the effects of scurvy. 
His first inspection occupied five 
hours, and every corner of their (juar- 
ters and every man was examined. 
He found nearly two hundred with 
the loath.some, many too ill to 
rally. Fortunately, the officers were 
only too glad to second any efforts he 
wished to make, and the idea of having 
.some one specially interested in them 
was to them a ray of hope. 

He called for a new clean building, 
taking them out of the ca.semates and 
.sent for all the limes Key West could 
provide. He found in the commissary 
.stores dcssicated vegetables which the 
doctor should have given them before, 
had he understood the nature of the 

He sent men to the islands to gather 
parsley, which grew there in abun- 
dance ; had it boiled as a vegeta1)le 
and they ate it with vinegar, and soon 
new life was instilled into the wretched 
miserable lot of men. Vet there were 
many to whom all this came too late. 
'out in uf J) 



Oil a drcain\- afU-nKJoii, 

Mid the tender bloom of June, 

On a river, softly flowing, 
Oars kept time with rhythmic tune 

— For Love went rowing ! 

All was (juiet, nothing stirred. 
And the only sound one heard 

Was the merry sound of mowing, 
Or cry of startled bird 

Where Lo\-e was rowing. 

Sweet the sultry air did seem 
And the trees stood in a dream ; 

Not the lightest zephyr blowing 
Ruffled the enchanted stream 

Where L,ove was rowing. 

The wild roses on the bank 
From intrusion wisely shrank, 

Ivveii blushed where they were growing, 
And the lilies deeper sank, 

— For L,ove was rowing ! 

All the blossoms to the skies 
Turned the fragrance of their sighs, 

Wily circumspection showing ; 
And the daisies shut their eyes 

Where Lovt was rowing. 


Poets hardly dare to ([uote 

What was whispered in that boat ; 

Question in, and answer towing ; 
Doubt and passion were afloat 

— And Love was rowing. 

She was l()\-ely to behold, 

He was bashful, hot and cold — 

Redder every moment growing, 
Struggling with a tale half-told. 

Slow — Love was rowing. 

In the midst of all their sighs. 
Love turned with laughing eyes. 

Gave a wink profoundly knowing ; 
Listened to his victim's lies — 

And laughed while he was rowing. 





THE former article of this series 
attempted to point out that the 
need of the best education has 
been long ago felt, and partly supplied 
in several departments of the Kxec- 
utive and in the Judicial branches of 
our Government and drew attention to 
the as 3-et unfilled want in the Legis- 
lative branch. Herbert Spencer in his 
essay on Political Education, after 
showing the entire educational unfit- 
ness of nearly all members of the 
English Parliament fur the work of 
law-making (though there has been 
a far larger proportion of university- 
bred men in that bod}' than in any 
American Legislature), uses this lan- 
guage : ' ' One would think that the 
whole system had been framed on the 
sayings ot some political Dogberry. 
The art of healing is difficult, the 
art of government easy. The under- 
standing of arithmetic comes by stud}^ 
while the understanding of society 
comes by instinct. Watch-making 
requires a long apprenticeship, but 
there needs none for the making of 
institutions. To manage a shop prop- 
erly requires teaching, but the man- 
agement of a people may l)e vuider- 
taken without preparation." 

I'vxperience has amply shown that 
some of the ideas of the old Constitu- 
tion makers were founded in error. 
Notable among these is the universal 
provision which as yet there has 
been no thought of changing,that mere 
citizenship, lawful age and legal resi- 
dence arc the only qualifications nec- 
essary for any office. Another is that 
a governing class can be avoided and 
good government secured by sliort terms 
and frecpent elections. A third is that 
in every representative office the can- 

didate must be a resident of the dis- 
trict that elects him. The result of 
all three errors is the universal verifi- 
cation of the maxim that the Govern- 
ment cannot be any better than the 
people, a maxim whose contemplation 
satisfies thousands of unthinking 
voters, with whom the Government 
is good enough when it is no worse 
than the people. Unfortunately for 
this class of political optimists, the 
operation of these three fundamental 
errors in combination with the corrupt- 
ing power of wealth, has in many 
instances degraded the Government 
below the people both intellectually 
and morall3^ President C. W. Eliot 
of Harvard, in an excellent paper in 
the Forum for October, 1S91, after 
showing the impossibility of good 
municipal Government so long as 
short term and frequent changes in 
City Councils make impossible the 
necessary knowledge in taxation, water 
supply, drainage, sanitary conditions, 
control of corporations and the thous- 
and other details which must be regu- 
lated by the City Government, if 
regulated at all, concludes that " it is 
no exaggeration to say that good 
municipal administration has now 
become absolutely impossible without 
the employment on permanent tenures 
of a large number of highly trained 
and highly paid experts in various 
arts and sciences as directors of the 
chief city departments. * * * Before 
Miinieipal ('joveniiueut ea>i be set right 
i)i the United States, municipal serviee 
mtist be made a lijc career for intelligent 
and self-jcspeeting young Americans ; 
that is. it ))i ust be attractive to 7uell- trained 
young men 7vho enter it — as they enter 
a7iy other profession or business, viean- 




ing to stay in it, learn it thoroughly, a7id 
win advancement in it by fidelity and 
ability.'" If this l)e true as to 5lunic- 
ipal Government is it less true as to 
State Legislatures and Congress ? 

But the difficulties in the way of 
securing trained talent and character 
in the elective service of our Govern- 
ment are manifold and fundamental. 
They are : 

I St. The absence of any class prop- 
erly educated in statecraft, from which 
proper candidates can be selected , and 
of any institutions for supplying such 

2d. The absence of such public 
opinion as at all recognizes the nec- 
essity for any .special education in 
candidates for elective oflicc. 

3d. The universal dominance of a 
class of active and unscrupulous pol- 
iticians idea of office is private 
gain, not public service, and whose 
principal test of fitness is corrupt 
subservience to the nominating power. 
These have no use for educated candi- 
dates, whom the}^ love as the rats love 
the ferret ! 

4th. Univensal suffrage implies the 
right to hold office (as if it were a 
property or a power) as the correlative 
of the mere voting power, and there- 
fore ignorance and incompetence have 
the right of representation, in propor- 
tion to numbers, equally with knowl- 
edge and talent. Therefore the more 
ignorant voters, when in the majority, 
would deem themselves disfranchised 
if not permitted to choose their repre- 
sentatives from their own body.-^^ 

5tli. The entire absence of educa- 
tional qualifications for legislative 
office in every Constitution. 

6th . The uncertainty of the election 
of educated candidates. 

7th. The further uncertainty of 
their re-election, especially under Con- 
stitutional provisions confining repre- 
sentation to residents in the district, 
thereby disqualifying non-resident 

♦since the recent extension of the franchise in 
England, the proportion of university men elected to 
parliament has fallen from its former majority to ten 
or fifteen per cent of the whole. 

candidates though in ever>' respect 
better men. 

8th. Kxtreme partisanship, which 
ever3-where seeks the election of party 
leaders regardless of their education, 
knowledge or character. 

So then, so far from realizing the 
dream of the fathers, that free elections 
by the people would naturally result 
in the choice of their best men, and 
therefore in a far better admini.stration 
than is possible under hereditary or 
autocratic governments, here are eight 
conditions whose operation makes it 
almost as impossible to place able and 
clean men in the Legislature as in the 
jury-box. How are these conditions 
to be changed, without changing our 
form of Government ? Only by such 
changes in public opinion as shall do 
away icith the conditions! 

Public opinion is sovereign in a 
Republican Government. When the 
people shall have been taught to apph' 
to public questions the same common and common honesty which reg- 
ulate all private business, they will as 
naturally place in office only those who 
are educated in statecraft, as they 
now entrust their law business to 
law3'ers, their health to trained phy- 
sicians, their building to carpenters, 
and their horse-shoeing to blacksmiths. 
Strange that with all our progress in 
enlightenment and the experience of a 
century pointing out the fallacy of 
expecting good govermnent from in- 
competence and vice, it should seem 
now a startling, perhaps a visionary- 
or even ridiculous idea, to attempt to 
utilize the higher education in the 
administration of public affairs. 

Able and patriotic minds in the 
older States have now been at work 
for ten years in planting the seeds 
from which this change in public 
opinion is to grow. Several strong 
societies have been formed, and their 
number is increasing in accelerating 
ratio, whose members already include 
thousands of the best minds, and 
whose object is the general introduc- 
tion of the duties of citizenship, or 
" Ci\ncs " in the public schools, and 

V0I. II— i.t 



of the stud}- of political and economic 
science, history, etc., in the Universi- 
ties. Prominent among these socie- 
ties are the ' ' American Institute of 
Civics," established in New York in 
1885, and the "American Academy 
of Political and Social Science of 
Philadelphia, now entering in its 
third year. In compliance with the 
suggestions of these centers of enlight- 
ened opinion, several States have 
caused elementary text-books to be 
prepared, explanatory of State and 
Federal Constitutions, and have intro- 
duced their use into the public 
schools. Among these, California has 
taken the initiative, and the text-book 
for which an appropriation was made 
during the session of 1887-8 is now in 
course of preparation by Professor 
Jones of the University of California. 

IMoreover, during the last ten years, 
professorships and counses of study in 
political and economic science have 
been established in the Universities of 
Pennsjdvania, Kansas, Nebraska, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana and 
California ; also at Harvard, Colum- 
bia, Cornell, Brown and Johns Hop- 
kins Universities. The Iceland Stan- 
ford Jr. University, lately opened, has 
at once introduced these studies. The 
idea of generating an educated class 
for future public service has therefore 
already germinated, and seems to be 
growing But it is yet but a tender 
hothouse plant. What are thirteen 
Universities out of three hundred and 
fifty-seven ? And not one of the 
thirteen has yet established a distinct 
college, or degrees in statecraft ; nor 
is it probable that an^^ one of them 
covers all the studies which a thor- 
ough outfit for public work requires, 
or bases its instructions upon such a 
course in practical vwrals as is indis- 
pensable, if character as well as 
knowledge is to be included in the 
qualifications of a vStatesman. 

Our first want therefore in this 
connection is the establishment of 
distinct colleges of statecraft, in which 
the course of study .should embrace 
the following topics : Practical morals, to be incul- 
cated in public discussions between 
teacher and students, in such manner 
as to awaken the mind to the habitual 
decision of right and wrong, the rec- 
ognition of duty and the obligations of 
patriotism and good manners. 

2d. A thorough course of ancient 
and modern history, especially that of 
England and the United States. 

3d. Philosophy of history and de- 
velopment of ideas of Gov^ernment in 

4th. Biography, " Plutarch's 
Lives," Lives of Statesmen and 
Patriots in England and United 
States, Washington's Life and 


5tli. Political ethics. 

6tli. Science of Government, com- 
parative ideas of Gov^ernment, leading 
American ideas, both political and 

7tli. Constitutional, civil, crimi- 
nal, international and parliamentary 
law and the laws of war. 

8. Political econom5^ with especial 
reference to the principles of taxation, 
public finance, protection and free 
trade, relations of capital to labor, 
money, banking and the laws of com- 

9th. Political and commercial 

loth. Diplomacy and foreign treat- 

nth. The elements of the sciences 
that affect .social conditions; social 

12th. The science of statistics. 

13th. Logic, rhetoric, correct use 
of English in writing, and public 

14th. Penology, State asjdums 
and Eleemosynary in.stitutions. 

15th. Modern languages (optional). 

i6th. Military training and tactics. 

The object of this should be 
a clear understanding of the true 
place of American Republicanism in 
the history of political evolution, as 
the protector of liberty and consequent 
promoter of happiness. The students 
.should be thoroughly informed of the 



dangers which threaten it through 
mal-administratiou, and of present 
corruptions and political crimes. 
They should be inspired with the 
determination to correct abuses, to 
prevent the election of bad or incom- 
petent officers, and promote purity and 
efficiency as the only means of securing 
the perpetuity of our institutions. 
They should be taught that the reward 
of the faithful civil officer, like that of 
the Army and Navy, is not in a 
fortune, but in the exercise of wisely 
u.sed power, in popular love and grati- 
tude, in promotions, and finally, in 
honorable mention in history; that an 
office is not to be regarded as a private 
property and worked for personal 
profit, but as a service, in which the 
public are the masters and sole right- 
ful beneficiaries; and that the salary 
or fees payable by law, as the full 
compensation for service performed, 
are the limit of the pecuniary emolu- 
ment, which can be honestly received 
by any officer. 

Such a course as is here delineated 
should lead to the degree of Bachelor 
of Statecraft, to be followed b}' subse- 
quent degrees of INIaster and Doctor of 
Statecraft, when earned by post- 
graduate attainments and distinction. 

By whom should such colleges be 

I St. By universities already in 
existence, especially those which have 
already provided instruction in Polit- 
ical Science, and particularly b)^ all 
State Universities. 

2d. By wealth}' philanthropists, 
seeking objects on which to bestow a 
portion of their wealth, and who may 
perceive that the greatest possible 
impulse would be given to political 
reform by large endowments to an 
entirely distinct institution, devoted 
wholly to education for political life. 
For in such a college the military 
system, which at West Point has 
produced such satisfactory results in 
the formation of character could be 
made to cover every movement and 
every hour of student life. The proper 
location for it would unquestionably 

be at the National Capital, where the 
students would have the advantage of 
attending the meetings of Congress ; 
of studying the workings of all the 
Federal offices and departments ; of 
the Smithsonian Institute ; and per- 
haps of the great Congressional 
Library. They would hear frequent 
lectures from leading statesmen, could 
freciucnt the courts and city offices, 
and visit the jails. They could be 
sent by classes or companies in charge 
of profe.ssors to adjoining State 
Capitals and large cities, there to 
attend Legislative and Council 
meetings, and study State and City 

3d. The Federal Senate has 
appointed a Standing Committee on a 
National University of which the new 
Vermont Senator, Proctor (late Secre- 
tary of War), is Chairman. What is 
expected from this committee, we are 
not advised. Perhaps it has been 
raised in compliance with the advice 
of President Washington in his last 
message to Congress in 1 796, the same 
in which he recommended the estab- 
lishment of the Military Academy. 
In that message he used the following 
language : 

' ' I have heretofore proposed to the 
consideration of Congress the expedi- 
ency of establishing a National 
University and also a Militar>' 
Academy. The desirableness of 
both these institutions has so con- 
stantly increased with ever}- new view 
I have taken of the subject, that I 
cannot omit the opportunity of once 
for all recalling your attention to 
them. '^ * ^ Amongst the 
motives to such an institution (the 
University) the assimilation of the 
principles, opinions and manners of 
our countrymen by the common 
education of a portion of our youth 
from every quarter well deserves 
attention. The more homogeneous 
our citizens can be made in these 
particulars, the greater will be our 
prospect of permanent union, and a 
primary object of such a Natio7ial Insti- 
tutioti should be the education of out 



ymith in the science of Government. In 
a Republic, what species of knowledge 
can be equally important, and what 
duty more pressing on its Legislature 
than to patronize a plan for communi- 
cating it to those who are to be the 
future guardians of the liberties of the 
nation ? ' ' 

{Sparks' Wasliington, XII, 71.) 

In a letter to Thomas Jefferson, 
written in the preceding year, (March 
^5' 1795) he expresses his preference 
for the National Capital as the proper 
site for such a University, and his 
intention to contribute towards it the 
fifty Potomac Navigation shares, pre- 
sented to him by the Legislature of 
Virginia. His first and last reasons 
for the location at Washington were 
' ' on account of its being the permanent 
seat of the Government of the Union, 
and where the laws and policy of it 
must 1:>e better understood than in any 
local part thereof, and as this semin- 
ary is contemplated for the completion 
of cdvication, not for boys in their 
rudiments, it will afford the students 
aji opportunity of attending the debates 
in Congress and thereby becoming more 
liberally and better acquainted zvith the 
ptinciplcs of la7u and Government.''' 

{Sparks XI, 2j.) 

Who knows wliether if this 
eminently wise advice had been at 
once followed, the homogeneous 
education of Northern and Southern 
leaders in political thought would not 
have forestalled our Civil War ? 
W^hen men are taught alike they are 
apt to tliink alike. When the)- think 
alike, they act alike. War cannot 
originate but from differences of opin- 
ion or contending passions, uncontrolled 
by reason. The estaltlishment now of 
a great Federal College of Statecraft 
at Washington, where the same ideas 
of Government shall be scientifically 
taught to thousands of bright youths, 
gathered proportionally from every 
State and Territory, may forestall 
future wars or divisions. The benefits 
it would otherwise confer, if patrioti- 
cally managed and kept free from 
partizan control wf)nlfl 1x' incalculal)le. 

4th. Ultimately, free colleges in 

statecraft should be established and 

maintained by each State as a part o{ 

its system of public instruction, and 

as tlie especial school for its own 

politicians. Such schools, if started 

now, would be crowded with students 

inspired by the natural love of oflice, 

and willing to undergo any amount of 

preparation therefor, if that labor were 

to be tolerably sure of its expected 

reward. But the present class of 

Legislators cannot be expected to take 

a step which would lead to their own 

extinction as politicians, except under 

such a pressure of public opinion, as 

it will take at least a generation to 

bring to bear upon the question. It 

is a mark of the gross ignorance of our 

Legislators, of their utter failure to 

appreciate the value of our institutions 

and entire indifference to their future 

maintenance, that it has taken more 

than twenty years of agitation to 

introduce ' ' civics ' ' into the public 

schools of a half dozen States, out of 

our forty-four. At this rate the first 

State Patriotic College ma}^ be expected 

to materialize about the year 2000, 

the period fixed by Bellamy for the 

absorption of the Government by 

organized socialism ! 

But wherever, however, whenever, 
and by whomsoever, colleges in state- 
craft are established, what must Ix- 
their results upon American politics ? 

In the first place, the present style 
of politicians find their opportunity in 
the fact expressed by the maxim, 
" What is everybody's business is no- 
body's business." The secret con- 
spiracies of a few have ever been the 
terror of the luiorganized and thought- 
less many. One born organizer, like 
Chris Buckley, can out-general the 
voters of a State. Tannnany has been 
the tyrant of New \\)rk for two gen- 
erations. Now and then a Tweed 
ring, a gas trust, or a set of rascals 
like those in vSan Francisco prior to 
1.S56, so abuse the jwwers filched 
from the i)eople that the latter revolt, 
and by a phenomenal exertion of 
])li\'sical or moral force, for a while 



overcome the politicians. ]}ut sucli 
efforts must always be ephemeral under 
our system. The few good and true 
citizens who head the reform become 
by-and-by exhausted. There are 
none to take their places. The crew 
at the pumps wears out, but the leak 
continues, for the pressure of the sea 
water never ceases. Our masters 
expect occasional rebellious, but 
knowing that they are always short- 
lived, they bide their time to resume 
their empire in safety. The people 
are too bus}' about their private 
affairs, and therefore leave public 
business to the public officers, rely- 
ing upon our system of checks and 
balances to prevent abuses. But 
when all the officers are alike cor- 
rupt, because owing their places to 
the same corrupt powers, what becomes 
of the checks and balances ? Of what 
use are the District Attorney or the 
Grand Jury, when the former is in the 
ring, and the boss, through his minion, 
the sheriff, can pack the Grand Jur>^ ? 
The recent proceedings in San Fran- 
cisco show how utterly powerless the 
sovereign people may become, through 
legal technicalities contrived by poli- 
tical lawyers for the protection of 
their criminal clients. The old theorj^ 
that short terms of office will always 
cure the evils of malfeasance, amounts 
to nothing when the same occult 
powers refill the offices at every elec- 
tion. Changes of parties effect onl)' 
temporary relief, for the people are 
equally \"ictimized 1\v the power of 
public plunder under all parties of 
whatever name. Even a people's 
party may nominate a man who, enter- 
ing upon office %\'itli a fair reputation, 
may presently show how ignorant he 
is of legislative work, or how feeble 
his ideas of honesty when he is exposed 
to the temptation of public trust. 
Nor does continued publicity cure cor- 
ruption ; for in all our great cities the 
public mind has become so familiarized 
with every form of political vice as to 
have lost its sense of right and wrong 
in the political field. 

The profession of the law is popu- 

larly supposed to be the true education 
for public life; but Herbert Spencer, 
in his essay on Political Education, 
says: "A familiarity with law is no 
more a preparation for rational legisla- 
tion than would be a familiarity with 
all the nostrums men have ever used 
as a preparation for the rational prac- 
tice of medicine." The political law- 
yer is a natural partisan. He knows 
liow to work only as an attorney for 
one of two sides in a controversy. 
His knowledge of the laws that have 
been made has often no bearing upon 
laws that should be made except to 
prevent them, owing to his professional 
adherence to precedent. Nor does the 
knowledge only of law 
familiarity with any other study in 
our curriculum for an education \\\ 
statecraft. Nay, further, is the pro- 
fession that lives by constant contact 
with fraud and crime thereby rendered 
pre-eminentl}' honest ? Is the prac- 
tice of taking fees for ser\'ices in 
court suggestive of refusing fees for 
services in the Legislature? Have 
political lawyers no pecuniary inter- 
ests in .statute-making, independent of 
the profits of bribery ? Can no relation 
be traced between the continually-con- 
trolling presence of lawyers in the 
Legislatures and the thousand need- 
less complexities, costs, delays, ap- 
peals and technicalities in probate, 
insolvency, street assessment and 
criminal proceedings, all making work 
and fees for the bar at the expense of a 
permanent divorce between law and jus- 
tice? Is it not singular that, under a 
Government so carefully dividing its 
powers, that the law-making depart- 
ment is left utterly powerless in exe- 
cution and administration, all three of 
those powers should be ever^-where 
blindly conferred upon the lawyers? 
For as legislators they make the laws ; 
(often in their own interest) ; as judges 
they administer them, and as attor- 
neys they execute them. In protec- 
tion of the rights of the public ought 
not lawyers to be ex-officio a'/Vqualified 
to be legislators? What right have 
they to have any share whatever in 



framing the laws, out of whose execu- 
tion they make their living ? 

As to all the other four hundred 
trades and professions of civilized life, 
which of their candidates could stand 
an examination in the course of studies 
necessary to equipment in statecraft ? 
How particularly "smart" it is for 
this great Nation to be continually 
entrusting its enormous Federal inter- 
ests to a House of Representatives, 
not one of whom has been educated 
for the work, while all of them are 
elected for only two years, the first of 
which slips away while he is trying to 
attain some little inkling of the varied 
knovv'ledgc necessary to the position, 
and the second in intriguing at home 
for his re-election, which generally 
fails. Wc condemn many such a man 
for accomplishing uothirig for his con- 
stituents. How could he ? And in- 
stead of giving liini time to complete 
his education, in hopes that by-and- 
by he will know enough to be useful, 
Vi"c turn him out and send up another 
ignoramus to go through the same 
farcical process in his place, and so on 
ad infinitum in Congress, in Legis- 
latures, City Councils and all ! Would 
it not be wiser first to prepare by 
suitable education a class of candidates 
who would be sure to possess before 
election the necessary knowledge and 
character to perform satisfactorj^ 
serv'icc, and thereafter b}' electing 
only these, avoid the risks, the ex- 
pense and continual failures conse- 
quent en our present plan ? Would 
it not be wiser to extend the term of 
legislative office to six years, and 
make re-election of all successful in- 
cumbents a matter of course, thus 
reaping the benefit of their experi- 
ence and familiarity with public 
affairs ? And lastly, would it not 
cause great improvement in the per- 
sonel of our Legislatures, if it were 
competent to di.spense with the pres- 
ent strict requirement of residence in 
the district, whereby able and good 
men, failing of election in one district, 
might be cho.sen in another, and a 
distinguished representative be .se- 

cured for many a distant or sparsel}- 
settled district, in which no suitable 
candidate might happen to reside ? 

Now, the creation of a bod}"- of 
specially trained young men, who 
would look upon polities as their life 
work ; who would be equipped with 
the necessary knowledge ; whose 
characters would be formed under 
honest and patriotic influences, and 
whose business it must be to work 
their way into the public service, 
would be laying the corner-stone of 
political reform upon the broadest and 
surest foundation. To begin with, the 
proverb above quoted would no 
longer apply. It would be the busi- 
ness of this class to watch public 
affairs, to attend primaries and con- 
ventions, to investigate and expose 
corruption, to counteract political 
schemers, to work their way into 
party management, and by-and-b}- 
get themselves and their fellows into 
the public service. Between them 
and the present political powers, it 
would be war to the knife, and the 
knife to the hilt. It would be "dia- 
mond cut diamond." At first, the 
chances would all be against their 
success. But their common interests 
and education would attract them to 
each other, as is the tendency in all 
trades in these days. A strong politi- 
cal Propaganda would result. Pow- 
erful influences would be brought to 
bear upon the civic education of 
3^outli. Books and pamphlets would 
be written and circulated, courses of 
reading suggested, (Chatauqua fash- 
ion) and associations formed to promote 
purity and efficiency in the Govern- 
ment. As editors, lecturers, school- 
teachers, business men, whatever the 
utterances of the graduates, they would 
tend to the enlightenment of the publ ic 
conscience and abatement of corrup- 
tion. Can it be possible that such a 
leaven would not in time leaven the 
whole lump? In the conflict between 
good and evil, good always triumphs 
in the end. Can it be possible that the 
common sense of the American people, 
when disabused of party prejudice 



and tradition, would not ultimately 
insist on placing' their Government in 
competent and trustworthy hands ? 
Is it inconceivable that as they now 
deem it absurd to apply to a lawyer 
to shoe their horses, or to a black- 
smith to cure their diseases, or to a 
thief to serve them as cashier, or to a 
carpenter to fill their teeth, they 
will sometime wonder that they ever 
trusted all these to manage the infin- 
itely more difficult and responsible 
W'Ork of making the Nation's laws? 
They will look back with astonish- 
ment at the fact that during a century 
such a thing as political education was 
never thought of any more than the con- 
tinual peril of entrusting to one inter- 
ested and powerful profession the power 
of molding to their own advantage the 
entire legal machinery of the countr\'. 
Given then a class of young men 
who are fitted to pursue politics as a 
learned and honorable profession, 
whose numbers would continually be 
reinforced by successive graduations 
from more and more colleges of state- 
craft, and who would be supported for 
ofiice by more and more of the 
younger voters, who had learned the 
duties of citizenship in the public 
schools, — and the effect upon public 
opinion can be safely predicted. 
When the majority of any State shall 
have been converted from party to 
patriotism, such Constitutional amend- 
ments as may be deemed necessary to 
forever debar ignorance and venality 
from elective as well as appointive 
offices, will follow as a matter of 
course. The nation will have been 
saved, its institutions will be perpetu- 
ated, lyiberty and happiness will be 
secured to all, when we can realize 
the motto : ' ' The brain work of the 
country for men of brains, its trusts 
for men of integrity and honor. ' ' But 
if we go on as we are, wdio can ven- 
ture to predict the celebration of our 
second centenary under circumstances 
of continued progress, peace and 
union ? As we have attained our 
present greatness in a tenth of the 
time occupied by old Rome in reach- 

ing the zenith of her power, will not 
our decline and fall, owing to the 
same terrible demoralization, be pro- 
portionately rapid ? 

Now, let it be borne in mind how 
many political heresies already com- 
mand large followings in the United 
States. Among these a new party, 
the "Farmers' Alliance," insists upon 
a great enlargement of the powers and 
duties of Government, and a tremen- 
dous increase in the number of its ofl&- 
cers. These enthusiasts would have 
the Government own and operate all 
the railroads, telegraphs and expresses. 
They would abolish all the moneyed 
institutions and make the Govern- 
ment the only banker. The ' ' Nation- 
alists," as they call themselves, would 
saddle it with all business, productive 
and distributive, reserving for the 
individual only the right and power 
of consumption. Do these fancy 
thinkers ever stop to consider what 
sort of men they must be who could 
and would satisfactorily discharge all 
the tremendous powers thus imposed 
on Government officers? Or what 
would be the situation if Tammany, 
Buckley, et id omne gcmis were to be 
entrusted, in addition to present 
powers, with the management only of 
the railroads (to say nothing of all the 
rest), with their seven billions of in- 
vested capital, their seven hundred 
millions of income and their five 
hundred thousand employees ? 

Will it not be time enough even to 
dream of such enlargement of the pow- 
ers of Government when the descriptive 
phrase, "the filthy pool of politics," 
shall have been forgotten in admira- 
tion of the work of a body of politi- 
cians who shall be scholars and gen- 
tlemen, the peers of our West Point 
and Annapolis graduates — competent, 
patriotic and honest enough to satis- 
factorily discharge the present duties 
of public life in the public interest only ? 

The conclusion of the whole matter 
is that the only mode of checking the 
present infection of corruption in Ameri- 
can politics is by elevating politics into a 
learned profession . 



PLAGUK take de beasts ! Ef I 
kotches ye, I won't leave nary 
squeal in yer pesky hides ! Dat's 
hit now, I's got ye ! Oh, gracious Cain 
and Abel, whar's me!" and "Unc 
Joshaway " sprawling on the ground, 
grasping fiercely at the remnants of 
sweet potato vines scattered about and 
uttering some expressions for which 
his exalted position as one of the chief 
brethren in "Johnde Baptis " church 
did not wholly account, succeeded in 
getting upon his feet, the blood trick- 
ling from his nose. But the pigs were 
again serenely engaged in the occu- 
pation for which indisputably nature 
endowed them with snouts. 

Another race was run round and 
round the field, but at last, with 
maternal grunts and adolescent squeals 
the invaders were ejected on the high- 
ways and ' ' Unc Joshaway, ' ' full of 
just wrath, crossed the road to his 
cabin, and finding that INIammy Cindy 
had gone to her day's toil, seated by 
the fireplace, he solaced himself on the 
hoe cake that she had prepared for his 
breakfast before leaving for the estab- 
lishment, where in rather soiled and 
greasy majesty, she reigned as cook. 
The old man felicitated himself greatly 
on his permitting this, and frequently 
informed his friends that '' dis time of 
de yeah, foh cotton-pickin' time, he 
'lowed de ole lady ter job roun' fer 

As he nmnched his bread, might}' 
thoughts revolved through his woolly 
pate. The marauding pigs were the 
property of Aunt Milly, one of " de 
mothahs ob de church." At first he 
thought he would go at once to the 
lady and demand that she make good 
the damage done his crop. "But," 
he reasoned, " coas she'll say dey 
warn't hern, and come to think, liow 
kin I prov^e it agin 'em ? " 

As he meditatively raked the ashes 
and smoked his pipe after finishing his 
breakfast, a pleasing thought came to 
him with the suddenness of inspira- 
tion. Going to the door, he summoned 
his son from the top of a post that at 
some former time had supported a 
gate. This youth, ' ' Unc Joshaway's ' ' 
youngest offspring, was the object of 
his pride and delight. He would 
sometimes remark, "I's gAvine ter 
make sumpum out'n dis hyali boy." 
This high destiny was foreshadowed 
in the name which, with paternal 
pride, he had collected for the bo}- by 
imicli careful iuquir^^ among the fam- 
ilies for whom he occasionally spaded 
a garden or put in a small crop. At 
last, after considering all the names 
suggested, he had selected the com- 
bination, Cocsar Augustus Jay Gould 
Vanderbilt Hundred Dollar Millford. 
By frequent repetition he at last .suc- 
ceeded in incorporating the mighty 
name into that part of his organism 
controlled by memory, but, being 
altogether too long a name to manage 
readily, on ordinar}^ occasions it was 
abbreviated to Honey or sometimes to 
Hun, as suggesting the sweetness of 
the parental love and also the exorbi- 
tant commercial value attached to the 

This small black gem of future 
greatness had been put to school as 
soon as his age permitted and had at 
last acquired the mysterious art of 
writing. His daddy regarded this as 
proof of high genius, not to be refuted 
and with awe-struck visage, would 
gaze on the characters traced in the 
.soiled and ink-blotted copy-book by 
the hand of his son. 

"Unc Joshaway," reflected that if 
he should write a letter to Aunt Milly, 
or rather dictate one, it would be a 
more dignified course than paying her 




a visit, and at the same time, it would 
impress more deeply upon her the 
greatness of the offense. It would 
have something of the force of a legal 
document, he thought, " An it'll skeer 
'er," he said aloud as he went to the 
door to suumiou the writer. 

' ' Son, ' ' began the old man, ' ' reckon 
ye could write a lettah for yer ole 
daddy ? ' ' 

• ' Yes sah, can dat ! ' ' 

' ' Eber write one, son ? ' ' 

" N-o, sah, but I know I could," 

"Waal, now git yer writui' pin an' 
yer ink an' a piece o'papah, an' we'll 
see ' bout dis hj-ah Imsincss. ' ' Then he 
laid the vdiolc matter before his son. 

"We'll fotch 'er, won't we, pa? " 
chuckled the boy, seating himself at 
the table and pushing aside the mis- 
cellaneous assortment of greasy pans, 
dirty cups, plates and old rags that en- 
cumbered it. A leaf from the mj^steri- 
ous copy-book, bearing at the top the 
suggestive legend, ' ' Knovvdcdge is 
power, ' ' was spread out to receive the 

The sire remarked, "Now we'll 
write 'er sech a love lettah as she 
nabor got fore. How ort it ter start 
off, Hun, ye reckon ? " 

" Wif 'cr name at the top, pa, so's 
she'll know hit's meant fer 'er," 
replied the learned youth. 

" L,et's liab de whole name den, son, 
an'makeitsoun' big and like hit war de 
consoble comin' arter 'er. Write it 
big an' loud." And then in sonorous 
tones, " Missus Milly Green ! " 

Hun dipped his pen into the ink, 
turned his head very much towards 
the right, and with tongue projecting 
between his white teeth, began the 
laborious work. The spelling was 
after a method of his own. His daddy 
watched with reverent pride as the 
pen w^as dipped again and again into 
the ink and the blots fell thick and 
fast on the paper, while with inky 
fingers, the scribe rubbed over many 
letters that did not seem exactly right. 
At last he announced that the name 
was written. 

"Whatnex', pa?" 

"Waal," said the old man, " cf we 
/s mad, peers like we ort to be perlitc, 
an' looks ter me like we'd ort ter say 
liow'dy, nex." Again the boy wrig- 
gled himself into the position he 
deemed fitting for one holding a pen, 
and, after much painful effort, accom- 
plished this. 

" Dat ole sow an' litter o'youn 
broke inter my 'tater patch dis morn- 
in," dictated "Unc Joshaway." 

This long sentence required such a 
stretch of memory that Hun after 
riiany unsatisfactory attempts and con- 
sequent rubbing with his finger, asked 
that it might be repeated one word at 
a time as he wrote. This was done, 
and after the lapse of perhaps half an 
hour, the statement was committed to 
paper, and father and son, IkjIIi thor- 
oughly exhausted with their literary 
labors, decided to take a rest. "Unc 
Joshaway" also wished to collect his 
thoughts for the next statement. The 
daddy smoked and .slei)t, and the bo}- 
wallowed in the road dust and lazily 
threw .stones at passing stock. After 
several hours of this bli.ssfiil inaction, 
they resumed their work. With much 
stumbling and halting, Hun read 
aloud what he had previously written. 
" Uncjoshawa}^ " nodded approvingly 
and then added in awful tones, ' ' Ef 
ye don' keep 'em up I'll sue ye at de 
law." This terrible announcement 
was at last set down. 

" Now, pa, yer name ort to go at de 
bottom, so's she'll know wliar hit 
come from." 

" Dat's so, boy, suah'syer boan." 

After much consideration, he said, 
" I tink I'll say de 'onahable, rev 'rent 
mistah Joshaway Millford. How dat 
soun', son ? " 

" Soun' mighty fine, reckon dat'll 
skeer 'er." 

These magnificent words proved 
rather puzzling to Hun when he 
attempted to spell them, but at last 
characters hideous enough to represent 
the personality of any being were 
described on the page, and the might)' 
document was finished. 



"Unc Joshaway " gave a sigh of 
relief as the mental strain was re- 
moved, and instructed his son to carry 
the missive to Aunt Milly. "An' 
min' ye gib hit inter 'er own han', 
son, ; don' lay it down nowhars, er let 
no no-count nigger take hit from ye. 
An' Hun, min' ye don' say nothin' 
t'5'er mammy 'bout what we's bin 
'gaged in ter day. She's sort o' spic- 
ious like, an' meby she'd tink like 
how I ortn't to be writin' ter no lady 
'ceptin' her. Now, honey, g'long an' 
carry de lettah." 

Aunt Milly at the wash tub, her 
black arms submerged in billowy .suds, 
and her white teeth gleaming between 
her spread lips, was a pleasing study 
in black and white, as she gossiped 
with a lady friend, seated on a box 
near her. 

"How'dy, Aunt Milly," said Hun, 
"hy all's a lettah pa done sont ye." 

"Dat so, Hun? What sort ob a 
lettah am hit ? " asked Aunt Milly. 

" Dun know'm. Pa said hit was a 
love lettah," was the reply, and after 
giving it into the hands that were 
carefully wiped on her dress before 
taking it, Hun sped down the road to 
join a group of his companions in a 
friendly fight. 

" Les see hit. Aunt Milly," eagerly 
asked the friend when the messenger 
was gone. 

"No ye don," responded the coy 
lady, presumably blushing, and gazing 
fondly on the dirty scrap of paper. 

"I'll neber tell nobody what's in 
hit," pleaded the friend. 

" Coas ye won't, kase ye'll neber 
see hit," responded Aunt Milly, with 
unbounded satisfaction. 

After more ineffectual pleading the 
friend took her departure, only to pay 
a dozen more visits that evening to 
relate to interested groups how ' ' Unc 
Joshaway" what hollers louder'n de 
preachah in meetin', an' what ye all 
tinks 's got so much sanctimigump- 
tion he wouldn't wipe 's nose on 
Sunday, done writ a love lettah ter 
Aunt Milly Green ! An' he so out- 
dacious he done sont hit by Hun, like 

he warn't skeered o' Mammy Cindy 
hearn tell on hit, ner nothin." 

Of course the virtuous ladies who 
heard this delightful scandal could 
not be so selfish as to enjoy it alone, 
so it increased in magnitude and hor- 
ror, till when it Vv'as two days old, it 
was able to run alone and needed not 
the mouths of those who were but too 
willing to carry it. Many claimed to 
have seen the letter, and all agreed 
that "Unc Joshaway" had proposed 
an elopement with Aunt Milly, and 
each gossip had arranged the details 
of time and place to suit herself. 

Meantime Aunt Milly, being unable 
to read anything, could only gaze 
rapturously on the scrawls, blots and 
finger marks, and dream of all the 
sweetness that they were meant to 
represent, feeling that she could not 
bear to allow anyone to read it for 

Owing to the perversity of fate, 
neither she nor any of the other 
ladies interested in his movements, 
saw anything of ' ' Unc Joshaway ' ' for 
some time, for on the day after the 
letter writing he had heard that his 
brother living in the next county w^as 
lying at the point of death and w'ished 
to see him. Therefore, next morning 
he set out on foot, taking Hun along 
that he might see something of the 
world in which he was expected to be 
so important a figure. And so, poor 
virtuous Uncle Joshaway and Hun, 
who might have explained the misun- 
derstanding, w'ere miles away when 
the scandal \vas growing so great. 

At last some considerate friends 
constituted themselves a committee to 
wait iipon INIammy Cind}^ and inform 
her of the misdeeds of her husband. 
She was righteously indignant, and at 
once betook herself to Aunt INIilly's 
cabin to in\-estigatc the charges, which 
she declared that she knew were un- 

"What's dis hyah j'ou's bin a 
sayiu' agin my ole man, what ain't 
hyah ter 'fend his self?" she de- 
manded as she stalked through the 



"Why, sistah Millford, what ye a 
sayin ? I aiu' done nothin agin 'ini, ' ' 
was the conciliatory reply. 

' ' Ye is, ye is ; whcr dat lettah ye 
say he done write ye? Ef ye's got 
airy lettah, jes' Ics take a look at 

" He done son't me a lettah, 
suali's ycr boan, lyucindy IMillford, 
an' ye shan't tech hit, nuther, but I'll 
show hit t'yer so's ye' 11 have ter 
'knowledge I's tellin' de truf," and 
thereupon Aunt Milly produced the 
much-discussed letter from under the 
pillow of her bed, and held it before 
the astonished gaze of the other lady, 
but far enough away that she might 
not snatch it. Mammy Cindy was 
silenced, for she recognized the page 
from Hun's copy-book, and, with 
great dignity, she walked out of the 
cabin. As she returned home, her 
mind was fully made up that Josha- 
way was false to her, and accordingly 
she decided to lay the matter before 
the minister of ' ' John do Baptis' 
Church." On inquirj-, she found 
that the worthy gentleman was that 
day employed in cutting wood at Dr. 
Miles'. It was a long walk, but she 
had determined on bringing Joshaway 
to justice as soon as possible, and felt 
that this was the most effective way of 
accomplishing it. At last she arrived 
at the back yard, where the reverend 
gentleman was wielding the ax. 

■' Good cvenin', sistah, how's 3^eself 
and yer fambly ? ' ' was his greeting in 
a pompous style, as he leaned on the 
ax handle. 

"Oh, brudder Simpson!" ex- 
claimed the dejected ladj^ " we's 

' ' What am de cause ob de grief, my 
sistah?" was the next inquiry. 

' ' I has a 'plaint ter make agin Josli- 
awa)' Millford, him as bin m^-husban' 
sence 'foh freedom come. I's gwine 
ter make a 'plaint agin 'im I wants ter 
'quest 5-e will lay it foh de church." 

Brother Simpson gently seated the 
afflicted parishioner on the saw-buck 
and himself on a log opposite her, that 
they might discuss the matter more 

comfortably. As he was paid by the 
day for his wood chopping, the rest 
was all the more agreeable to his 
sense of justice. Then Mammy Cindy 
poured forth her woful tale into the 
sympathetic pastoral ear. 

She did not know when the erring 
one might be expected to return, so it 
was decided not to wait for this. 
"But," remarked the clergyman, 
weighing a chip judicially on the 
point of his finger, "I'll call a meetin' 
ob de bredrun to-morrow night, an' 
you be dar, my sistah, an' we'll try 
an' heb sistah Green dar wif de lettah 
what she's got, an* we'll .see 'bout dis 
hyah. Don' grieveover much, sistah; 
brudder Joshaway '11 like's not 'pent 
of his sin when it's laid foh him, an' 
we's all pow'ful ap' to err. Le's not 
blame de sinnah moh'n we can't 

The next night quite a number of 
both sisters and brethren were assem- 
bled to hear the charge made against 
the ab.sent Uncle Joshaway. Mammy 
Cindy was asked to make a statement 
of the case, which she did in many 
rather incoherent words ; but as the 
audience was thoroughly familiar with 
the story, it was called for, and Aunt 
^lilly willingly produced it, being 
assured that it would be returned. 
Brother Simpson adjusted his glasses 
and gazed thoughtfully at the small 
scrap of paper that had caused such 
trouble. It certainly looked mysteri- 
ous, but he could decipher nothing 
upon it indicative of either love or 
hate, and, after some frowning and 
fidgeting, he called up the school- 
master to assist in the work. But, 
with the light oT both brilliant intel- 
lects shining upon it, it still failed to 
yield its secret. 

After much suspense, the preacher 
announced: "Dewritin' ob dis hyah 
lettah am curuser dan me er de pur- 
fuser eber seed afoh, an' I hereby 
'nounce to dis hyah company, liyah 
'sembled, dat de writah ob dis hyah 
!Mistah Joshaway Millford, am not ter 
be 'lowed ter 'take ob de priblege er 
de ord' nances ob dis church tell he 



kin' splaiu his conduc' an' 'splain de 
writin' ob dis hyah paper so's some- 
body kin read hit. We'll now sing 

' I's a rollin' ober Jurden. 
Oh ! iny sins, don't ye worry me,' 

and den 3'e kin 'sider yerseves 
'journed. After the singing, the 
friends of each lady crowded about 
her to express their sympathy, and 
each was escorted home by her sup- 

A few evenings after this " Unc 
Joshaway ' ' and Hun entered the vil- 
lage, dusty and weary from their long 
tramp. The good man meeting sev- 
eral friends, was surprised at the cold- 
ness with which he was greeted, but 
on reaching home, where he found 
Cindy preparing supper, he was still 
more perplexed when she resented his 
attempt at affectionate greeting and 
began wrathfully to upbraid him. 
"Ye jes get out'n hyah, Joshaway 
Millford. Reckon I's sech a ole fool 
gitin' up 'foah day an' cookin' yer 
bite, and slavin' all day an' night, 
'bout killin' mesel scrapin' up ebery 
nickel what I kin lay ban's on ter 
make ye easy in j^er laziness, an, 
when I's off arnin de money, ye a 
kitin' roun' 'mong de wimen folks? 
Reckon I's sech a fool's ter keep on 
dat way ? Ye' s mighty mistook ef ye's 
got dat notion. Now I says dis hyah 
my house, tain't youru no morh. 

Poor Uncle Joshawaj^ gazed at his 
consort in stupid amazement. His 
jaw dropped, his hands hung limp, 
and his eyes opened wider than for 
many a day. At last the voice that 
had been struggling in his throat, got 
as far as his lips, and he said in an 
awe-struck tone: "Why, Cindy's 
somebody done voodoord ye while I's 
bin gone ! What ye talkin' bout, 
honey ? ' ' 

" I's in my plain senses, Joshaway, 
an' I'se got sense ter know when I 
sees wif mi eyes a love lettah what 
you done writ an' sont by dat poll 
in' cent chile, Hun dar, ter a low down 
no-count, yallcr nigger. An' moh'n 
dat, de whole chuch done seed hit an' 

dey's 'barred ye frum de pribleges ob 
de chuch, an brudder Simpson he done 
say ye's ter be a outcas, an' a wander' 
on de face ob de yarth, an' nobody 
what 'longs ter de chuch an' what's 
got de blessins ob 'ligin, dasn't speak 
ter ye. Now ye g'long whar ye likes 
ter, fer ye can't set down in dis hyah 
cabin ! " 

During the progress of this speech, 
after the letter had been mentioned. 
Uncle Joshaway's brain seemed to 
reel as he heard the awful fate that 
had been decreed against him and 
realized that somehow it was on ac- 
count of the letter he had sent to Aunt 
Milly. Could he ever vindicate the 
purity of his motives in sending that 
letter ? 

"Cindy," he said, "Cindy, efye'll 
hoi' on a bit, mel^y I kin splain dis 
hyah; don' know, but I'll tell ye how 
hit was. I done sont a letter ter 
Aunt Milly Green an' Hun done gin 
hit ter, didn't 5-e, son?" but Hun 
had slunk away to a safer place till 
his mammy's wrath would have spent 
itself, having learned by past expe- 
rience the wisdom of this course. 

' ' Coas ye did, Joshawaj^ Millford, 
ye's got no call ter tell me dat, didn't 
I tell ye I seed hit ? ' ' was the indig- 
nant reply. 

"But," continued the unjustly 
accused, hit warn't no love lettah, 
mighty fur frum hit. I tole Hun 
what ter sa}^ an' he sayd hit in writin' 
on a piece of papah ; ' Missus IMilly 
Green, dat ole sow an' litter o' youru 
l)roke inter my 'tatcr patch dis mawn- 
ing, an' if ye don' keep 'em up I'll 
sue 3'C at de law. Joshaway Millford.' 
An' dat arc what ye calls a love 
lettah, Cindy? May de roof o' dis 
hyah house fall an' mash me flatter'n 
a hoecake, cf I aiu' telliu' ye de 
bressed truf." 

Mammy Cindy cast an uneasy 
glance upward and moved a few steps 
towards the door, not wishing to 
allow the iiuioccnt to be destroyed 
with the guilty. No catastrophe hap- 
pened, and she was further convinced 
of the truth of his statement on re- 



fleeting that he could not have 
repeated the words of the letter so 
glibly if it had been composed on the 
instant. At least this was chiefly 
what she thought as she rushed at 
Joshaway and throwing her arms 
aboat him, declared her unwavering 
belief in him. Hun was summoned, 
and confirmed his daddy's statement 
and the reunited family were blissfullj' 

The same evening Uncle Joshaway 
visited brother Simpson and gave him 
the explanation that had already sat- 
isfied his wrathy spouse. It was not 
difficult to summon a meeting of the 
church, and Aunt Milly was asked to 
come and bring the letter, that had 
caused the trouble. This she did 
without hesitation as brother Simpson 
had kept the explanation of the doc- 
ument a secret. Hun being the writer, 
read it to the assembly, who voted 
' ' Unc Joshaway ' ' clear of blame and 
again received into full fellowship 
with the church. 

There was much giggling and 
many derisive looks cast at the unfor- 
tunate Aunt Milly, whose wrath in- 

creased momentarily. " L,ooky'hyan, 
Hun Millford," she called out, "what 
fer ye tells me hit was a love lettah ? " 

Hun whimpered out that " Pa sayd 
hit war." 

This surprised good Uncle Joshaway 
exceedingly, but at last alter some 
consultation between father and son, 
the remark was accounted for and 
explained publicly, and everyone, 
except Aunt Milly, went home in a 
happy frame of mind. 

After reaching home. Uncle Josh- 
away solemnly announced that he 
would nex'cr again put his name to 
"airy papah." "An' look y'hyah, 
son," he remarked, as he chunked the 
fire," " efl eber kotcher ye a writin' 
a lettah agin I' 11 war ye out, ye lieah ! " 

A show being in the village the 
next da}^ the happy famil^^of Millford 
celebrated their reunion by attendance 
thereat, going into all the side shows, 
riding on the "flying jimney," drop- 
ping many nickels into the slot, and 
' ' chawing ' ' on candy and bad tobacco 
to their heart's content, and spending 
in so doing all of Mammy Cindy's 
wages for the two preceding weeks. 



THE deft manipulator of the split 
bamboo is incliued to look askance 
at the big game of the ocean. To 
him who, by a clever turn of the 
wrist, hooks big trout, salmon or bass, 

Angeles. Here we have what is 
virtually a mountain range twenty or 
more miles long, four or five wide, 
rising from the sea thirty miles off 
shore — a lofty spur that has appar- 

the capture of large ocean fishes is a ently strayed away from the mother 
rough-and-tumble sport, a series of range, the Sierra Madrc. This island 
" catch-if-you-can " episodes not to be extends parallel to the coast, consti- 

entertained. No one has taken more 
delight in whipping the St. Lawrence 
for black bass than the writer, and 
the moments of contest with the noble 
game are among the choice memories 
of many seasons in the northern 

tuting a perfect barrier or wind break, 
so that its eastern shore is a series of 
snug harbors. Here is the fisher- 
man's paradise. The water is so 
clear that objects at a distance of 
thirty or forty feet deep can be seen 

waters ; yet, withal, I am an advocate very plainly, while the rocks abound 

of sea fishing, so eminently strong in 
its contrasts, and have always con- 
tended for the recognition of the 

The trout fisherman may sneer at the 
jew fisherman, or the fisherman who 
would spend half a day taking a ten- 
foot shark, yet I maintain that either 
of the latter fish, properly managed and 
taken fairly, single-handed, in a small 
boat, requires a large amount of skill 
and Jincsse. In the struggle with the 
striped bass, the danger is the escape 
or a broken rod ; with the shark or 
jew fish a slip or a wrong move often 
means a capsize, a possible fatality ; 
in short, as in cross-country riding, 
there is an element of danger in it. 

with a variety of aquatic verdure that 
cannot fail to attract and please the 
most phlegmatic individual. 

The island rises precipitately from 
the sea, often in sheer cliffs, the bases 
of which are worn out into caves, 
lined with kelp and other weed, into 
which the waves roll Vv^ith sullen roar. 
The little harbors are the mouths or 
entrances of the various canons v/hich 
cut the range in every direction, and 
are often very picturesque. Some 
are the summer homes of the South- 
ern Californians who love the sea and 
have a penchant for boating and 
fishing. As the people gather, so do 
the fish. Many varieties of the finny 
tribes that have been wintering in 

So in taking the big jew fish of this deep water, or possibly somewhere far 

coast, the fisherman lands his game to the south, come north or in shore 

after a mighty struggle and comes off to deposit their eggs in the quiet bays 

victor after doing the work of four or along the rock-bound shores, and from 

five men. The Pacific Coast offers June or July to August there is a 

many inducements to the marine series of piscatorial appearances grati- 

sportsman, if so he can be called, and fying to the sojourner. The barra- 

tlie .summer days now here woo him cuda, big sea bass, yellow-tail, jew fish 

to incontinent indulgences in tackle of 
various kinds. 

The most attractive fishing ground, 
so far as the personal experience of 
the writer goes, is among the islands 
of the Santa Barbara channel, off Los 

and many more each have their sea- 
sons, and afford abundant sport to the 
summer toilers of the sea. 

Of all these fishes, the yellow-tail 
commends itself to the lover of true 
sport. In general appearance, it 


m -oa-xtg.: jf^rx— ' - 

.^- -^ -tm^ 




I'layinj;; the Yeliow Tail 



might be taken for a salmon, at first 
glance resembling this fish. In size 
it attains four feet, and in weight, 
ranges from ten to thirty and even 
forty pounds. The yellow-tail or 
amber fish is an ally of the mackerel, 
a distant cousin, 3-et near enough to 
have the wandering bohemian spirit 
of the latter with the courage and even 
ferocity of many of its compeers. In 
its moods, the yellow-tail is like the 
.salmon. I have seen the water fairly 
tinted with yellow for many acres, 
changing in a man'elous way to blue, 
then green to yellow again. Enter- 
ing the area of changing hues, the 
cause was found to be countless num- 
bers of yellow-tails packed side by 
side, their huge plump bodies not 
ten feet from the surface, now stand- 
ing idly, drifting, as it were, with the 
current, then breaking and moving 
gracefully by within touch of the very 
oar on which you are resting. The 
most delicately prepared bait — a strug- 
gling sardine — fails to attract at this 
time. Why ? Who can tell ? 

You sit and feast your eyes upon 
their goodly proportions alone ; watch 
the flashing colors of their fms, look 
into the big, expressive e5'es as they 
pass you in review by tens, hundreds 
and thousands, and — well, your satis- 
faction is in the looking. Perhaps 
half an hour later, after you have 
returned and your boat is sunning 
itself on the beach, a man is seen 
upon the sands going through some 
extraordinary evolutions. He pulls 
in violently, casts a line, waves his 
hat in the air, pulls again, and finally 
in a frenzy of excitement rushes into 
the water, coming out with his arms 
about a gleaming silvery monster that 
beats his legs and face, producing 
smiles of pleasure and delight. Hv'en 
now you sit quietly ; but the old 
fisherman who dashes past with the 
exclamation that the "yellow-tails 
have sot in," brings you to your feet, 
and a few moments later with the rest 
of the population — for they are all 
there — you are in the heart of the 
yellow-tail country. 

They have "sot in," indeed; not 
the .sedate, impalpable crowd of .scale- 
bearers that you eyed a .short time 
before, lint a community gone mad ; 
an aggregation of forms darting here 
and there, driving schools of small fry 
on the beach, coming almost out of 
the water themselves, here, there and 
everywhere, paying no attention to 
the twenty or more boats that are 
moving to and fro, or the oars that 
are splashing among them. The entire 
ba}^, from one rocky point to the 
other, is boiling and seething, and the 
sport grows fast and furious. Men 
and boys crowd the little wharf, and 
great .shining fish are brought in hand 
over hand, breaking lines with their 
very weight, .splashing back to be 
caught again. 

We are three — one rowing the 
dinghy slowly along, and two fortu- 
nates, with lines out astern — big 
Eastern cod lines, with Abbey and 
Imbrey hooks and piano-wire leaders, 
the bait, a six-inch sardine. Out the 
line rushes ; a big, shin}- creature 
shoots alongside and takes it the 
moment it clears the boat. Away it 
goes with a ru.sli that is irresistible. 
The line hisses through 3-our fingers, 
and you inwardl}^ wonder what rod 
and reel would master this gamy 
creature. Its rushes have a peculiar- 
it}^ I have never noticed in other 
fishes ; a singular bearing off during 
the run that breaks the strong line, 
while apparently the strain is not 

The 3-ellow-tail is a schemer, and is 
never brought alongside until a score 
of tactics have been tried. Now it 
rushes at the boat, hoping to confuse 
3'ou in the overhaul, then darts dircct- 
1)^ awa3% and unless j-ou slack, the line 
snaps like thread. Now it is in the 
air, .shaking a ma.ssive head and fling- 
ing the crystal drops in every direction. 
But finally you have it along- 
side, and the oarsman who has joy 
enough in watching the performance 
gafls it and with a sturdy hca\'c, .sends 
the twentj'-five pounder into the boat, 
where it exhibits its glories and covers 



the planking with gold and silver 

The summers on these islands are a 
revelation to the Eastern visitor. 
Every day is clear and bright. The 
strong wind sometimes experienced at 
the mainland resorts is unknown and 
the little bays are generally smooth. 
The ocean breeze coming down the 
big caiions is tinctured with the flow- 
ers and shrubs of the hills and moun- 
tains over which it Even the 
fog is rare at Avalon. It can be seen 
off shore and around the island at 
times, but rarely does it encompass 
the little half-moon bay. 

In the warm days of August there 
will sometimes be .seen a singular 
phenomenon away to the south. The 
water all about is perfectly smooth and 
quiet, but moving along is a large 
area of whitecaps which we .see ad- 
vance. As it comes nearer, moving 
along about half a mile off shore, it is 
evident that the appearance is occa- 
sioned b}- something rushing up from 
below. Now a dark body is seen 
springing into the air like an arrow, 
and it dawns upon us that this is a 
run of fish, that something else has 
"sot in." On come the foam caps, 
the ocean for many acres glistening 
and gleaming in the smilight — a 
striking and absorbing spectacle. 
To watch this from a hilltop is attrac- 
tive, but to be in the very center of 
the line of march offers more induce- 
ments, and iipon one occasion ^\■c 
with others quickly jnillcd out of the 
little bay to intercept the advancing 

The water was like glass. Hardly 
a breath stirred the air, and a butter- 
fly was gaily fluttering over the water 
in all confidence that it could reach 
the island again. As smooth as it 
was, rapidly approaching us was 
what appeared a mass of foam, coming 
on at the rate of perhaps five miles an 
hour. Soon it resolved itself into its 
component parts, and the waves were 
seen to come from the dashes of gigan- 
tic fish from below at some smaller 
The next moment a school of 
Vol. IT— T5 


frightened flying fish darted by beneath 
the boat. One oi the latter came flying 
through the air not a foot from my 
head. Another that seemed to have 
started an eighth of a mile awaj% 
struck my companion in the back and 
fell into the sea. Bands of two, three 
and four of the terrified fish dashed by 
before the advancing horde, and then 
we were in the midst of the whitecaps 
A few moments before we had feared 
we should not reach the .spot in .season; 
now we feared the possibility that one 
of the fish would land in the boat, 
which it could not have done without 
going directly through the bottom. 
A more remarkable piscatorial gj'm- 
nastic exhibition was never seen. 

The tuna, the horse mackerel of the 
Pacific, was charging a school of 
flying fishes, driving them up the 
coast, and the foam was occasioned by 
their leaps into the air and ferocious 
charges. The fish ranged from four 
to nine feet in length, as near as I 
could determine, and must hav^e 
weighed from two hundred to .seven 
hundred or eight hundred pounds — 
possibly more. They rose under the 
flj'ing fish and in their attempts to 
seize them, gav^e a marvellous exhibi- 
tion of ground and lofty tumbling. 
They would dash direct!}' up, rising 
to an estimated height of ten feet, 
turn as gracefully as an arrow, gleam- 
ing and .scintillating in the sunlight, 
then fall, head first. I saw one 
and snap at a flying fish. Another, 
in dashing up, missed the flier, but 
struck it so violently that it went 
whirling upward, looking with its 
gauzy wings, like a windmill, as it 
turned round and round, the big fish 
falling back to receive it. 

When we were in the center of this 
throng, there were from one to ten of 
these beautiful fishes in the air at a 
time, in all conceivable positions, and 
from their size and the force with which 
they shot down, had one struck our 
frail boat it would have gone through it 
as though it were paper ; but no such 
calamity occurred. The trma did not 
approach nearer than twenty feet to 



the boat, yet could be seen dashing 
all about us, while the air was filled 
with flying fishes, darting in every 
direction. I found later that they 
crowded into the harbors and bays, 
lining the shore, and even flying out 
upon the beach in their fear. 

In many cases the tunas followed 
the flight of the flying fishes, seizing 
them as they struck the water. One 
passed within a few feet of the boat, 
and as it dropped its tail upon the 
water, the tuna that had been follow- 
ing just below the surface like an 

avenging Nemesis, dashed out and 
carried it away. Slowly the school 
moved up the coast, and for five or 
six miles the foam was seen and the 
warfare continued. I put out a yellow- 
tail line baited with a large flying fish 
but the tuna did not regard it with 
favor, and had it been taken there 
would have been but one result. Cer- 
tainly the largest shark line would be 
required to even control so powerful a 
fish, and in a small boat the sport 
would not he unaccompanied with 



I saw those amber cloud-like hills to-day — 
Those blue-veiled mountains cast of vSan Jose. 
When first upon my sight they sprung 
Above the fair green valley hung, 
They .seemed unto m}^ dumi) surprise 
Like .some old amiier walls of Paradise, 
That long forgotten since that fabled time 
Were now piled up to keep a fairer clime. 
Wrapped in pale azure, near yet dim, 
And tinted with ]nire tones that rim 
The sun.set clouds, with purple deeps, and old 
Dull ambers, and liigh-lights of sunny gold : — 

And so up-piled, this rarudise thc>- keep ; 

For on yon peak against the cloudless .sky, 
The guarding eye of Science reads the deep, — 

The starry paths whore vengeful demons flv 




HTHK rain fell in a persistent, steady- 
fashion and the wind moaned dis- 
mally outside in the streets as 
lyicutenant Thomas Duncan, U. S. N., 
gazed contemplatively at the storm 
through the windows of his cluh in 
San Francisco, one stormy night early 
in the present year. The uninviting 
prospect apparently did not cause Mr. 
Duncan any great amount of grief; 
on the contrary, he seemed to rather 
enjoy seeing, with a sailor's weather- 
wisdom, that the storm had set in, to 
use a seaman's expression, to "make 
an all-night's job of it." When he 
had fully decided in his mind that 
this was the case he turned, with a 
sigh of relief, and, crossing the reading 
room, entered a small apartment ad- 
joining the library. A group of gen- 
tlemen were seated around the fire, 
which burned cheerfully in a large, 
open fireplace, but, as the room was 
not otherwise lighted and Duncan had 
entered quietly, his advent was not 
noticed. He .seated himself in a chair 
near the door and began to listen, 
with a sort of dreamy pleasure, to the 
murmurous voices of the occupants of 
the room, sounding strangely like 
water running in the dark. 

The flames from the fire, now rising 
high and then sinking low, cast 
strange shadows on the faces of the 
men seated around the hearth and 
played a fantastic game of hide-and- 
seek amidst the trophies of the chase, 
stands of arms and suits of uncouth 
armor from savage lands, which 
adorned the walls. 

Somewhat apart from the rest of 
the gentlemen two persons were con- 
versing in low tones evidently deeply 
absorbed in the matter under discus- 
sion. One of these gentlemen was 
probably fifty-eight or sixty years 
of age, but his robust physique and 

clear, florid complexion gave him a 
more youthful appearance. His short 
graj' hair curled close to his head, and 
beneath his square brows his eyes ap- 
peared as steady and as bright as 
those of a youth of twenty. Only 
(Kxasional glini]xscs of his companion's 
face could be had as he was in the 
shadow cast by the projecting mantel ; 
but when he bent forward to hear 
what was said the fire lighted up a 
face which was younger than that of the 
speaker, but even to a casual observer 
it would have been remarkable for the 
sad intensity of its expression. Dur- 
ing one of those pauses in conversa- 
tion, which often occur even in 
crowded assemblages, the young man's 
voice suddenly arrested every one's 
attention as he enquired : ' ' Doctor, 
do you really believe it is possible for 
persons to communicate with each 
other over long distances with other 
than natural means?" The doctor 
did not answer at once but sat with 
his head bent slightly forward and his 
eyes shaded from the firelight, with 
one hand, as if in deep thought ; then 
rousing himself, and without appear- 
ing to notice the silence which had 
fallen up(Mi the rest of the party, he 
said : "I certainly do believe that 
there have been instances of commu- 
nication between highly organized 
or peculiarly sensitive persons in the 
way you mention. These instances 
are of frequent occurrence and are too 
well authenticated to be set down as 
mere coincidences. The most learned 
psychologists have utterly and con- 
fessedly failed to trace the workings 
of this special sense ; but whether 
it is termed electro-biology, animal 
magnetism, second sight or force, its 
existence is no longer denied, except 
by the ignorant or the bigoted. You 
ask me if persons can communicate 




with each other through long dis- 
tances by means of this power (if I 
ma}^ so call it). I would say that 
everN'thing depends upon the parties 
to the experiment. Whether the 
power can be developed by individual 
action or not is j-et an open question. 
My own experience leads me to sup- 
pose that it is neither capable of in- 
crease nor diminution and that the 
most remarkable instances of its ex- 
hibition have been in the cases of 
pensons who were ignorant of pos- 
sessing such power and at times when 
they were utterly luiconscious of ex- 
erting it." 

As the speaker ceased every one 
started as the lieutenant rose from his 
.seat and said as he came toward the 
fire: "Doctor, I would like to add 
my experience to the many with which 
you are acquainted on this subject." 
The doctor rose to his feet with an 
ejaculation of and hastened 
across the room with outstretched 
hands to greet the new comer, " Why 
Tom, my dear boy, is it really >ou ? 
Where did you drop from ? When 
did you get in ? " Then without 
waiting for answers to his (piestions 
he led the lieutenant toward the group 
of gentleman and inlnxluced him. 
In the course of the- rather general 
conversation which followed, the 
remark made by the lieutenant 
seemed to have been forgotten, l)ut it 
was recalled by the reqiiest of the 
doctor's young friend that Mr. Duncan 
relate his .story. "By all means, the 
.story ! " cried everyone. 

" Very well, gentleman," said Dun- 
can, "but first let me apologize for 
interrupting you .so abruptly a minute 
ago. The fact is, however, that what 
Dr. vSturgis was saying was .so inter- 
esting U) me that I really forgot every- 
thing else and I think \()U will ])ardon 
my apparent rudeness wlien nou hear 
my story. 

"As Doctor Slurgis lias told you 1 
am in tlie Navy, and for three years 
past have ])een attached as navigator 
to the U. S. Brig Ashudot, engaged 
in hydrographic work on the Asiatic 

station. I arrived in San Francisco 
this morning, and finding that my 
wife, who expected to meet me here 
had been detained by the heavy storms 
in the Kast and would not probably 
reach this place until to-morrow, I re- 
solved to take advantage of the oppor- 
tunity thus offered to do one of those 
acts of social penance known as a duty 
call ; l)Ut it is such a bad night out- 
side and my long absence at sea has 
so blunted my sense of what is due 
Ics convenances that I gave it up, and so 
here I am. By a strange coincidence 
I entered the room just in time to hear 
the Doctor's an.swer to one of two 
questions which I intended asking him 
myself at the first opportunity. What 
the .second question is I will explain 

The lieutenant paused as if con- 
sidering how best to begin and then 
abruptly continued : 

' ' We had nearly completed our 
.summer's work, having stood well up 
toward Cape Navarin, and all hands 
on board were looking forward eagerly 
to the day then near at hand when the 
last sounding would have been taken, 
the last obsen-ation made, and the old 
.IsliucloV s head turned again toward 
the .south. 

' 'Several of us expected to be ordered 
home at the expiration of the cruise 
and all looked forward with pleasure 
to tlie meeting with < 'Id friends and the 
enjoyment of civilization to be found 
in Yokohama. 

"On the 6th of October, 1891, I had 
the first watch on deck that is from 
eight o'clock to midnight, and as the 
wind was fair and the moon but two 
days from full, everything seemed 
]>ropitious for a i)lea.sant watch. When 
the first lieutenant had received the 
eight o'clock reports he said to me as 
he ])asse(l on bis way to the cabin : 
'Well. Mr. Duncan, you've got a fine 
night and I hope you will keep the 
breeze.' When he returned from 
making his rejiort to the captain, he 
.said : ' The ca^ilain wants the order 
pas.sed to keep her on this course till 
eight o'clock to-morrow morning and 



carry all prudent sail. ' Then wishing 
me g-ood-night and a pleasant watcli 
' the hardest- worked man in the ship ' 
disappeared down the wardroom hatch. 
I walked forward to see that the look- 
outs were properly posted, that the 
watch was wakeful, and in general to 
see for myself that everything was in 
proper shape in case of any sudden 
emergency, and then returned to the 
quarterdeck and took up my position 
on the weather horse-block. As we 
bowled along with the white sails 
soaring aloft and the tautened rigging 
singing in the breeze the motion of the 
ship was so easy as she rose and fell on 
the gentle ground swell that one could 
almost imagine her to be at anchor, 
until his eye caught the gleam of the 
breaking wave leaping away from the 
weather bow or the smother of lace- 
like foam that whirled and eddied 
under the counter. Instead of de- 
creasing, the wind which was west 
southwest at eight o'clock graduallj^ 
increased in force and backed more to 
the southward until at two bells, nine 
o'clock, the old brig began to pitch 
into the j-oung sea that was rising with 
such force as to send the spray flying 
over the bows and along the decks. 
The royals first and then the other 
light sails were taken in and furled as 
they were really doing more harm than 
good, and by three bells the wind had 
drawn so far aft that the yards were 
run in square and the weather-clew of 
the mainsail hauled up. vStill the 
brig seemed to fly through the water 
and the taffrail log indicated a speed 
of twelve and one-half knots per hour. 
The night continued perfectly fair and 
clear, the moon shining so brightly 
that no lantern was necessary in mak- 
ing the regular entries in the log-book. 
Just here let me say b}' way of explan- 
ation of what follows that on all gov- 
ernment vessels it is customary to 
strike the ship's bell every half hour, 
and at night if inidcrway to report all 
running lights burning brightly. The 
men stationed at different places about 
the ship on the lookout are also re- 
quired to announce ' all well ! ' at 

these times. On a small vessel like 
the As/niclot the duty of looking out 
for the lights and striking the bell in 
addition to his regular duties at * the 
conn ' devolved upon the quarter- 
master of the watch, so that when he 
walked forward at four bells, ten 
o'clock, to strike the bell, there was 
no one left on the quarterdeck bnt 
my.self and the man at the wheel. 

' ' As the sharp clang of the bell 
awakened the echoes along the deck 
and was lost amidst the rush and roar 
of the wind in the sails overhead, the 
.sonorous cries of the lookouts were 
heard from the different posts about 
the ship announcing ' All's Well! ' 
At that moment I was standing on 
the weather horse-block with one hand 
grasping the hand-rail and the other 
feeling the toj^sail-brace, for the wind 
had by this time freshened so much 
that the weather braces began to si'/ig- ; 
and I was debating whether I should 
hold on a little longer or adopt the 
more prudent course of shortening 
sail, when as I loosened my hold on 
the brace and it .straightened out with 
a lci'a>!Q-, I distinctly heard a voice 
sa}', ' '/"o/zi, you must go more to the 
right ! ^ My first impression was that 
this rather unnautical admonition was 
addressed by the quartermaster to the 
man at the wheel ; but as I faced inboard 
I was amazed to find that the helms- 
man and I were the sole occupants of 
the quarterdeck. 

lyooking foru'ard I saw the quarter- 
master on the hammock rail examin- 
ing the lights. I crossed the deck and 
said to the man at the wheel : ' Did 
you speak, my man ? ' He simply 
touched his hat and shook his head 
negatively, and I noticed that his 
mouth was so charged with tobacco 
that he couldn't have .spoken if his 
life had depended upon it. I was so 
thoroughly mystified that the fellow 
escaped the reprimand he otherwise 
would have received for this breach of 
discipline (.seamen are not allowed to 
use tobacco while at the wheel), and as 
he was relieved shortly by another of 
the watch he got out of the way before 


I had recovered myself. It maj' be 
observed that it had not occurred to 
me to attribute this warning to any 
other than a natural agency. After 
carefully thinking the matter over for 
a few moments and finding that it was 
impossible that an3'one on board ship 
could have played such a trick on me, 
I simply considered that I had been 
made the victim of m}^ own imagina- 
tion and by mere force of will threw 
off the feeling of nervousness which 
had begun to creep over me. 

' ' In order to assure myself, however, 
that there was really nothing in our 
path ahead I left the cj^uarterdeck and 
went forward on the forecastle-deck 
and with my night glass swept the 
sea ahead with the utmost care. The 
moon was by this time nearly on the 
meridian and lighted up the sea almost 
with the brightness of day ; but not a 
thing could I discern except the heav- 
ing sea and the calm sky above it. I 
returned to the quarterdeck greatl}^ 
relieved and rather ashamed of myself 
to have been caught napping on watch. 
Nearly a half-hour afterwards I had 
walked forward to the break of the 
quarterdeck and was about to sing out 
for the w^atch to hand the topgallant 
sails, as the wind was steadily grow- 
ing stronger, and a slight almost im- 
perceptible mist began to be visible 
low down in the sky, indicating squall}' 
weather, when again I heard the same 
voice as if directly at my ear say, 
' Toi\i ! Tom ! You must go more 
TO Tiiiv RIGHT ! ' This time there 
could be no mistaking the warning 
human or supernatural, real or imagin- 
ary ; the accent of alarm and terror with 
which these words were uttered com- 
municated itself to me and left me in 
no undecided frame of mind. I must 
obey the warning direction whatever 
the consequences. ' Lay aft the 
watch ! ' I cried out .sharpl^^ ' and 
brail u[) the spanker ! ' The men 
sprang aft and in a moment the driver 
was snugged in close. 

" ' Put your helm up ! ' was the next 
order, and the men, realizing, as all 
good sailors will, that some emergency 

was at hand, did not wait for further 
orders l^ut sprang to the main braces 
and lee clew-garnet. As the brig obeyed 
her helm and flew around, the mainsail 
was hauled up, and the yards swung 
around with a will . As she came to the 
wind on the other tack the topgallant 
sails were taken in and the mainsail and 
spanker set again. Then as she leaned 
over and buried her lee cathead under 
the water for a moment, only to rise 
and bound forward with a cloud of 
spray flying over her bows on a course 
almost at right angles to the one which 
we had Ijeen pursuing, a load seemed 
to have been suddenly lifted from my 
shoulders, and although I felt that 
in changing the ship's course I had 
disobeyed the captain's order and 
really had no excuse to offer save one 
vv^hich I had every reason to expect 
would be treated as the v/ild raving of 
a madman, I did not feel the slightest 
tremor of hesitation as to the justice 
of my action. I. stepped below after 
seeing everything shipshape on deck 
and knocking on the captain's com- 
panionway entered the cabin at his 
bidding. I found the captain sitting 
up on one of the side transoms where 
he had evidently been taking a nap 
until awakened by a change of motion 
in the vessel as she came to the wind. 
' ' Everybody in the Navy knows 

Captain L, . He is a man who has 

seen so much of life and has himself 
been through so manj^ strange experi- 
ences that it was a matter of doubt 
with us juniors whether there was 
anything left on earth for him to 
learn. It seemed impossible to aston- 
ish him or even to arouse him from 
his usual condition of calm reserve 
and almost habitual abstraction. 
With liim an order always carried 
with it the oljligation of implicit 
obedience. There were few men who 
ever disputed his authority, and none 
who ever boasted of having done so. 
Now that I stood before him, self- 
convicted of having di.sregarded an 
order that he had ])assed, I could not 
help wondering why it was that I did 
not feel the slightest alarm for 



the consequences. Without wasting 
words, as I could only remain a 
moment below decks, I reported the 
change of course to the captain and 
then added : ' I have no excuse or 
reason to offer, sir, for my action ex- 
cept that I honestly believe that there 
is some obstruction incur path ahead, 
and that if I had continued on the 
course, we would have been lost.' 
As usual with him, the captain made 
no comment, but bidding me return to 
the deck, he said : ' I'll be up in a 
moment, Mr. Duncan.' I had hardly 
reached my position on the weather 
horse-block when he appeared on 
deck, took a sharp look around, and 
then, coming up to me, said : ' Now 
tell me your reasons for changing the 
vessel's course.' I related to him 
exactly what I have told 3'ou about 
the warning voices, and to my surprise 
he not only did not relieve me from 
duty, but somehow I felt that he was 
actvially in sympathy with me. He 
did not say anything at the time, but 
after taking a turn or two on deck, he 
ordered me to shorten sail and keep a 
careful record of the ship's way 
through the water so that she might 
be brought back to the position where 
I had received the supposed warning 
next morning, when a thorough 
examination could be made of the 
locality by daylight. 

" At midnight I was relieved by one 
of the junior officers, who expressed 
surprise at finding the ship almost 
hove to, but before I could answer his 
rather querulous inquiry as to ' What 
I was trying to do with her, ' I was 
relieved from my embarrassing posi- 
tion by the captain himself, who said 
quietly: 'It was viy order, sir.' 
We both started rather guiltily, 
because neither of us had observed 
him standing just inside the com- 

' ' It may be a matter of surprise to 
you gentlemen to know that I slept 
any that night, but singtilar as it may 
seem, I had hardly touched my bunk, 
when, as if overpowered by profound 
fatigue, I fell asleep and did not wake 

until roused by the knocking of the 
quartermaster outside my door, with 
the announcement: 'It's seven bells, 
sir, an' capen's complimen's, and 
would you come on deck, sir.' I 
.sprang from my bunk, mortified that 
it should have been ncces.sar>' to call 
me on .such an occasion, ha.stily 
dressed and went on deck. 

' ' The captain was standing aft when 
I reached the quarterdeck, and after 
returning my salute, he requested me 
to take the log-book and calculate the 
time the ves.sel should be back at her 
ten-o'clock position of the previous 
night. She was now standing to the 
westward under easy sail. In a few 
moments I handed the captain the 
result of my work. ' Half-past four, 
eh ? ' he said more to himself than to 
any one It was now nearly four 
o'clock and broad daylight, as the 
night is very short in these latitudes 
at this time of year. If my calcula- 
tions were correct, we ought to be 
back at the place where I had heard 
the warning voice the second time in 
half an hour. The keenest sighted 
men in the brig were stationed aloft to 
search the water for anything unusual, 
and, taking my glass, I went up 
mj'.self on the foretopsail yard. The 
breeze had moderated, but the sea 
caused by the fresh wind of the 
previous night had not yet gone 
down. The gleam of a gull's wing as 
it turned in the sunlight, and the 
swelling canvas and graceful lines of 
the brig were all that broke the 
monotony of the vast expanse of sea 
and sky. I strained my eyes as I 
examined every square foot of the sea 
ahead and to the west^vard, but in 
vain. Once, twice, the glasses swept 
over the expanse of water from left to 
right, imtil the whole arc of the 
horizon had been completed. Then 
as I gazed through them again, 
mechanically going over the same field 
for the third time, there . suddenly 
flashed out upon the deep bluene.«^s of 
the sea a blinding white cloudlike 
mass of spray. As it subsided and 
the wave sank down, there, almost 



directly ahead of us and not a mile 
away, was a long, low, rugged line of 
rocks partially submerged and onl}- 
made visible by the cataracts of foam 
and water which roared down their 
sides with the rising and falling of the 
sea. My head swam for a moment, 
and my heart almost ceased to beat. 
Could my senses be leaving me ? No, 
for the next instant from a dozen 
throats the cry issued : ' Breakers 
AHEAD ! Breakers ahead ! ' 

' ' A sharp order rang out from on 
deck, and amidst the rattling of blocks 
and thrashing noise of slackened 
sheets and braces, the Ashuclot shot 
up into the wind with a plunge that 
sent the green water boiling over her 
bows, and then with a premonitory 
flutter of her sails, like a bird chang- 
ing its course in flight, she fell off on 
the other track and lay to almost sta- 
tionary, wath her maintopsail to the 

' ' Before I could reach the deck two 
boats in charge of officers had been 
cleared away and sent to examine the 
reef more closely. When they re- 
turned the officers reported that the 
reef was a little over a mile in length, 
and, judging from the sharply defined 
fractures and the appearance of fresh 
sulphur stains upon the rocks, the 
reef must have been the result of some 
very recent upheaval. Certainly it is 
not to l)e found on any chart hitherto 
])ublished of the region. Nor can 
there l)e found any mention whatever 
of the supposed existence of a reef at 
this position in the works of the early 
navigators. When it appears on the 
United vStates Hydrograi)liic Charts 
next year it will l)c the first time re- 
corded as a danger to navigation. 

' ' We finished our .survey in due .sea- 
son and returned to Yokohama, where 
I found my orders for home awaiting 
me. Of course there was considerable 
excitement on board at the time, but 
as the captain never mentioned the 
circum.stances attending its discovery 
and T did not care to discuss it wm'IIi 
any one, the danger we had all been 
threatened with was soon forgotten." 

The lieutenant ceased speaking and 
the silence which followed was not 
interrvipted for fully a minute. Then 
the doctor's young friend inquired : 

' ' Lieutenant, have you mentioned 
this matter to your wife ?" 

The lieutenant started violently and 
said, " No, I have not. It is a 
most curious circumstance, " he added, 
"that you should have again antici- 
pated me by asking a question which 
brings out the second question I 
intended to ask Doctor Sturgis. Be- 
fore doing .so, however, doctor, I would 
like you to read this, which I received 
from my wife on our arrival at Yoko- 
hama." The lieutenant produced 
from an inside pocket a letter, and, 
taking the missive from its envelope, 
he opened it, and, handing both to 
the doctor, laid his finger on a passage 
in the letter. The doctor took the 
letter and envelope and adjusting his, leaned forward, so that the 
blaze from the fire fell directly on 
them, and examined both carefully. 
He read the passage through once 
and then, wdth a long whistle of as- 
toni.shment, he looked up and said, 
' ' May I read this aloud ?" 

"Certainly," .said the lieutenant. 
The doctor again closely examined the 
two pieces of paper in his hand, turning 
them over and over and viewing them 
from all sides as if by that means he 
would find a solution to what appeared 
a very grave problem. 

At last he said : " Gentlemen, this 
letter was po.sted in vSan Francisco on 
October 7th, 1891, and appears by the 
postmarks to have been sent, first to 
Hongkong, where it was re-directed 
to Yokohama, at which place it seems 
it was delivered in due form. The 
pa.s.sage in the letter which Mr. Dun- 
can wi.shed me to read is as follows : 
* -•' * * ' I know \(ni will think 
I am silly for letting so small a matter 
worry me but, .somehow. I cannot 
entirely recover from the efiects of a 
horrible dream T had about you last 
night. I tlunight I had gone to meet 
you somewhere in the open country 
but it .seemed a long, long distance, and 



the aspect of the landscape was so cc^kl 
and cheerless that it sends a shi\-er 
through me now as I recall it. 

" ' Not a vestige of grass or foliage 
relieved t lie horrible ghastliness of the 
low, barren hills. To add to the gen- 
eral effect of utter desolation and ugli- 
ness there were yawning chasms out 
of whose gloomy depths there issued 
sounds as if of breaking waves and the 
agonizing cries of a multitude strug- 
gling against death. As I stood near 
one of these fissures, unable to tear 
myself away, I suddenly saw you run- 
ning toward me from the opposite- 
side. You were waving your hand to 
me and smiling, apparently all uncon- 
scious of the terrible pit at your very 

feet. With one almost superhuman 
effort I aroused myself from the hor- 
rible paralysis which seemed to be 
freezing my very blood, and cried out 
with all my strength : To7n, Tom, you 
must ffo more to the right. Twice I 
called to you and then awoke, crying 
bitterly.' " 

The doctor folded the letter up 
.slowly and, replacing it in its envelope, 
handed it to the lieutenant without 

After a ]), during which the 
group of men .seemed to have been 
suddenly stricken dumb, the lieuten- 
ant said : ' ' Now, doctor, what I want 
to know is, ought I to tell mv 



A multitudinous .stir and melody 

Of whi.spering leaves ; 
Of olive boughs the subdued sih'er re\-elry 
Held in the blue ; and outside, fretting audibly, 

A wind that grieves ; 
A perfume of warm violets in the air, 

Beneath, and everywhere ; 
A glimmer of dim marbles, rich and rare 

And marble-cold ; 

The scent of Tuscan mould 

Up-breathing where the crowding violets be, 

Remindingly ; 
A sul)tle, troubling something, faint and fair, 

Delight, despair ! 

A ; n far bell ; a drowsing bee ; 

A murmur and a motion : a caress ; 

Of sun and air : a touch ; a tendeniess ; 

A smile that runs from Heaven down to me ; 

A music and a silence — 

Italy ! 



THERE is probably no section of 
the United States as much mis- 
represented, or of which the gen- 
eral public is so little enlightened as 
Arizona. Even her next door neigh- 
bors in Southern California are lament- 
ably ignorant of the diversified 
industries, the great natural wealth, 
and the magnitude of the domain of 
the future State which lies just to the 
east of them. 

The " boom " of vSouthern California 
set all the world talking al)out that 
region. Likewise the booms of the 
northwest brought that section into 
prominence, including Oregon, Wash- 
ington, Montana and Idaho. Colorado 
took her first start in the days of the 
Pike's Peak excitement and this has 
been followed by the Ouray, Lead- 
ville. Cripple Creek, Creede and other 
mining furores. Some little attention 
was directed to Arizona in the early 
eighties by the rich .strikes of silver 
but the daily dispatches giving 
accounts of outrage, murder and rapine 
conunittcd l)y the Nation's pets — the 
fiendish Apaches — kept out many an 
intending .settler and also gave the 
Territory a "backset" from which .she 
is only now recovering. 

The few hardy pioneers who braved 
the danger of Indian foes were miners 
and wasted no time in endeavoring to 
cultivate, what to them, was but a 
broad expanse of desert. Even at 
this late day, when it has been so fully 
demonstrated what can be done with 
the deserts of the West, by irrigation, 
it is difficult to make a resident of a 
rain}' country believe that the 
boundless plain before him, covered 
only with .sage l)rush, grease wood, 
cactus and a few other dwarfed growths 
can, with the aid of water, .soon be 
turned into green fields of alfalfa, 
waving grain, or giving forth the 

.sweet perfume of orange blossoms 
from thrifty and growing young 

A gentleman from Arizona travelling 
in the a ^-ear ago was telling 
some friends of his farm in Arizona, 
on which he rai.sed all kinds of blooded 
stock, small grains and fruits from 
peaches and apricots to oranges, figs 
and dates. 

" You don't mean to tell us," .said 
one of his listeners, " that there is any 
farming in Arizona, do you ? ' ' 

' ' Indeed I do, ' ' was the reply, ' ' and 
the time is not far distant when we will 
conunand the cream of the market with 
our earl}'' fruits and vegetables and be 
California's strongest competitor in the 
production of blooded horses." 

"Yes, but I thought Arizona was 
only a mining vState, ' ' again exclaimed 
the gentleman. 

" True, that is what people like you 
u.sed to think of California but j'ou 
found it to the contrary when she took 
the best markets from you with her 
superior wheat and now the oranges 
on your table were grown on her 
golden shores. Arizona is a mining 
country, and no doubt you will be 
surprised when I tell you that she is 
also a timber and coal country, and 
that her pine forests cover a greater 
area than did the great pine forests of 
Michigan before the ax of the white 
man had touched them, and her coal 
fields are larger in extent than those 
of Pennsylvania. Arizona covers an 
area as large as that of the States of 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois combined, 
so that besides her inexhau.stible 
mountains of precious metal, her vast 
forests of pine and her great coal 
fields, she has millions of acres of the 
richest farming land on earth." 

The old idea that only "black 
lands ' ' were rich and of the best 




quality for farmiug has long since 
been exploded. People have learned 
that the reddish-brown soil of the 
valleys of the west have been covered, 
through the long ages, with the decom- 
position and silt from the mountains 
giving the soil a fcrt' zation that 
makes its productive powers almost 
beyond comprehension. 

The oldest, and therefore the best 
developed, agricultural section of 
Arizona is the Salt River Valley, in 
Maricopa County. By looking at tlie 
ordinary railroad folder the reader 
will .see that the Southern Pacific and 
the Atlantic & Pacific railroads cross 
Arizona from east to west, the former 
in the .south and the latter in the 
north. Nearly parallel to the South- 
ern Pacific flows the Gila (pro- 
nounced Ile-la) River, which enters 
the Territor}^ from New Mexico, on 
the east and empties into the Colorado 
near the .southwestern corner. Among 
the tributaries to the Gila is the Salt 
River and along this stream, in west 
central Arizona is the now famous Salt 
River Valley. 

Although the old stage trail to Cali- 
fornia in the fifties followed along the 
Gila ; and the mountains to the north 
of the vSalt River \'alley had been pros- 
pected from 1S63 to 1865 it was not 
until 1S67 that a few men wiser than 
their companions, left the search for 
gold and began taking up homes on 
the desert land along the Rio Salado. 
In traveling over the valley they had 
become impres.sed with the ruins of 
ancient canals and temples that had 
been used by the pre-historic races 
hundreds of years ago. Taking out a 
ditch from the river they followed 
along the lines distinctly marked by 
the ruins of ditch banks that some 
day, probably before the man of 
Galilee had taught his new command- 
ments, had carried waters to produce 
nourishment for mankind. Along this 
ditch the first crops were raised by the 
modern Arizonians. The .success of 
the fanners in the little settlement 
attracted others and in a few years a 
very considerable settlement had 

sprung up. In November, 1870, a 
sur\-ey of a townsite was l)egun and 
in February, 1S71, the first house was 
built in what is now the City of 
Phoenix, the capital of Arizona, and 
the most important town within her 
borders. Residents of the settlement 
soon began to feel the need of a more 
local county government and in 1S71 
a new county was formed out of the 
.southern portion of Yavapai County 
and named I^Iaricopa after the Indians 
who for so long had dwelt within its 

Maricopa County has an area of 
nine thousand three hundred and 
thirty-four square miles. It is larger 
than the vStates of Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire or New Jersey, and ap- 
proximately as large as Vermont or 
Maryland. The new county grew 
and pro.spered so well that in 1S73, a 
second canal, named the Maricopa, 
was taken out on the north side of the 
river. P'ive years later, fourteen miles 
of a third canal, called the Grand, were 
constructed, and other extensions 
were made in 18S0-81-S2. These 
canals earn,' twenty-four thousand 
miner's inches of water and irri- 
gate eighty thousand acres of land. 
In 1884, a few public-spirited men 
began work on the Arizona Canal, 
one of the largest, if not the larg- 
est, irrigating canal in the United 
States. The great ditch was com- 
pleted in 1S87. This canal heads in 
the Salt River, just below its junction 
with the \'erde, near ^IcDowell Butte, 
twenty-eight miles northeast of the City 
of Pha'uix. The main canal is forty -one 
miles long, with an extension of seven 
miles, making the aggregate length 
forty-eight miles. The dam in the Salt 
River, which diverts the water into 
this canal, is eleven feet high and one 
thou.sand feet long. The canal is thirt\-- 
six feet wide on the bottom, seven 
and one-half feet deep and fiftA'-eight 
feet wide at the top. Its grade 
is two feet to the mile, and it 
carries forty thousand miner's inches 
of water, forty miner's inches equal- 
inar one cubic foot. Twent\--two 





miles from llic head of this canal, 
it is cut tlir()U.i;li solid rock at tlic 
base of a hill, and here falls sixteen 
feet over an abrupt rockbed, develop- 
ing great power, which will ultimately 
be utilized for manufacturing and 
electrical purposes. One mile below 
the falls is the head of a lateral canal, 
called the "Crosscut," which is a 
feeder for tlie Grand, Maricopa and 
vSalt River Valley canals. It has a 
capacity of fifteen thousand miner's 
inches, and in its four miles of length 
there are twenty-four falls, aggregat- 
ing one hundred and thirty-five feet. 
Together witli the falls of the Arizona 

— an empire in itself larger than sev- 
eral «jf the European principalities. 

While all this progress in develop- 
ment was being made on the north 
side of the Salt River, settlers were 
alscj at work on the south side. They 
have tile Utah, Mesa, Tempe and 
Highland canals, aggregating over 
si.xty miles and irrigating nearly one 
hundred tliousand acres. Mucli work 
has been done along the (Jihi, in the 
western part of the county, particu- 
larly within the last year. Canals are 
now under construction that will 
redeem t\v(j hundred thousand acres 
of land in that part of the county. 

Maricopa and Phcenix Railroad Bridge 

Canal, they have a comlnned horse- 
power of three thousand seven hun- 
dred. The acreage of land redeemed 
by the Arizona Canal is ninety-six 
thousand. All these canals were a 
few years ago coiLsolidated under one 
management, thus greatly lessening 
the running expenses. Combined, 
tliev have a total length of one luin- 
dred and six miles of main canals and 
one hundred and sixty miles of lateral 
ditches used in conveying water to the 
respective farms irrigated. The land 
covered by them aggregates one hun- 
dred and seventy-five thousand acres 

Naturally the (piestion, what 
will this Arizona land produce after it 
is irrigated. To such question, one 
may well answer, " Kverything." 
The first settlers devoted their atten- 
tion solely to the growing of grain 
and alfalfa. The mining camps in 
the mountains to the north called for 
.supplies, and all attention was devoted 
to filling the demand. Some small 
fruits were planted about the houses, 
but no attempts at establishing vine- 
yards or orchards on any considerable 
scale were made until 18S7. Some 
small vinevards had been set out 



previous to that, but through kick of 
care had been but partially successful. 
The few fig trees here and there about 
farmhouses bore large crops, and this 
induced W. H. and Samuel Bartlett 
to try their culture on a large scale on 
farms northwest of the city, under the 
Arizona Canal. The first orchard of 
forty acres was planted in 1S87, and so 
successful was it that the Bartlett 
Bros, planted another one hundred 
acres the next year. They have kept 
adding to the acreage each year 
since, their two farms consisting of 
six hundred and forty acres each. 
A few acres on each farm are devoted 
to raisin grapes, oranges, lemons, 
olives, apiicots, peaches, plums. 

The White Adriatic fig grown in Ari- 
zona is very thin-skinned and sweet, 
while the seeds are small. In fact, the 
sweetness of all fruits is noticeable, par- 
ticularly in figs and raisin grapes. The 
soil of the Salt River \'alley carries a 
very large amount of saccharine matter, 
and this is imparted to its products. 

The Arizona Improvement Com- 
pany planted the first orange orchard 
near the Arizona Canal Falls in April, 
1889, the trees being two-j-ear-old 
buds. In November, 1890, some fruit 
was produced, and in 1891, about half 
a box to a tree was gathered. The 
fruit was of a beautiful dark-red color, 
exceedingly smooth, large and juicy. 
The entire crop was ready for market 

Scene on R.inch of Aiiznnn Improvement tlompany 

prunes and other fruits, but the l)ulk 
of the land is set to figs. Large 
brick curing and packing were 
erected on these farms in 1891. Figs 
from their orchards were awarded the 
first prize over all competitors at the 
Mechanics' Institute Fair in San 
Francisco, in 1S90. The success in 
this instance has clearly proved the 
profitableness of fig culture in Arizona. 
In most sections of the United States, 
where their culture has been attempted, 
the result has not been what was 
hoped for. The fruit would shrivel 
on the tree or drop off before ripening. 
Here two crops a year are assured, 
and three crops are not uncommon. 

before December first. The success 
of this pioneer orange orchard induced 
many others to plant groves, and 
.seven hundred and thirty-eight acres 
were set out in 1891 in orchards 
of five acres or more. The exact 
acreage planted this year cannot be 
given at this time, but it will reach 
nearly five thousand. Altogether 
there arc now over twenl\--n\-e thou- 
.sand acres in the valley in orchards 
and vineyards, the Improvement Com- 
pany alone having one orchard of 
six hundred acres set to apricots, 
peaches, almonds, French prunes, 
olives, .seedless Sultana, Malaga and 
table grapes. 



It is in her early season that the 
Salt River Valley's greatest success 





sections iu the spring vegetation has 
no drawbacks. Karly grapes are 
ready Ujv the market by June 
to twentieth ; apricots, May 
to fifteenth ; peaches, June 
; oranges, November tenth, 
season is from four to six 

weeks earlier than in Southern 
California. Speaking of the early 
apricots of Arizona, in May, 1890, 
the Los Angeles Times said: "Proph- 
et Potts left at the Times sanctum 
yesterday a little box of ripe apricots. 
They are a full month earlier than 
those which ripen here, and were 
grown in the Salt River Valley, near 
Phojnix, Arizona. The prospects, in 
view of the Salt River \'alley devel- 
opment, are that Arizona will .some 
day send back a Roland for our 
Oliver, supplying this section witli 
early high-priced fruits." 

The productiveness of the soil is 
almost marvelous. It is hard for a 
stranger to believe you when you 
show him fig trees two years old that 
are five inches in diameter at the base; 
grape vines eighteen months old that 

W.iter Tower at Phrenlx 

will come in fruit culture. Shut out 
from the cold winds that visit other 

produce one thousand pounds to the 
acre, and at five years old produce 



from four to eight tons to the acre. 
Alfalfa produces five and six crops a 
year, with from one and one-half to 
two tons to the acre at each cutting. 
An anah'sis of the soil l)y a Govern- 
ment chemist, who accompanied the 
vSenate Committee on Arid Lands in 
1889, showed it to be richer than the 
soil of the valley of the Nile. 

There was placed on exhibition in 
Phoenix in September, 1S91, a small 
limb from a date palm grown on the 
Hatch farm, three miles north of 
the city, that contained one thousand 
and fortj'-four fully-matured dates, 
weighing eighteen and one-half 
pounds. To enumerate what can be 
produced here would be to give a 
list of the products of the soil of the 
temperate and semi-tropic zones. 
Among the fruits which have been 
most successful are figs, raisin grapes, 
oranges, lemons, dates, quinces, 
prunes, nectarines, pomegranates, 
olives, peaches, apricots, pears, plums, 
almonds, berries of all kinds and 
apples. vSugar cane produces enor- 
mously and has more juice than the 
Louisiana or Sonora cane. Sugar 
beets harvest two crops a year, pro- 
ducing from seventeen to twenty- 
five per cent. Roasting ears can be 
gathered in from fi\'e to six weeks 
after planting the corn. Strawberries 
and garden vegetables can be produced 
throughout the winter months, and 
with the completion of the railroad 
giving connection with the Santa Fe 
system, a large demand fijr such pro- 
ducts for the Chicago and Eastern 
markets will l^e created. 

In all new settlements the first 
thing done after pitching the temporary 
tents and planting the crops is to lay 
out a town. The settlers of the Salt 
River Valley were no exception to 
the rule and the work of laying out a 
town was begun in the winter of 
1870-71. When a name was to be 
.selected for the embryo ciU' IJyrou 
Darrell Duppa, a highly-educated 
Englishman, propo.sed that it should 
be called Phccnix. He had been 
greatly interested in the ruins of Ihc 

pre-historic races scattered over the 
valley, and in proposing the name 
said : ' ' Here, upon the ruins of this 
long-forgotten city let us establish a 
new civilization, that, Phcenix-like, 
will rise from its ashes." For eight 
>'ears the growth was slow, but with 
the building of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad into the Territory in 1879 
Phoenix became an important stage 
station between the mining country 
to the north and junction with the 
railroad at the old INIaricopa wells. 
Besides this the farm products of the 
surrounding country made it an impor- 
tant supply point. That her citizens 
were progressive and enterprising is 
shown by their having built a thirty- 
five - thousand - dollar courthouse in 
18S4, when the assessed valuation of 
the county did not reach two million 
of dollars. 

In 1SS6 a subsidy of two hundred 
thovisand dollars was voted to the 
Maricopa and Phcenix railroad, and 
the line (thirty-four miles in length) 
was completed the next 3'ear, giv- 
ing connection with the Southern 
Pacific. The town now took on new 
life, and soon the adobe buildings 
began to give way to brick business 
blocks and residences. Meantime the 
location of the Territorial Insane 
Asylum had been secured for Phoenix 
and the Territorial Normal School for 
Tempe, only nine miles distant. Suc- 
cessful thus far, her citizens became 
ambitious for still further honors, and 
in January, 18S9, secured the removal 
of the capital from Prcscott to Phoenix, 
building a fine City Hall, which could 
also l)e used as a Capitol building 
luilil such time as one could be erected 
b\' the Territory. Her liberal citi- 
zens went still further and donated a 
beauliful block of land of twenty acres 
in the Vi'cstern part of the city for 
Capitol grounds. A gardener is kept 
constantly employed in caring for and 
l)eautifying the grounds, .so that by 
the time a building is constructed it 
can be erected in the midst of one of 
the most beautiful little parks in the 



Nearly all llie older towns of New 
Mexico and Arizona were formerly 
Mexican pncblas with narrow streets 
and adobe houses. Not so with 
PhcEnix. It is a liv^ely, enterprising 
and progressive American city. The 
principal streets and a\-enues are one 
hundred feet witle, while all cross 
streets are eighty feet. The blocks 
are three hundred feet square, lots 
being fifty by one hundred and thirty- 
seven and one-half feet with a twentj-- 
five-foot alley cutting through each 
block. , Through the .streets flow 

railroad was one of the first improve- 
ments to follcnv the advent of the 
iron horse. This proved a paying in- 
vestment and has aided greatly in 
building up the city, extending its 
borders in every direction. At present 
this company has over eight miles of 
track, five cars and employs twenty- 
five nuiles and The income 
for the six sununer months was three 
thousand five hundred and fifty dollars; 
the cost of running was one thous- 
and six hundred and fift}' dollars ; the 
income for the six winter months was 

Engine Room of Water Worki. l'hani.\ 

streams of pure water, while rows of 
shade trees line both sides of all the 
residence avenues. Surrounded by a 
wealth of flowers, fruits and foliage. 
it is one of the handsomest cities iu 
the Southwest. It may sound strange 
to the uninitiated, but so dense is the 
verdure in this city built up on a 
former desert, that it might now well 
be called the Forest City. 

As might be expected, a city with 
such enterprising people would have 
all the modern conveniences. A street 
Vol. II— t6 

two thousand four hundred and ninety 
dollars ; the cost one thousand six 
hundred and fifty dollars, a cred- 
itable showing. 

In a land where water and irriga- 
tion are the two most important 
factors it is not luinatural that this 
subject should attract by far the great- 
e.^^t attention, and for this reason some 
of the details of the method of supply- 
ing water are given in the present 
article. In Arizona and New Mexico, 
as well as the west slope in general, 



water is k'nvj;. a:ul the happy owners 
of water stock or bonds are amon.i^ the 
wealthy men of the places. 

As far back as iS8i INIr. J.J. Gar- 
diner established a small water works 
for domestic supply. The venture 
prov^ed so successful that in February, 
1889, he organized a stock company 
known as the Phoenix Water Works 
Company, receiving a franchise from 
the city for the laying of mains and 
supplying water. The company set 
about building a large plant. Two 
Dean pumps with a capacity of 
one million gallons per day each, were 
put ill. A brick pump and boiler 
house were erected as well as a steel 
stand pipe fourteen feet in diameter and 
one hundred feet high, with a capacity 
of eleven thousand five hundred gal- 
lons. This .stand pipe is used to add 
pressure in the mains, which is now 
about forty-five pounds to the square 

The well is remarkable, being l)ut 
twelve feet in diameter and thirty- 
five feet deep, yet it affords a never- 
failing .supply of pure, cold water for a 
city of seven th(msand people. Besides 
the water for domestic uses, two ice 
factories with a daily capacity of ten 
and fifteen tons respectively, get their 
water from the water comj^any. Three 
])rinting ofiices run their presses 1)>- 
means of water motors, and all the 
water for street sprinkling and use 0:1 
lawns is taken from the mains. The 
Insane A.sylum, three miles east of the 
city, also draws its water fn)m the water 

In May, 1890, the Phcenix Water 
Company was organized, and ])ur- 
chased the ])lant of the Water Works 
Company. The ])lant consists of 
the pumping plant together with 
al)out seventeen miles of mains, rang- 
ing in size from four lo ten inches. 
The water is ])um])ed from a well some 
forty-five feet in depth into the main 
ten inches in diameter running through 
the center of the town. A shortdistance 
from the well there is a ten-incli " T " 
running laterally from the force main 
lo the stand pipe, which is constructed 

of .sheet steel fourteen feet in diameter 
and one hundred feet high, with a 
capacity of over one hundred and 
fifteen thou.sand gallons. The pumping 
plant consi.stsof two compound duplex 
Dean pumping engines, each of which 
has a capacity of a million and a 
half gallons in twenty-four hours. 
Steam is supplied by two steel boilers 
.so arranged that they can be cut out. 
All machinery and the steam plant is 
in duplicate, preventing the possibility 
of a failure through l^reakage. There 
are ten- inch valves in the ten-inch 
force main, .so arranged that the .stand 
pipe can l^e cut off from the city and 
water be supplied by pumping as in 
the Holly .sy.stem, or the pumps can 
be cut off and water .suj^plied from the 
stand pipe, making it a reservoir 
.system . 

The income of the company is 
approximately one thousand seven 
hundred dollars per month ; this in- 
cludes profit from the Merchandise 
account, which includes taking the 
mains and all pipe furnished and laid, 
the profit fnnu which, after paying 
labor, etc., is about one hundred 
dollars per month. 

The expenses may be of interest 
to readers in the East, and are as 

follows : 


.Salaries as Ibllows : 

Engineer |i2o 

Fireman 50 

Acting vSec'y 100 

Rent office .' 15 

Total I285 

\n .'ivcrage of one cord of wood per day ; 

thirtv cords ix-r month, at $4 |i20 

The company .secures as hydrant 
rental alone, the .sum of three thou- 
sand five hundred dollars per year. 
This is ])aid moiillily in twelve eqtial 
installments. Since ])nrcliasiiig the 
plant, extcnsixe additions to the 
pi])e line lia\e been made, the com- 
pany having expended during the last 
year over .seventeen thousand dollars 
ibr this purpose. The well has been 
.sunk .seven feet and will now ftirnish 



continvially three million gallons per 
day, whicli is shown in the following 

Gal water Avpcr Cdswood 
Month Pumped Day Consunicil 

Feb., 1890.. 2,257,324... 91,333- • -15 
Mar., 1890.. 3,942,409... 127, 193... 15 
Apr., 1890.. 5,537,409.. .184,. 580... 22 
May, 1890.. 7,831,182. . .246,188. . .38 
June, 1890. .10,311,070... 332,615.. .41 
July, 1890. .11,833, 1 18... 375, 261.. .42 
Au.^r., 1890. . 10,915,394. . .352,109. . .35 
Sept., 1890. . 10,775,928. . .359,177- • -31 
Oet., 1890.. 8,478,470... 273,499... 30 
Nov., 1890. . 6,686,176. . .222,872. . .27.5 
Dee., 1890.. 6, 247,500... 201, 532.. .25 
Jan., 1891.. 8,506,008.. .274,387, . .31 

The geological location and natnral 
advantages are so great that Phoenix 
will rapidly increase in po])nlatioii, 
and is rapidly becoming a large cit}-. 
The company has what is equivalent 
to the exclusive privilege of selling 
water in the city, and a fifty-year 
franchise, suggestive of its value. 

At the time of the of this 
plant from the Phcenix Water Works' 
Company, there were outstanding 
bonds of the Phoenix Water Works' 
Company to the amount of sixty thou- 
sand dollars. When the bonds of the 
Phoenix Water Company were issued, 
sixty thousand di)llars of the new 
issue were deposited with the trustee 
to cover the first issue of bonds. The 
present bonded indebtedness of the 
company is twt) hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars, all of which is draw- 
ing six per cent interest, making an 
annual interest charge of fifteen thou- 
sand dollars, payable semi-annually on 
the first (if January and July of each 

The first electric-light plant pro- 
vided only arc lights, and was not a 
success. Early in 1S90, another com- 
pany was organized, which ptit in 
both the incandescent and arc lights. 
Now, nearly all the stores and places 
of business in the city are lighted by 
the incandescent system, and many 
private hotises are also using it. An 
electric street railway and a sewer 
system will be constructed this year. 

Phcenix has not been behind in pro- 
viding educational advantages. She 

has fuie brick schoolhouses, one of 
whicli is a high school. Eleven 
teachers are employed, and the aver- 
age attendance is about four hundred 
and fifty pupils. The past winter, a 
night schofjl was established in the 
central school building, and this will 
be a permanent part of the school work 
in the future. Besides this excellent 
system of ])ublic schools, several pri- 
vate schools are well patronized. 

In the matter of churches and 
secret societies, Phcenix is abreast 
with any of the most advanced cities. 
The Catholic, ]Cpiscoj)al, Baptist, 
Presbyterian, Christian, ^^ethodist- 
Episcopal, and M. Iv. Church, south, 
have fine brick edifices of their own. 
There are the many different Ma.sonic 
orders, from the Blue Lodge to the 
Commandery, Odd I'ellows, A. O. 
U. W., Knights of Pythias, G. A. R., 
Sons of \'eterans, Woman's Relief 
Corps, Daughters of Rebecca, I. O. 
O. T. and kindred organizations. 
There is one club — the Montezuma — 
an opera-house and several small halls. 

Residents of Phcenix are pleased to 
term their city "The Denver of the 
Southwest." A careful review of all 
varied resources of the tributary coini- 
try, together with the enterprise 
shown b\- her citizens, clearly indicate 
that the wonderful growth and prog- 
ress of the "Queen City of the 
Phiins " is to be more than duplicated 
in the garden belt of Arizona. Twenty 
years ago, Denver was Init a strug- 
gling little cit}-, depending upon her 
position as a forwarding depot for 
supplies for the mining camps. There 
was no agricultural development 
within many miles, and croakers de- 
clared the city had reached its height 
as a commercial point. The mining 
activity of a few years later, especially 
the Leadville excitement of 1877, 
made Denver a city of importance, 
and the railroads that had been build- 
ing west of the Missouri River began 
pushing their lines to this gateway of 
the mountains. In iSSo, a city of 
thirty-five thousand people existed, 
which in 1890 had gro\\ni to one hun- 



rni mi ^i 


••'.-A. • 

■ V 








dred and seven thousand, and her 
progress is continuous. 

The mountains of Arizona are not 
only as rich as those of Colorado, 
they are richer. Besides the yellow 
gold and bright silver of the Centen- 
nial State, Arizona has copper mines 
of wealth second to none in the world ; 
lead mines rich as the richest of 
Mexico or Montana ; onyx that excels 
in its rich coloring, grain and texture 
any ever found ; building stone that 
is considered by architects the most 
beautiful in America. 

Phccnix is the gateway to 
inexhaustible stores of wealth, and as 

fifty miles in length, begun within two 
years and completed within five. 
Following this, a company was incor- 
porated, known as the Santa Fe, Pres- 
cott & PhoL-nix Railway Company, to 
build a line from a junction with the 
vSanta Fe at Ash Fork, in Northern 
Arizona, through Pre.scott, Phfx-nix 
and Florence to a junction at Benson, 
in Southeastern Arizona, with the pres- 
ent Santa Fe line from Benson .south 
to tide-water at Guaymas, Sonora, 
Mexico. Work is now being pushed 
on this road at a lively rate, more 
than one thousand men and teams be- 
ing employed. The company promises 


Falls on Arizona Canal 

railroads sought Denver in the past, 
so they are now seeking Phoenix. In 
i8go, the people voted a subsidy of 
four thousand dollars a mile to a rail- 
road to be constructed from Phoenix 
northward through the rich mineral 
belt to a connection with thegreat Santa 
Fe system. This measure reciuircd the 
approval of Congress, which was se- 
cured, but the President intorpo.>^ed a 
veto. Nothing daunted, they found 
another way to encourage railroads 
to come, and in February, 1S91, a 
law was passed by the Territorial 
Legislature, exempting from taxation 
for twenty years all railroads of over 

to have trains nmning into Phoenix 
from the north by !Marcli,iS93. 

The mineral districts of Arizona 
have as yet only been scratched over. 
With more railroad facilities this will 
be changed and ru.^ihes like those at 
Leadville, Toml)stone and Creede will 
be witnessed. As an illustration of 
the wealth of the mineral deposits 
may be cited the Bonanza Mine eighty 
miles northwest of Phoenix. A twenty- 
stamp mill was erected in 1S91 and 
begun crushing ore in September. 
The first three months run was 
one hundred and twenty thousand 
dollars ; the run for December was 



sixty thousand dollars, and for Januaiy 
aud the first ten days of Februar>- it 
was eiglit3-three tliousand dollars, 
the gold bricks representing these 
amounts passing through the Wells, 
Fargo's Kxpress office at Phcenix. 
The owners of this i)roperty say their 
first year's output will be one million 
dollars. Not far from this rich gold 
mine are valuable copper claims 
destined to produce as well as the 
famous Copper Queen at Bisbee, Ari- 
zona, which turned out over twenty- 

four hundred and fifty thousand 
acres of land. As has been cited 
before, this land is of the very richest 
on earth and will produce all cereals, 
grasses and fruits from rye and barley- 
to sugar cane, oranges and dates. 
This valley opens into the Gila Valle}^ 
both to the east and west, so one is 
realh' but a continuation of the other. 
Two hundred and seventy-five thous- 
and acres of the Salt River Valley is 
now under water from the various 
canals already constructed. Other 

Street Scene, Phcenix 

five millions of pounds of copper 
bullion in 1890 and '91. Valual)le 
new leads have recently been dis- 
covered in the old Vulture Mine, 
thirty-five miles northwest of Phoenix, 
which in its day turned out over 
ten millions of dollars in gold. Its 
former value ])romises to be more than 
duplicated in the future. 

Besides all this tributary mineral 
wealth Phcenix is situated in tlie cen- 
ter of a valley having a length of 
forty-five miles and an average width 
of sixteen miles, embracing therefore 

irrigation enterprises are under con- 
struction that will not only reclaim 
the remaining two hundred and 
twenty-five thousand acres of Salt 
River Valley but add as many more 
from tril)utary valleys. Prominent 
among the comj^anies in this work is 
the Rio Verde Canal Company, which 
with a sj'stem of reservoirs on the Rio 
Verde, Cave Creek and New River, 
coupled with one hundred and twenty 
miles of canals, propose to reclaim a 
total ol' nearly four luuidred thousand 
acres. Tbe A<'ua b'ria Reservoir and 



Canal Company will impound the 
waters of the A.^-ua I'Via River by 
which they will reclaim one hundred 
and fifty thousand acres of foothill 
lands especially ada])ted to the cul- 
tivation of citrus fruits. 

Arizona, and particuhu'ly the Salt 
River Valley, is especially adapted to 
the l)reeding of l)lof)ded stock. 
Although this industry like all others 
here, is in its infancy, great ])r()gress 
is being" made. In the December 

some most excellent herds of Jerseys, 
Ilerefords, Ilolsteins, Polled Angus 
and other strains. 

As a home for invalids this country 
is par excellence. The altitude being 
but twelve hundred feet it has none of 
the chilling blasts of mountain resorts. 
vSituated over three hundred miles 
from the, it is free from f(jgs 
and malaria. The mean temperature 
for Januar>- is fifty-five degrees and 
for Jul\- eiglit>-five. Arizona lias beeu 

Court House. Phoeni.N 

races, 1891, six heats were required to 
decide the contest in the three-year-old 
trotting race, the slowest being in 2:42 
and the fastest in 2:351... The dry 
pure air, the equable climate and the 
rich feed all conduce to the health and 
vigor of the sensitive nature of highly 
bred stock. There are now se\eral 
horse fcirms with some of the best 
strains of standard-bred trotters to be 
found in America, while others have 
devoted their attention to cattle havinu' 

mere lampooned and .stigmatized on 
everx conceivable occasion than any 
other portion of the United States. 
Kven lier climate has not escaped. 
Almost every one has heard that old 
story about the .soklier who went to 
the nether regions and sent back for 
his blankets becau.'^e it was so cold 
there, after a residence in Arizona. 
True, the thermometer climbs above 
a hundred degrees in July and August, 
but this is not nearlv so unbearable 

(invL'rnor N. O. Miiiplu- 




as ninety de threes in 
the Mississippi Val- 
ley or on the Atlan- 
t i c Coast. The 
moisture in the air 
is but twenty-five to 
thirty percent while 
in the East it i 
from seventy - fi\x- 
to eij^hty per cent. •,' 

Ninety degrees in '^^ 

any of the Atlantic Coast 
cities results in death from .sun- 
stroke while here sunstrokes are / 
unknown. The difference between 
the shade and the sensible tempera- 
tures is from twenty-five to thirty 

It may be of interest to the reader 
to know .something regarding the men 
who have built up this great connnon- 
wealth and who are molding the 
thought of the country. One of the 
most influential men in the territory, 
and its popular goveruor, is N. O. 

c ^ 

Residence of General Clark Churchill 

•I J 

T— East End School 2— West End School 
3 — Hartford Bank 

Mr. Murphy was bom in Lin- 
coln County, Maine, in 1S50. He 
moved to Wisconsin when seven 
years of age, where he received 
a common .school education in 
Manitowoc County, and taught 
school himself in early life as 
many others of our great men 
have. He moved west at the 
age of twenty, and has lived 
west of the Mississippi for twenty- 
two years. He has engaged 
in various commercial pursuits, 
mining and journalism. Gov- 
ernor Murphy is entirely 
.self-educated and experienced in 
the ways of the world to a wide 
degree, possessing a thorough 

He has lived 

knowledge of men. 



nine years in /Arizona, latterly in pnblic 
life first as vSecretary of the Territory 
an d then acting and now actual Govern - 
or. Successful in the field of politics, 
standing foremost in the party to 
which he ])elongs in the territory, and 
in the front rank of popular favor as a 
public servant. He is interested in 
railroad building and various pro- 
gressive enterprises for the advance- 
ment of the territory, and is looked 
upon as one of the leading spirits in 
building up the future State of 

in the United States, as a " Winner," 
because he was almost universally suc- 
cessful in his cases and in business 
generally. In 1H63, his clients in San 
Francisco who were largely interested 
in the great Comstock mines induced 
him to go to Virginia City, Nevada, 
where he remained most of the time 
for three years, although in the mean- 
time he retained his business relations 
in San Francisco, and returned to the 
latter place in 1866, remained in prac- 
tice there till 1877, when his taste for 
the freedom of frontier life induced 


Residence of Mr, Dennis 

Gen. Clark Churchill is a typical 
Western man, though born east of the 
Rockies. Nearly his whole life has 
been .spent in the West. Leaving his 
Ea.sternhome a mere boy, alone, with- 
out friends or acquaintances or means 
he arrived in vSan Francisco penniless, 
in 1.S61, where by his own efforts 
he soon acquired both money and 
friends and achieved great success 
in his profession as a lawyer. He was 
known at the bar there, which was 
pre-eminentl>- the al)lest b()d\- ol law- 
yers ever congregated in any one place 

him to go to Arizona. Settling in 
Prescott, then the capital of the terri- 
tory, he was at once recognized as one 
of the leaders of the bar throughout 
the territory. Visiting Phoenix in 
1880, to attend court, his attention 
was attracted to the vSalt River \'alley 
and its wonderful resources, which 
were then inuleveloped, and lie then 
foresaw the great ])ossibilities in store 
for who would construct canals 
and apply the waters of the adjacent 
rivers to the desert wastes of which 
the valley was then C()nij)oscd. He 



immediately purchased a tract of land 
adjoining the tlien small village of 
Phoenix, as an investment. That 
tract is now known as the " Churchill 
Addition" to the present Cit}- of 
Phoenix, being laid out in blocks and 
graded streets, bordered with ornamen- 
tal shade trees, some single building 
lots in which being worth as much now 
as General Churchill in 1880 paid for 
the whole tract of eighty acres. 

In this iiddition General Churchill 
has constructed for himself a palatial 
home. lu addition to liis success as 

tation on his part, he has been elected 
to and filled the following offices with 
credit : City Attorney of Virginia 
City, Nevada, 1865-6; Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of Arizona, for two terms ; and 
Attorney -General of Arizona, for three 
terms. He represented Arizona on the 
Republican National Cf)mmittee from 
1884 to 1888 and was a delegate to the 
Republican National Convention at 
Chicago in 1884 and Chairman of the 
Republican Territorial Central Com- 
mittee of Arizona for many years. He 
resigned the position of Attoruey-Gen- 

Residence of B. H. Horner 

a lawyer General Churchill has always 
been a most enterprising business 
man. He promoted the construction 
of the great Arizona Canal which has 
transformed the Salt River Valley from 
a desert to a garden and the hamlet 
of Phoenix into the present thriving 
city it is, and he acted as president and 
chief executive officer of the Arizona 
Canal Company from its organization 
in 1SS2 until the construction of the 
Canal was completed in 1SS7. Al- 
though General Churchill has never 
been an office-seeker, without solici- 

eral about a year ago. During his 
term as Attorney-General, the famous 
controversy as to ' "whether the .sessions 
of the Territorial Legislature were 
limited to sixty consecutive days or to 
sixty legislative working days," arose, 
and in his official capacity he success- 
fully maintained in the courts that the 
Legislature might lawfully sit during 
sixty actual working days excluding 
intermediate days over which the Leg- 
islature had adjourned. The result of 
these decisions was to oust all the 
office-holders who had been appointed 

Husiness Blocks in I'liaiiix. 

1— Andt-rsoii lilock z-Cottou HI ck. 

3 — Gilsim Hiock. 
4— Porter Ulock. 5~Monilion Block. 



JuJki-' Jt)ii-'pli Campbell 

under the administration of President 
Cleveland and to put in their places 
in all the Territorial oflices in Arizona, 
the appointees of the incoming admin- 
istration of President Harrison. 

Judge Joseph Campbell was born 
June 17th, 1S57, in San Francisco. 
When twelve j-ears of age, he entered 
the St. Marj-'s College, San PYancisco. 
After four years diligent application 
to his studies, he graduated with high 
honors, taking the degree of A. B. 

In 1S75, Judge Campbell entered 
the office of Hon. Judge Jackson 
Temple, under whom he read law for 
a period of more than two years, and 
was admitted to the bar at the age of 
twenty-one years. He then left San 
Francisco for San Rafael, California, 
and began the practice of law there, 
meeting with great success. 

Returning to San Francisco in 1879, 
he practiced law till July, 1880, when 
his attention was attracted to Arizona. 
He left San Francisco in June, 18S0, 
for Phoenix, Arizona, arriving in Jul}- 
he has remained here ever since. 
With honor to himself and to the entire 
satisfaction of the public, he has suc- 
cessfully filled the following offices to 
which he was elected : City Re- 
corder of Phoenix, April, 'Si to May, 
'S3 ; Ass't District Attorney ; Ass't 
U. S. Attoniey ; U. S. Commissioner ; 
Probate Judge, two terms, Jan. '86 
to Jan. '90 ; President of the Board 
of Kducation, of the Normal School, 
and in May, 1S91, he was elected by 
the Democratic party the seventh 
Mayor of Phoenix, which important 
office he still holds and has most ablv 



General (.'lark Cliurcliill 

Ari/.ona like all other of the western 
states and territories has ex'olved itself 
from the chaotic social conditions of a 

frontier land nntil it is now 
socially as well as in other 
ways the peer of any other 
connnunity in the coiuitry. 
Its people are imbued how- 
ever, with a s])irit of enter- 
])rise that makes easy to 
them achievements which to 
the same people under cor- 
responding circumstances in 
the older states would seem 
im])(jssil)le of execution. 
This same spirit prevents 
the class lines of social 
preros2:ative being tightly 
drawn, for the prospector 
whose worldly possessions 
are wrapped in a blanket and 
"lacked" nyion his back 
may be a millionaire to-mor- 
row. Thus intercourse with 
one another is devoid of all 
the pretense and financial 
absurdities of so-called so- 
ciet\- in our eastern cities, 
but none the less is there 
found here in Phoenix, every 
advantage in the way of 
educational facilities and the 
social opportunities for inter- 
course with the most highly 
cultured men and women which makes 
it an ideal residence city for men with 
families to be educated. 

CoiniiHTciiil Hotel 




HY OI.Al- );iJ.ISON 

[Aiiioiifj its many attractions, Tasadciia, California, is rcnowiictl for its cliariniiiff rose gardens. Kach 
new year sees its sprinjj season open witli tlie '■ Tonrnanient of Roses " in early January. Looking down upon 
tlie nierry-niakcrs, are the snowy suniniits of tlie Sierra Madre range. I-ong Ijefore anotlier tournament 
season sets in, it will be possible to altc;n.Uc the battle of rosebuds witli one of snowballs.] 

TIIIv Sierra Madrcs of .SoullK-ni 
California are called tlie Alps of 
America, but until tlie ])resenl 
year they liave lacked one feature 
found in the European mountains, 
viz., the mountain railroad that is the 
delit^ht and joy of the and 
which attracts thousands to iCurope 
every year. This defect is jjcing' 
remedied by Prof. T. S. C. Lowe, the 
well-known scientist and banker of 
Pasadena who has now in process ot 
construction one of the most compre- 
hensive roads of this description, in- 
cludins^ fine mountain hotels, in the 

The first mountain railroad e\er 
constructed is the one in ojieration up 
Mt. Washington. vSince then many 
others have been built. Prominent 
among these : the Mt. Pilatus railroad 
u]) the mountain of the same name, 
on Lake Lucent, opposite the fp.mous 
Mt. Riui. The mountain 
possesses a railroad operated for near- 
ly fifteen seasons, and now almost 
double tracked for the entire distance. 
Among others ma>' be mentioned twj 
at Drachcnfels and Niederwald on the 
Rhine, Germany ; one up Mt. \'esu- 
vius, Italy ; two up the Lookout 
Mountains, Tennessee ; two near 
Reading, Penn. ; the last and reach- 
ing the highest elevation is the Pike's 
Peak road, Colorado. 

From an investor's standi)oint, the 
most interesting data in connection 
with all these enterprises is the fact 
that not in a single case have these 
railroads operated only for tourists. 

and on account (jf exceptional scenic 
attractions, ever failed to return hand- 
•soine dividends. Owing to climatic 
conditions the greater number of 
roads can onl}- lie operated a fraction 
of each year. The Mt. Washington 
road, for in.stancc. averages onl\- ten 
weeks each year. Its original cost 
was heavy, its running expenses are 
exceptionally great, while the cost of 
repairs, etc., are ver\- high. The 
immediate adjacent population at the of the range, and f(jr .several 
hundred miles art)und, is very limited. 

Hut notwithstanding all these .seri- 
I )us drawbacks it never distributes less 
than seventeen per cent of annual 
dividends. Fully thirty and .some- 
times as high as forty thousand people 
reaching the summits annually over 
this road. 

Tile latest official returns from the 
Mt. Rigi R. R., Switzerland, gi\"e a 
total net receipt of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars ($100,000). It carried 
one hundred and twenty-nine thou- 
.sand five hundred and ft)rt\-three pas- 
sengers, conveyed four hundred and 
fifty tons of passenger baggage, and 
one thou.sand two luuidrcd and fifty 
tons of other goods. Over four hun- 
dred thousand passengers are aninially 
carried between Pasadena and Los 

The Sierra Madre .summits, the 
highest eminence of which this rail- 
road will ultimately reach, are fre- 
quented with an annual tourist traffic 
in their ])re.sent inaccessible condition 
of six thousand as compared with the 













three thousand up the Mt. Washington 
prior to the buiklinj^ of that railroad, 
while as compared with the Swiss road 
referred to, the vSierra Madre range 
has a larger resident population on 
Its immediate base and adjacent valleys 
than the entire annual tourist traffic 
of Lucern, brought there by its chief 
attraction, the Mt. Rigi railroad. 

Madre and San Bernardino ranges, 
thence .spreading towards the valley 
and coast, aggregate two hundred 
thousand people and is rapidly in- 
creasing. This entire population is 
within less than four hours' railroad 
journey from the starting point of the 
road ; one-half of it is within a radius 
of forty-five minutes' travel. The city 

The Summit, showing Observatory Peak 

The journey up the Sierra Madre 
range under existing conditions is one 
of considerable effort and fatigue. 
But the views obtained are of such 
extent, variety and beauty as to induce 
the beholder to return again and 
again, notwithstanding mountain trails 
and all. 

The resident population, permanent- 
ly located at the base of the Sierra 

Vol. II.— T7 

of Los Angeles, with an approximate 
resident and transient population of 
severity thousand, is within thirty 
minutes' distance, while Pasadena with 
ten thousand people constitutes the 
base of operations of the company 
constructing the road. The city limits 
of Pasadena extending up to, and in- 
cluding the starting point of the 



Los Angeles and Pasadena constitute 
the central rallying points for a tourist 
traffic that has already assumed the 
dimensions of over one hundred thou- 
sand adult travelers a year. They 
represent the wealthiest and most 
cultured classes of our country and 
their number is ra]iidl\- increasing 
from year to year. This traffic 
alone would more than repay the con- 
struction and o])eration of tliis road, 
but, as stated, the resident ixipulalion 

of discriminating travelers among the 
resident population is exceptionally 

Europe, the United States, the 
Pacific Isles, the Japan and Asiatic 
ICmpiresin general, are familiar stamp- 
ing ground to a great number of our 
own ])e(Ji)le. Nevertheless, the en- 
thusiasm and interest that prevail 
over the attractions of our own Sierra 
Madre range, constitute for them an 
unfailing charm and is .something far 

Tiic l.n.>; r.irt\- on (lie Tr.iil 

itself being largeh- composed of a 
class who possess both the time to en- 
joy and the cultured appreciation of 
the opportunities presented, will be- 
come the permanent patrons of 
this enterprise, as well they might. 

The resident population is as stated 
an exceptionally intelligent one, en- 
gaged in the cultivation of oranges, 
lemons and other semi-tropic fruits, or 
in possession of permanent incomes 
from other .sources. The proportion 

more than merely "local pride." 
Contrary to many of the mountain 
views affi^rded the tran.scoutinental 
traveler, this semi-cre.^cent sweep of 
flit'- miles in length, approximating in 
its adjacent ranges an elevation of 
ten or eleven thousand feet, fulfills 
one's ideal of what a mountain range 
should be. The summits are often 
robed in the lofty splendor of snow- 
white mantles contrasting strongly 
with the permanent dark evergreen 

Silver Fall, fifteen minutes from Echo Moui.lain Housp 


26 = 

forests of the central ranges, while at 
the base, the odor of oranges and 
roses contend for precedence. This 
fragrance comes from the many or- 
chards and flower gardens constituting 
the outer garments, as it were, of the 
lower spur of the mountain. The 
range rises apparently almost perjx-n- 
dicular from the head of the beautiful 
San Gabriel Valley ; the ' ' Crown ' ' of 
which is Pasadena. Disguising a few 
of its most charming features to the 
mere casual beholder, it discloses to 

valleys, a kingdom by themselves in 
wealth and extent, stretches away to 
the, and south. In plain 
sight, like so many .semi-tropical isles, 
lies the beautiful deep emerald-colored 
orange groves of the colonies of San 
Gabriel, Monrovia, Pomona, Ontario, 
Rixerside, Rialto, San Bernardino and 
Redlands ; the last .some sixty miles 
off. Pasadena at our very base has 
been termed a ' ' conj.ervatory out of 
doors." It is all of that and more, for 
the beauty of a continuous garden 

Scene above the Clouds in the Sierra .\\adre from ine commit .V\ouniair Mouse 

its intimates a perfect treasury of 
varied attractions. Beautiful forest 
dells, bounding cascades, deep myste- 
rious canons, ideal waterfalls, acres 
of picturesque ferns, rivers full of 
speckled beauties, while level areas 
of forest reserves exist beyond the 
front summits, combining facilities for 
driving, hunting and fishing, equal 
to the best of the Adriondacks. 

The view from the Sierra Madre 
summits defies description. The his- 
toric San Gabriel and Lo: Angeles 

more than ten miles .square is matched 
with the exceptional culture and re- 
finement of the owners. 

On a perfectly still night, the chimes 
of the bells of the old San Gabriel 
Mission can be heard, the romantic 
traditions of which are singularly 
interesting. This old mi.^^sion in plain 
view is near the great vine^-ards of 
De Bartli Shorb. reputed to be among 
the largest in the world. The cele- 
brated Santa Anita, ' ' Lucky Baldwin's 
estate," is equally plainly seen. To 



the north the vSanta Barbara Islands 
lie like " opals on emerald seas." To 
the south is the far-famed Isle of 
Santa Catalina ; between t-iem and as 
far as the eye can define the horizon 
rolls the Pacific Ocean. The Catalina 
Isle is fifty-odd m' es off The ex- 
traordinary transparency of the atmos- 
phere prevailinu^ here is clearly 
understood by the fact that the various 
colors of the oval panes in the j.(reat 
lighthouse lantern located there are 

precipitous caiions, culminating in 
the ICaton Caiion. The slopes of 
these canons are all covered with fine 
forest growth, and will be made accessi- 
ble through a systematic extension of 
riding trails in all directions, convert- 
ing them into mountain parks. The 
roar (^f the rushing waterfalls of the 
upper San Gabriel River constitutes 
an ajipropriate deep basso to the sigh- 
ing of the whispering needle forests. 
To the east rises the Alpine summits 

Brenkinsr Ground tor the Cable Ruad Division on the bite of b^ho .^^^>u^ta.^ rr u?e 

plainh- visible at night i:i their alter- 
nating red, white and i)lue. In the 
daytime the houses and the shipping 
scenes of the harbor at Avakin are 
readily seen. Los Angeles, probably 
the most attractive city of its size in the 
Union, as well as one of the most 
enterprising, is ten miles 
seems barelv three miles 

active and 
away but 
To the 

immediate southwest the 

tr;;veler beholds a series of bold 

of San Antonio and San Bernardino 
mountains ; San Jacinto, chief lands- 
mark of San Diego County, aho looms 
into view. 

These well-nigh uniivaled natural 
attractions are, however, more than 
matched in importance with the ex- 
ceptional .scientific value attached to 
the climate and general atmospheric 
conditions. latter are as per- 
manent and superior as the former 
are grandly imposing in the literal 

















sense of that term. However, no en- 
largement on the importance attached 
to the situation from a scientific stand- 
point can equal the sim})le ainiounce- 
ment, that the president of Harvard, 
Prof. I'vliot, visited the scene in person 
but a few weeks ago. With a com- 
prehensive knowledge of all the 
requirements for astronomical observa- 
tions, he pronounced the Sierra Madre 

two important financial bequests, to 
be expended for .such purposes. The 
lenses for an obsen'atory that will 
equal, if not surpass, the Lick tele- 
scope — that is to say, the largest in the world — are ordered from 
the well-known Clark Brothers of 
Cambridge, Mass., and are now under 

The observatory will be supplied in 

Amons: the Ferns, twenty minutes from Echo Mountain House 

summits the peer of any known in the 
world for such purposes. 

This does not rest on mere theoreti- 
cal estimate, but is founded on the 
exceedingly high scientific value of 
celestial photographs and other astro- 
nomical results, obtained through the 
medium of an imperfectly equipped 
observatory-, stationed there as an 
experimental station. Harvard Uni- 
versit}' is the fortunate possessor of 

addition with the most perfect obtain- 
al)lc photographic telescope. Three 
thousand photographic views, taken 
under all the disadvantages of the 
former experimental station, proved 
all there is claimed for the location, 
and are an assurance as well of the 
future extraordinar>- usefulness of the 
new station. 

The facilities, however, required by 
the new obser\-ator>-, including resi- 




dences, etc., would be practically 
unattainable without railroad connnu- 
nication. A suitable wagon road could 
only be built after an expenditure 
equal to that of a railroad, while the 
latter is capable of many hundred per 
cent more lousiness, and will be oper- 
ated the year through. 

The Los Angeles Terminal Rail- 
road Company's lines at ])rLSL-nt 
extend to within two miks of the 
center of Rubio Canon. This cailon 
is at present reached i)y eas>' carriage 

the ^cnithern Hank, of the most con- 
spicuous ]:)romontory of the entire 
Sierra Madre Range, starting from 
the base of Rubif) Canon. This will 
consist of a double-tracked cable road, 
with balanced cars and safety appli- 
ances, and will be operated with a 
stationary electric motor, power being 
furnished Ijv a neighboring waterfall. 
This cable will be superior in strength 
and capacity to the (jue used on Mt. 
Vesuvius, the Island of Hong Kong 
and the Lookout Mountain, in Ten- 

U>^- > "^Z"' ',' 't. ,»' yH^ \ . 


« A I L w/ y 

drive of a little over two miles. The 
distance from the present last station 
on the Terminal System, Altadena, 
will be covered with an electric road. 
The railroad in (jueslion will then 
afford perfect means of lu)url\- com- 
munications between the sunnnit of 
the mountains, Pasadena, Los Angeles 
and the seashore, respectively, four, 
ten and thirl\- miles distant from 
Rubio Canon. 

The jiortion of the mountain 
road proper will be erected against 

nessee. Xo expense will be spared to 
make it I he safest and most perfectly 
ecjuipped cable road that engineering, 
.science and mechanics can supply. 

The i^assenger will be landed 
directly on the piazza of the Echo 
Mountain Hotel, after a brief ride 
aflording charming glimp.-^es of the 
canon to the right and the smiling 
valley to the left. The traveler is 
now at an elevation of about three 
thousand five hundred feet. 

From this point, the second divi- 

A Glimpse through the Sierras near the New KoaJ. 



sion of the road takes its start. The 
surveys for this have disclosed a line 
of less than seven-per-cent grade along 
natural ridges and curves clear to the 
highest summit desired. This grade 
admits of tlie construction, immedi- 
ately below the crests and in the face 
of the range it.self, of about six miles 
of road. These will be operated by 
electrical power, and supplied with 
the latest perfected cars specially 
designed to facilitate observation of 
mountain scenery, /. c, Pullman Pal- 
ace cars, " double deckers." 

At the end of this route, and on its 
highest crest, the second hotel will be 
erected, which, like the first, will be 
operated on the plans of a strictly 
first-class house. A short distance 
from this summit will also be the 
location of the obser\'atory referred to, 
the homes of resident professors, 
shown in the accompanying cut. 

The location of this very valuable 
grade involved long, continued and 
expensive efforts. It is ])elieved that 
the final construction of the road 
along the designated route will become 
an important landmark in mountain 
railroading in this Stale, more espe- 
cially the southern half of California. 
The average elevation of the last por- 
tion of the journey will be nearly six 
thousand feet. From this elevation, 
further extension of the railroad on 
the mountain plateau becomes com- 
paratively easy, when so desired. 

It is interesting in connection with 
this description of the facilities that 
will be afforded the traveler in the 
mountain ranges proper, to note the 
constantly increasing travel, that will 
act as a direct feeder to the road 
herein referred to. The two great 
transcontinental I'ailroad systems, re- 
spectively, the ' ' Santa Fe ' ' and the 
' ' Southern Pacific, ' ' make Los An- 
geles their joint terminal point for 
Southern California travel. The 
Pacific Coast tourist traffic from the 
North and Fast, witli Chicago as a 
central point, here meets the Southern 
tourists, with New Orleans as a base 
of departure. These in turn are 

joined here by the constantly increas- 
ing number of well-to-do travelers 
from Northern California, including 
San I'>ancisco, Oregon, vState of Wash- 
ington, British Columbia, Montana 
and I(lah(i, bent on a " winter <juting." 

This traffic, combined with local 
trav^el, already demands an average of 
fifty trains a day, ten of which are 
"through" trains, the remainder 
"local." The immense business of 
discharging and receiving this traffic 
is dispatched within an area of less 
than one square mile in the Eastern 
division of L,os Angeles. Crossing 
and recrossing the tracks of both of 
these great railroad systems, and with 
the depot in the center of it all, are 
the local passenger cars of the ' ' Ter- 
minal Railroad" Companj-. It fur- 
nishes about sixteen trains a day out 
to and return from Pasadena, and as 
the reader will bear in mind, this 
' ' Terminal ' ' road for operating pur- 
poses is practically identical with the 
mountain railroad proper. It will be 
seen from the above that this moun- 
tain railroad is part and parcel of an 
artery that directly touches the ven- 
central pulse of through and local 
traffic of the entire south — half of this 
great State. 

As a traveler by sea will sometime 
discover that what he took at first to 
be the mainland was in reality an 
i.sland, .so close to the shore as not to 
be distinguished from the coast line 
proper, luitil within speaking distance 
of the occupants ; so there stands out 
from the very heart of the main boun- 
dary lines of the Sierra Madre ranges, 
a semi-detached cone-formed emi- 
nence ; it invites attention by its 
conspicuous position, and repels the 
adventurous traveler by its bold, pre- 
cipitous sides. 

Its immediate base has constituted 
a landmark for the South Pacific 
Coast navigators as far back as his- 
tory- goes. Its hundreds of acres of 
the deep, ffaming orange poppy being 
distinctly visible fifty miles out at 
sea. hence the name " Los Flores " or 
" Cape Floral." 

Mount PiLUus. 



Its summit is found to reach an 
elevation of three thousand five hun 
dred feet. If the dignity of the sub- 
ject would admit of it, one might use 
the comparison of a gigantic soup- 
bowl, turned Ixjttom side u]), as 
giving a clear-cut outline of this 

It has long been the object of close 
scrutiny, as well as admiration for its 
pictures(]ueness, by tlie chief promoter 
of this great enterprise. It has l)ccn 
taken captive, bttt only after a most 
persistent siege, and joint efforts of 
capital and scientific engineering .skill 
of high order. On its green crest 
there can be clearly discerned for 
many miles down the valley a bold 
front line of white tents. These are 
the temporary homes of the advance 
guard of the invaders, preparing the 
way for the army to follow. 

In the center of the camp, in true 
conqueror's style, waves a beautiful 
banner, clearly visil)le througli a spy- 
glass from the \-allc)- below. 

This encampment of engineers and 
workmen is destined to speedily give 
wa}' to the foundations for the Echo 
Mountain House. Its position on this 
crest will not only be commanding, 
but strictly picturesque. The design 
of the structure will be found else- 
where on these pages. The many 
attractions within immediate reach of 
the sojourner will, it is believed, tend 
to make this one of the most popular 
points on the entire route, and in time 
the situation will create a mountain 
village of its own. For certain com- 
plaints, such as asthma, etc., this ele- 
vation is known to be highly 
beneficial. It is below the snow and 
frost of the higher ranges, and above 
the occasional fogs and dampness of 
the lower valley areas. Now and 
then, drifting lianks of clouds, resem- 
bling a white .sea, roll cn^er the lower 
ranges, partially hiding the land- 
scapes, 3'et leaving enough exposed to 
fo.ster the delusion that iM-ojecting 
crags are island peaks, while the 
canons adjacent are so many harbors 
and bav inlets. 

Every .sound of the numerous trains, 
the loco!notive whistles, and the 
church and .school bells, the lowing 
of the herds, the baying of the hounds, 
and the huntsman's rifle, all rise on the 
soft air, and, mingling witli the .song of 
the lark along the green ridge, greet 
the dweller's ear from sunrise to suu- 

h'rom the verandas of the Echo 
Moiuitain one may look down 
on the residences of such distinguished 
Pasadena citizens as the Hon. Joseph 
Medill, liditor Chicago '/'rihunc ; 
Andrew McXally, of the prominent 
firm. Rand, McNally & Co., Chicago ; 
Col. G. O. Green, A. C. Armstrong, 

These tasteful homes with their 
orange orchards and perpetual gardens 
of June roses, are located immediately 
on the lower of the promontorj' 
on the of which Echo Mountain is located. 

They are mentioned here, because 
both the occupants and the charming 
\illas and gardens are typical of the 
larger Pasadena just l^eyondand below, 
and some further di.stance away towards 
the centre of the City of Pasadena 

The precipitous front of the Echo 
Mountain, rising boldly two thou- 
-sand feet directly opposite the rear 
portion of the hotel, half a mile across 
the canon, but connected with the 
Echo Mt)untain House grotnids 
throtigh easy trails, does not only 
repeat one's challenge, but duplicates 
and returns one's sayings, wise and, many times over. It will 
" talk back," more emphatically and 
di.stinctly than any official of the cen- 
tral telephone station was ever known 

On cither .side are picturesque cas- 
cades, canons, numerous ferny and 
forest dells, while opportunities for 
the sportsman or the scientific inquirei 
abound. The superb views, already 
referred to where, never pale on 
one. The ceaseless interplay of 
shadow and light at sunrise and sun- 
set, has the effect of constantly en- 










hap.ciug as well as chaiiginj^ llie aspect 
presented, as if the Supreme Architect 
Himself was evolving an ever- 
renewing panorama of ocean, moun- 
tains and valleys. If such a term as 
the "Temple of Nature," is permis- 
sible anywhere, it is applicable to the 
valley spread out for the beholder 
stationed at the Kcho Mountain House. 
If the walls of this finely proportioned 
structure should seem to demand 
friezes i;i i)ure white, it is supplied in 
the million snowy swans, cranes, etc., 
often seen '.o move towards the green 
mountain siopes to the Northward. 
The sininilar charm in their move- 
ments lies in the immense numbers 
deploying themselves in the most nat- 
ural, yet artistic groupings. 

The alternating charms of the day 
are succeeded by such moonlight 
nights as has made the Alhambra of 
Spain the synonym for all there is 
poetical and picturesque in the whole 
of I^atin Kurope. The Spanish Mis- 
sion fathers knew instinctively when 
they first saw these charming valleys, 
that this radiant sun.shine of the day 
would be succeeded by nights lit by a 
moon that would recreate all the old, 
passionate romances of Spain and 
Italy, and add a fresh and potent 
spell to the old world guitar under porches ; and it did. 

All these factors, and others too 
numerous to mention, will combine to 
make the Echo Mountain House the 
nucleus of a future minor edition of 
Pasadena of which it is a legitimate 
ofispring. There is abundance of 
water, and more will be obtained. 
The whole promontory on all sides 
abounds in fertile disiutergrated gran- 
ite soil. Orange and lemon groves 
are out of the question on account of 
elevation, but olives, and all varieties 
of deciduous fruits, such as peaches, 
apricots, pears, apples, cherries, etc., 
are sure to thrive. Nearly all the 
flowers of the valley will prosper. It 
is true the slopes are steep, buj: the 
more picturesque will be the gardens 
that are to be terraced there. There 
are no more charming or productive 

Vol. II.— iS 

vineyards in Kun^pe than up 
the slopes of Vesuvius, or these seem- 
ingly suspended orchards and vine- 
yards on the Icjwer spur of Mt. Blanc, 
along the i)recipit(jus shores of Lake 
Geneva . 

It is a well-established trait of 
human nature that mankind will pay 
more for the pleasures of life than its 
nece.ssities, and to this unvarying fac- 
tor ma>- be attributed the uniform 
highly profitable returns from all of 
these ; and surely lio purer 
and more l:)eneficial recreations can be 
conceived of than provided for 
in this manner. It appeals at once to 
the taste and the imagination of the 
great number of cultivated travelers, 
the true, the geologist, the botan-, and above all, to the astronomer. 
It is well known to European tourists 
that the hotels on Rigi Kulm and Mt. 
Pilatus are among the most elaborate 
hostelries in Europe. They would 
not be thus equipped but for the 
extraordinary patronage they enjoy 
during their brief season. 

A corresponding enterprise, devoted 
to the comfort of tourist travel on sea, 
are tlie elegantly constructed steamers, 
a small fleet of which ply annually 
between the coast of Norway and 
London and Hull, England. 

For three months the traffic is very 
heavy across the North Sea. That it 
is a profitable one, is readily seen from 
the quality of accommodations fur- 
nished. There is no finer etjuipped 
steamboat service in Europe. 

Los Angeles and Pasadena are the 
geographical and social centers of a 
tourist region that is rapidly becoming 
to the North American Continent all 
and far more, than Switzerland ever 
has been to Europe at large. The 
Swiss summer season is confined 
within the limits of three months : 
this is the brief time within which the 
heavy dividends of the roads are 
earned. vSouthern California, on the 
other hand, enjoys five months of an 
ideal .spring sea.sou, lasting from Jan- 
uary to the close of May : months in 
which days succeed each other so per- 



feet that some future Lowell of Cali- 
fornia will ask : " What is as rare as 
a day in Fcbruar}- ? ' ' 

The bulk of the hundred thousand 
travelers that come here to these val- 
leys to enjoy those very days, will no 
more leave the coast without takinj^ a 
journey up into the Sierra Madre 
Mountains that they see beckoning 
them from all directions, than the 
vSwiss tourist will omit a trip np the 
Rigi Kulm or Mt. Pilalus. lint the 
winter settles down on those Alpine 
summits and all is quiet till another 
June. Note the contrast — our vSouthern 
California winter is a prolonged spring, 
the most perfect perliai)S vouchsafed 
the world anywhere. Then the sum- 
mer opens. The resident Californians 
do not find it necessary to go else- 
where for the summer season ; the 
.seashore or the mountain in\ites him 
in close proximity to his regular pur- 
suit and interests. There are tvv^o 
hundred thousand of these residents 
as already .stated, than which none 
appreciate the charm of mountains 
more than they. They can be relied 
on as permanent patrons of this rail- 
road. The easy means of connnuni- 
cations will vuidoubtedly lead to the 
erection of numerous private cottages 
in the hotel grounds, more especiall}^ 
})erliaps, of the Kcho Mountain House 
on the part of Los Angeles and Pasa- 
dena business men. It will be seen 
that this railroad differs 
from the European and American mountain roads in the a// 
/ mpo rfa ?i i particxilav of being open the 
year through. The direct and indi- 
rect advantages that accrue to any 
region frequented by wealthy tourists 
in great number, are too obvious to be 
enlarged on. Insbruk, Tyrol, Lucern, 
and Interlaken, vSwitzerland, Nice, 
and other tourist centers prove this 
beyond controvers}-. 

So important indeed are these 
interests that several governments of 
Europe have created special bureaus, 
that make the tourist travel their 
.special business with a view of foster- 
ing and increasing the .'^ame. 

The high renown enjoyed by Eos 
Angeles and Pasadena as the most 
attractive winter resorts on the Con- 
tinent, will be equaled and duplicated 
by their reputation as summer resorts, 
through the establishment of this 
mountain railroad. 

The Eick Ob.ser\-atory, perched on 
the summit of Mt. Hamilton, has 
proved a most valuable accessory to 
the renown and business interest of 
vSan Jose. The Harvard Olxservatory 
that will be erected adjacent to the 
terminus of this road, will do as much 
iiud more for these two sister cities. 
More than anything that has occurred 
since this plateau was endowed with 
its climate and scenery, will it tend to 
draw here a .scholarly and wealthy 
class of residents. Harvard's sons 
are numerous and will come here to 
see what their old Ahfia JMater is 

The first section of this road it is con- 
fidentl}' expected will be completed to 
the Ivcho Moiuitain House by the 
early autumn ; ex'ery effort is being 
put forward to advance the work. A 
large force of men are employed on 
the preparation of the grade. The 
iron, cables, etc., are contracted for 
and will be put in their places as soon 
as completed. 

The construction of the .second, or 
Electrical Mountain Railroad division 
from Echo Mcmntain to the 
summit, will follow the completion of 
the cable without delay. 

The journey from Echo Mountain 
House to Summit Hotel can be ac- 
complished in forty-five minutes. 
Arriving there, one may, without 
stepping aside from the paths made 
around the house and the adjacent 
premises, have the privileges to view 
scenes that many pronounced equal, 
and others superior, to anything that 
the Yosemite Valley has to offer. 
The most impressive and picturesque 
canons in these mountain ranges open 
out before the beholder, in their entire 
dimensions, like .so many ante-cham- 
bers of the hidden wealth of the 
Mountain Monarch. The Arrovo 



Seco, the Grand Caiaou, Eatou and 
San Gabriel Canons are all in plain 
view, and the visitor may well say 
that he commands the impossible, for 
he can enjoy a sleigh ride at Christ- 
mas, pick strawberries and oranges, 
and bask in the Pacific, all in one 
forenoon — suggestive of the possibili- 
ties of the Golden State. 

It is confidently believed that no 
other journey on the globe of less than 
an hour's duration, will equal the one 
indicated in these pages, in the diver- 
sity and delicac}^ of exquisite land- 
scape effects thrown directly against 
the background of majestic and rugged 
mountain scenery. Again the whole 
scene is brought into the closest human 
touch, by being on one side the theatre 
of the most authentic traditions and 
charming romances of the whole 
Pacific Coast ; while, on the other 
hand, it also furnishes the ideal point 

of vantage for the latest and most con- 
summate triumphs of scientific acu- 
men ; i. c, the geographical and 
mathematical explorations of the 
planets, and perhaps the making of 
charts as well, by which some future 
navigator of the clouds will direct his 
course in the upper spheres. 

To the real artists of our land, who 
desire to identify their future name 
and fame with this veritable Italy 
under the stars and stripes, no nobler 
opportunity was ever offered. Re- 
lieved from needless fatigue and 
exposure, surrounded with all the com- 
forts of a first-class hotel, and scarcely 
needing to step off from the verandas, 
he has before him in a perfect epitome, 
all the landscape grandeur, as well as 
atmospheric effects, that has immor- 
talized valley and mountain on the 
great Mediterranean peninsula on 

, ' <» -^_ >~ 

Car to be usoJ (in tlie Ml. Wilson R.iilroaJ 




THERK is no other city in the Union 
that contributes more liberally to 
tlic support of the Free Public 
School System, in which all true Amer- 
ican citizens feel a pardonable pride, 
than San Francisco. The standard of 
scholarship is higher here than it is in 
the Fast, and teachers receive better 
salaries. The highest average salary 
is paid to teachers, at the greatest 
cost per pupil. The maximum, animal 
salary of primary school teachers in 
San Francisco is nine hundred and 
sixty dollars ; in New York, nine 
hundred dollars, and in Boston, eight 
hundred and sixteen dollars. The 
total expenditure per pupil, in average 
daily attendance, is twenty-nine dollars 
and thirty-two cents, in San Francisco; 
twenty-eight dollars and .seventy cents, 
in Chicago ; twenty-eight dollars and 
twenty-three cents, in Boston, and 
thirteen dollars and seventy-four cents 
— the lowest — in Philadelphia. 

In scholar.ship and general profes- 
sional ability, the San Franci-sco 
teachers are fully equal to their asso- 
ciates in the Fast, but the political 
sj'stem, under which they are ap- 
pointed by partisan and oftentimes 
unscrupulous Boards of Education, 
is detrimental to the Department of 

For the fiscal year ending June 
30th, 1 891, the total receipts of the 
San Francisco School Department were 
one million and fifty-three thousand, 
six hundred and nine dollars and 
seventy-nine cents, of which sum five 
hundred and .seventy-six thousand 
seven hundred and sixty-six dollars and 
forty-seven cents came from the state, 
and four hundred and .seventy thousand 
three hundred and forty-nine dollars 
and thirty-nine cents from the city. 

The sum expended in payment of 
teachers' salaries was seven hundred 

and .seventy thousand five hundred and 
fort^'-eight dollars and eighty-nine 
cents ; of janitors' salaries, forty-seven 
thousand three hundred and fifty-two 
dollars and eighty-five cents ; of .shop 
salaries, .seven thousand nine hun- 
dred and two dollars and sixty-five 
cents ; and of office salaries six 
thousand six hundred and ninety- 
.seven dollars. There were in the 
employ of the Public School De- 
partment, last August, seventy-four 
principals, twenty-four vice-principals 
and .seven hundred and eighty-one 
assistants, making a total of eight 
hundred and seventy-nine teachers. 
The schools have an average daily at- 
tendance of thirty-one thousand eight 
hundred and nine, and a total enroll- 
ment of forty-three thousand six 
hundred and twenty-six pupils. The 
school census, children, between the 
ages of five and seventeen years, num- 
bered last year, sixty-two thousand 
four hundred and fifty-six. There 
were -seventy-three schools and the 
property of the Department was valued 
at four million seven hundred and 
ninet3--eight thousand, four hundred 
and twenty-seven dollars. 

Sevent>'-seven buildings were occu- 
pied as schools, of which number ten 
were rented and the remaining sixty- 
seven (six brick and sixty-one wooden) 
owned by the Department. The growth 
of our schools is continuous and each 
succeeding year witnesses an increase 
in the roll of teachers and pupils. 
The expenses also grow proportion- 
ately greater and the estimate of the 
Finance Committee of the Board of 
Education for the ensuing fi.scal year 
calls for eight hundred and thirty-five 
thousand seven hundred dollars for 
teachers' salaries, forty-eight thousand 
one hundred dollars for janitors, eight 
thousand two hundred and eighty 



dollars for shop and seven thousand 
six hundred and twenty dollars for 
office salaries. 

The schools are classified as pri- 
mary, grammar, evening, commercial 
and high schools, and in their organ- 
ization and courses of study are simi- 
lar to the schools of Boston and 
Chicago. They aim at the moral, 
intellectual and physical education of 

two years, but the Superintendent's 
term is for four years and he is em- 
powered to appoint a Deputy Super- 
intendent and a Secretary. Directors 
F. A. Hyde, the President, E. E. 
Ames, Max Brooks, J. H. Culver, S. 
E. Dutton, John J. Dunn, Dr. C. W. 
Decker, John I. Sabin, Daniel Sewell, 
Frank J. French, Thomas P, Wood- 
ward and Geo. \V. Pennington con- 

Superintendent John Swett 

pupils, who are thus prepared for the 
duties of citizenship and practical life. 
Teachers can be degraded or dismissed 
only for incompetency, immorality, 
or improfessional conduct, and in con- 
sequence hold, virtually, in their places 
a life tenure. 

The schools are governed by a 
Board of Fklucation (consisting of 
twelve Dircctors)and a Superintendent. 
The School Directors are elected everv 

stitute the present Board of Education. 
E. E. Ames is chairman of the Innance 
Committee, Max Brooks of the Classi- 
fication Committee, Frank J. French 
of the Connnittce on Qualifications of 
Teachers, John J. Dnnii of the Build- 
ings and Grounds Committee, Dr. C. 
VV. Decker of the Salaries Conunittee, 
vS. E. Dutton of the Supplies Com- 
mittee, John I. vSabin of the Rules 
Committee, Thomas P. Woodward 

Joseph O'Connor, ^ James G. KenneJv. 

Vrincipal oi the Horace ISIann School rrincipal of Franklin Grammar School 

Sallie A. Riffhtmire. 
Principal of Kmerson Primary 

James T. Hamilton .Wr. A. L. Mann 

Principal of the Lincoln Grammar School Principal of Denman Grammar Schooi 



of the Judiciar}- Committee, Daniel 
Sewell of the Printing Committee, J. 
H. Culver of the Msiting Committee, 
and George \V. Pennington of the 
Janitors' Committee. 

The CitN' Board of Examination, 

possesses the exclusive power to ex- 
amine applicants and grant teachers' 

J. G. Carr is the head carpenter of 
the Department, and C. F. Metzner 
the storekeeper. 

F. A. Hyde. I'rcsiJciit Board of bducation 

composed of vSuperintcndent vSwett, 
Chairman, Miss vS. A. Rightmire. 
Miss Bessie Dixon and Messrs. T. I v. 
Kennedy and R. I). Faulkner, is an 
adjunct to the Board of lulucation, hut 

I'. A. Hyde, the President of the 
Board of Education, is forty-four 
years of age and a native of New 
York. For the twenty-six years, 
he has been a resident of San T'ran- 

Frank- A\orton. 
Principal ol ISoys' lliijli School 
A. H. MacDonaUI. Elisha Brooks. 

I'nncipal of Lincoln Evening School I'riiicipal of Girls' High School 

W. N. Bush, Miss Laura T. Fowler. 

rniicipal o! Commercial School Principal of Normal Department of Girls' High School 



cisco. He is a land lawyer, in which 
business he has been activeh' engaged 
ever since his arrival in this city. In 
January, 1891, Mr. Hyde took his 
seat as a member of the Board of 
Education, and in October, upon the 
resignation of John I. Sabin, he was 
elected President. From the time 
of his connection with the Depart- 
ment, ]\Ir. Hyde has exhibited a 

being a mem1)er of the Pacific-Union, 
Bohemian, and Union League Clubs. 
A graceful speaker and an able par- 
liamentarian, his administration has 
been characterized by a spirit of 
invariable dignity and honesty. 

John Swett, the Superintendent of 
Sciiools, is a veteran educator, who is 
loved and respected by thousands of 
teachers and former pupils. For 

Albert Lyser. F^rincipal John Swett Grammar School 

lively interest in the work and prog- 
ress of our public schools, and b\- 
familiarizing him.self with the various 
educational and business details of the 
Department, and conscientiously dis- 
charging hisdut\-, he has succeeded in 
winning the confidence of the teachers 
and the approval of his a.s.sociates. He 
is a man of exceptionally pleasing man- 
ners, refined tastes and a social nature, 

nian\- long years, he has been closely 
identified with the pnblic .schools of 
this city and slate. He is sixty-two 
years of age and a native of Pittsfield, 
New Hampshire'. In 1S52, he came 
to California, and after a brief mining 
experience, accepted an apj)ointment 
as teacher in llie Rincon scliool, 
which was Urii held in a shanty at 
tlie corner of lM)lsoin and iMrst streets. 

Dr. C. W. Decker, 
Chairman oi tlie Salaries CoiiuiiitLcc 

Jno. .1. Dunn. 
Cliairntan ot llic lluiUliiigs and (iroiiiuls Comiiiittcc 


J. H. Culver. 
CliainiKUi of the Visitinji Coininittee 

n. E. Ames. 
Chairman of the l-'inaiice Conuiiiltee 

P.iniol Sewell, 
Chairnian of the Printiiii; Committee 

F. J. French, 
Chairman of the yualifications of Teachers Coiumittee 



and had but forty pupils enrolled. 
The school was removed in 1S54 to a 
leased building in Hampton Place, 
where it was contiinied until 1S61, 
when the enrollment having increased 
to eight hundred, it was again 
changed to its present home in Silver 
street. In 1862, Mr. Swett resigned 
as principal of the Rincon school, and 
was elected vState vSuperintendent of 
Public Instruction, the term being 
for but one year ; he was re-elected in 

-Mr. vSwett there remained until 1876. 
lie was then elected principal of the 
Girls' High School, where he con- 
tinued for thirteen consecutive years, 
until 1889, when he resigned and re- 
tired to his country home in Martinez. 
A year later, he was recalled from his 
retirement and elected by an over- 
whelming majority to the honorable 
and responsible office which he now 

Conscientious in hi.s attention to 

A Recitation in Science in the John Swett Cirammar School 

1863, this time for four j-ears. Dur- 
ing his term he drafted what is now, 
virtually, the school law of California. 
In 1868, he succeeded James Denman 
as principal of the Denman Grammar 
School, corner of Bush and Taylor 
streets, and in 1871 was ai)])ointed 
Deputy vSuiierintendcnt of Schools 
under vSuperintendent J. H. Widber, 
who is now City Treasurer. Resum 
ing, in 1873, the principalship of the 
Denman school, Mr. Denman having 
been elected Superintendent of Schools, 

duty and surprisingly active for a man 
of his years, with a reputation for 
stainless integrity, Mr. Swett may 
reflect with pride upon his long career 
and public .services in the of 
education. Madi.son Babcock, the 
Deputy vSuiK-rintendent of vSchools, is 
an experienced educator, who cor- 
dially seconds the administration of 
his superior. Mr. Babcock resigned 
as ])rincipal of the Sacramento High 
vSchool to accept an appointment as 
Deputy under James W. Anderson, 





who was then the Superintendent. 
Upon the accession of Superintendent 
Swett, in January, 1890, he retained 
Mr. Babcock. 

George Beanston, the vSecretary of 
the Board of Education, is forty -seven 
years of age and a native of Scotkmd. 
He has resided in vSan Francisco ever 
since July, 1853. In January, 1863, 
he was employed in the office of the 
Secretar}' of the Board of Education 

In January, 1887, he was appointed 
Secretary l)y Superintendent J. W. 
Anderson and was continued in office 
1)>' Superintendent Swett upon his ac- 
cession in January, 1891. 

Long experience has given Mr. 
IJeanston a familiarity with the nu- 
merous and complicated details of the 
Department. An expert accountant, 
a zealous custodian of the records, 
and ever courteous to all witli whom 

A ['rimarv Clnss Room 

in the capacity of office boy. He was 
soon promoted to a clerkshi]^ and 
in October, 1868 was a]-)pointed 
Secretary by Superintendent Denmau. 
In January, 1883, during the incum- 
bency of vSuperintendent A. J. Moul- 
der, he was succeeded by J. T. 
McGeoghagan and for two years was 
engaged in commercial business. He 
re-entered the Department in Janu- 
ary, T885, l)eing elected by the Board 
of liducation as an Assistant SecretarN-. 

he comes in contact, Mr. Beanston's 
administration has been satisfactory, 
alike to his superiors and the public. 

He is ably assisted by George W. 
Wade and I. J. Aschlieim, Assi.stant 
Secretaries ; Iv 15. Bullock, book- 
keeper ; Miss M. 1<\ Cusick, ste- 
nographer ; and iM'auk W. Yale, 

There are now in the Department 

three high schools; viz.: the Boys' 

' High School, the Girls' High School 



and the Cogswell Mission High 
School. The grammar schools feed 
them and their graduates are admit- 
ted either to the Unix'ersity of Cali- 
fornia or the Iceland Stanford Jr. 
University, without examination. 
For several mouths past, since the 
resignation of Mrs. Mary W. Kincaid, 
the Girls' High vSchool has been with- 
out a principal, but in May last Hlislia 
Brooks, principal of the Cogswell, was 
elected b}' the Board of Hdtication to 
fill the vacancy. He will assvune the 
duties of his new position at the open- 
ing of the next term, Jtily nth, 1892. 
Then, the Cogswell, the lease having 
expired, will be abandoned by the 
Department and revert to the control 
of the P,oard of Trustees. The Boys' 
High School is, in a strict .sense, mis- 
named, since the principle of co-edu- 
cation there prevails, and it has 
enrolled almost as many girls as boys. 
Near the of 1889 the building 
occupied by the Girls' High School, 
at the corner of Bush and Hvde 
streets, was burned. The sttidents 
since then have been accoi:imodated 
in one building or another, but have 
been without any suitable or perma- 
nent home. It will not be for long, 
however, as the handsome and com- 
modious three-story brick building, 
in Scott street, between Geary and 
O'Farrell .streets, will soon be com- 
pleted. The cost is estimated at one 
hundred and fort)' thousand dollars. 
It will contain an as.sembly hall, a 
library, recitation, .science and art 
rooms and chemical and physical la- 
boratories, besides twelve class rooms. 
Five hundred .students can easily be 
accommodated. The equipments will 
be complete and the building will be 
the finest in the Department. 

For its high grade of scholarship, 
advanced methods of in.struction and 
thoroughness, the Boys' High School 
holds a prominent place among the 
secondary .schools of the state. The 
aim of its course of sttid^- is officially 
declared to be " to prepare our pujiils 
for active life, teach them .self-control, 
train their judgment, inculcate in them 

good business habits, give them cul- 
ture and refinement and make them 
useful and intelligent citizens." 
There are three parallel courses, each 
leading to a diploma and each three 
>ears long. The cla.ssical course Latin, Greek, English, 
history, mathematics and drawing. 

The Latin-scientific course is like 
the classical, except that physics and 
chemistry are .substituted for Greek 
and an increased degree of study is 
recpiired in linglish. The .scientific 
course differs from the Latin-seientific 
in that additional .sciences, mathe- 
matics, Knglish and drawing are re- 
(juired in place of Latin. German or 
French, or ])erhaps both, will prob- 
abh- soon be added to the scientific 
course. The .senior year, in all, 
will contain, besides equivalent, op- 
tional studies in Cierman. French and 
selections from other courses. This 
liljeralit}- of choice gives the .students 
greater freedom in choosing their uni- 
versity than is enjoyed by the 
students in any other .secondary 
school devoting an equal time to the 
.studies taught. The enrollment of 
the Boys' High School includes three 
hundred and twent\-five boys and 
two hundred girls. 

Frank Morton, the principal, is a 
graduate of Dartmouth, class of 1880. 
He began to teach in the East and 
has been in his })resent position since 
the resignation of James K. Wilson in 
1888. Professor Morton wrote the 
arithmetic in the California State 
Series. He is a geiitleman of schol- 
arly tastes and acquirements and an 
excellent disciplinarian. Under his 
admini.stration, the Boys' High School 
has been a gratifying .success. 

A. K. Kellogg is the vice-j^rincipal. 
He is also at the head of the English 
Department. A graduate from the 
University of Iowa, with twenty 
years' experience in teaching, he is 
ranked as an exceptionally able edu- 
cator. Formerly he was vice-princi- 
pal of the Oakland High School and 
has also been Superintendent of Schools 
of Mono Countv. 



At the head of the Mathematical 
Department is J. L. Crittenden, a 
graduate of the University of Cali- 
fornia and the Hasting' s Law College. 
His experience as a teacher covers a 
period of some seventeen \-ears, he 
having taught successfully in the 
schools of Sacramento, Oakland and 
San Jose. He has been in the Boys' 
High vSchool since 1888. 

C. M. Walker, who is at the head of 
the Classical Department, reads Greek 
and Latin with as 
much facility as he 
does English. He 
is a graduate of 
Bowdoin, class of 
1873. For sixteen 
3-ears. (1873-1889) 
he was principal of 
the Oak Mound 
(preparator>- ) 
School for boys at 
Napa, where he 
was also County 
Superintendent of 
Schools for a term 
of three years. He 
has held his posi- 
tion in the Boys' 
High School for 
the past three years 
to the full sati.sfac- 
tion of the principal 
and the students. 

The Science De- 
partment is presid- 
ed over by A. T. 
Winn, a Harvard 
graduate, class of 
1859, who has been connected with 
the I'lOys' High vSchool for the ]iast 
twenty-five years. 

F. H. Clark is at the head of the 
Hi.story Department. He graduated 
from the University of California in 
1882 and in 1S86 took the degree of 
A. M. For three years past, he has 
l)een in the Boys' High vSchool. lu)rm- 
erly he was i)rincipal of the Los 
Angeles High vSchool. 

Miss Lillie J. Martin, the vice- 
principal of the Girls' High vSchool, 
is also at tlie head of the Science 

is a graduate of 

A\rs, .\'. R. Craven, Princip;il Missicm Orainmar School 

Department. She 
Vassar College. 

Miss Fidelia Jewett is at the head of 
the ]\Lithematical Department, Miss 
Helen j\L Thompson of the English 
Department, Mrs. Mary Prag of the 
History Department and Miss Cathe- 
rine Wilson of the Classical Depart- 
ment. The enrollment is about five 

A leading feature of the Girls' 
High School is its Normal Department 

ably presided over 
by Miss Laura T. 
Fowler. She is a 
pioneer teacher 
having been in the 
continuous service 
of the Public School 
Department for the 
past thirty years. 
A graduate of Pack- 
er College, New 
York, she came to 
California in 1862, 
since when she has 
arduously devoted 
profession. Enter- 
ing the Lincoln 
Grammar vSchool as 
an assi.stant, she 
was promoted to be 
vice - principal o f 
the Cosmopolitan 
School, just then 
established. At a 
later date, she be- 
came vice-principal 
of the Horace 
Mann, (then called the Valencia) 
Grammar vSchool. Subseciuentlv, she 
made an excellent record as principal 
of the Mission Grammar School. At 
the exj^iration of ten years, she was 
elected l)y the Board of Ivducation as 
Ins])ectress of Schools, a post re([uiring 
botli tact and ability. Miss Fowler 
was fully e([Uid to the occasion and at 
the end of si.x years' conscientious ser- 
vice, she had won fresh laurels. For 
tlie ])asl three years, she has been in 
her ]')resent resjionsible position as 
jirincipal of the Normal Department 



of the Girls' High School, llcr es- 
pecial duty is to prepare students for 
the profession of teaching, a task for 
which she is well (qualified. 

The Cogswell Polytechnic College 
was not designed to teach trades but to 
give the boys and girls of California 
a practical training in the mechanical 
and industrial arts. It was leased jjy 
the Board of Trustees, in August, 
1889, for three years, to the Public 
School Department, since which time 
it has been styled the Cogswell Mis- 
sion High School. The of 
study extends through three years 
and graduates are awarded diplomas, 
which will admit them either to the 
University of California or to the 
lycland Stanford Jr. University. The 
carpenter shop, the blacksmith shop 
and the art department are leading 
features of the gchool. In the carpen- 
ter shop students are instructed in wood 
turning, etc. They are supplied with 
complete sets of tools and the shop is 
equipped wdth lorty work benches and 
forty lathes, the machinery being 
operated by a forty-five horse-power 
engine. The blacksmith shop contains 
thirty-five forges and anvils, sledge 
hammers, etc., and is similarly oper- 
ated, every pains being taken to make 
the instruction practical. Clay mod- 
eling and wood carving are taught in 
the art department which is intended 
especially for the benefit of girls. 
Designs for the ornamentation of wall 
paper, etc., and the modeling of busts 
from life receive special attention. At 
the Mechanics' Fair of 1S91, the 
Cogswell students were awarded sev- 
eral diplomas and medals. The en- 
rollment averages three hundred. 

Elislia Brooks, the principal, has 
had a varied experience, and may 
truthfully be termed a self-educated 
man. He is fifty-one years of age 
and a native of !NIichigan. When a 
boy, he came across the plains to 
California, and before he was of age 
had served his time as miner, former, 
teamster and hunter. His early edu- 
cation was obtained in the common 
schools. He began teaching at Enter- 
Vol. II— 19, a mining town on Feather 
river. In 1864, he enlisted in the 
ICighth California Infantry, was com- 
missicMicda lieutenant in a few months 
and, in October, 1S65, was mustered 
out. After the war, he taught mathe- 
matics and science for .seven years in 
the Urban Academy of this city. He 
was elected in July, 1S75, as vice- 
principal of the Washington Grammar 
School. Four years later, he was 
cho.sen principal of the PVanklin 
Grammar School, where he remained 
until July, 1891, when he resigned to 
enter the Cogswell. Mr. Brooks was 
treasurer of the California Academy of 
Sciences for nineteen years. Botany 
is his pet study. He is a member of 
the George H. Thomas Post of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. His 
history proves him to be an able edu- 
cator and disciplinarian. 

The Commercial School was estab- 
lished in 1884, and its success, if 
measured by its popularity, was 
immediate. In the course of study, 
which extends over a period of 
two years, are included book-keeping, 
business arithmetic, phonography, 
typewriting, business correspondence, 
commercial law, etc. Special atten- 
tion is also given to English civil gov- 
ernment and to practice in debate. 
The several departments of the school 
are classified under the terms of 
Mathematics, Commercial Law, Eng- 
lish, Business Correspondence and 
Book-keeping. The maximum enroll- 
ment in the history of the school was 
reached during the past year, when it 
numbered nearly fi\-e hundred stu- 

Walter X. Bush, the principal, was 
born in 1S57, at Fall River, Mass. 
He graduated from Harvard in the 
class of 1 882. His specialty is math- 
ematics, which he formerly taught in 
the BoN's' High School. Mr. Bush is 
ably seconded by the following corps 
of teachers : Chas. H. Ham, William 
White, C. H. Murphy, R. H. Web- 
ster, Peitro Espino, Misses E. Rich- 
ards, H. E. Radcmaker, K. C. Fav, 
M. G. Salcido, M. T. Conway, t. 



M. White, E. Sewell, I. Garbarino 
and B. Durkee. 

A few only of the representative 
Grammar schools, which rank next 
below the High schools, need to be 
noticed in detail. These may be taken 
as typical of their class. 

The old and popular Lincoln Gram- 
mar School in Fifth street was estab- 
lished in 1864. Ira G. Hoitt, 
ex-State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, was its first principal. 
He was followed by Dr. Luckey, B. 

James T. Hamilton has spent six- 
teen years of his life in the Lincoln 
School, having served ten years as 
vice-principal and six j-ears as prin- 
cipal. He was educated in the public 
schools of Ohio, his native state. 
Prior to coming to San Franci-sco, he 
taught four years in the San In- 
stitute and six months in Mayfield. 
Mr. Hamilton is a modest, reserved 
gentleman, noted alike for his uniform 
courtesy and his executive ability. 
Messrs. W. A. Leggett and R. D. 

Girls' Hitrh School 

Marks, James K. Wilson and James 
T. Hamilton. It is a .school exclu- 
sively for l)oys, of whom one thousand 
three hundred have been enrolled this 
j^ear. The Lincoln has a medal fund 
of three thousand dollars, the interest 
of which exceeds the annual of 
the medals. Twenty medals are 
awarded each j^ear to graduates for 
meritorious conduct and .scholarshi]). 
The school is well ecjuipped and dis- 
ciplined and has the largest attend- 
ance of any in the city. 

I'"aulkncr arc the vice-principals of 
the Lincoln. Mrs. McKown, Mrs. 
Palmer, Misses Clark, Shea, Jacobs, 
Hurley. Stoddard, Ivlder, MicheLson, 
Mrs. Chalmers, Simon, Misses Sleator, 
l)\\\er, Martin, Wade, Wooll, Grimm, 
Laiigley, Hill and Haas are the 

The Horace Mann (formerlj^ the 
\'alencia) Grammar School, bears a 
deservedly higli reputation for scholar- 
.ship and discipline. 

Its principal, Jo.seph O'Connor, is 



a pillar of our Sail Francisco Schools. 
Beginning a course of training as a 
paid monitor in the Irish National 
Schools, when a boy of but thirteen 
years of age, he has been busily en- 
gaged in educational pursuits ever 
since, a period of some thirty-five 
years. He is a graduate of the Nor- 
mal Training College of Duljlin and 
entered the Department of San I'ran- 
cisco in 186S, as teacher of the first suc- 
cessful commercial class in the Kvening 
School. In March, 1869, he was 
promoted to be vice-principal of the 
Spring Valley Grammar School and in 
December, 1874, was cho.sen principal 
of the Washington Grammar. Re- 
signing in 1S83, he Avas appointed 
Deputy Superintendent of vSchools l)y 
Superintendent A. J. Moulder. He 
has been principal of the Horace IMann 
since January, 1887. During the 
several years that he was connected 
with the Evening Schools, he estab- 
lished in them excellent discipline and 
intelligent classification. He was on 
the City Board of I^xamination some 
ten years, during which time he was 
instrumental in exposing and eradicat- 
ing the notorious frauds then practiced 
in the sale of examination questions to 
applicants for teachers' certificates. 
Wliile Deputy Superintendent, he was 
the author of a strong course of stud}', 
containing special instructions to teach- 
ers on methods. His official reports to 
the Boards of Education were also 
notable for their ability and complete- 
ness. He was president, in 1884, of 
the California vState Teachers' Asso- 
ciation, and two years later was sent 
East in connection with the annual 
convention of the National Education- 
al Association, held in this city in 
June, 1888. Mr. O'Connor was on its 
Executive Committee and directed 
very successfully the details of the Ed- 
ucational Exposition in the Mechanics' 
Pavilion. As a lecturer at Teachers' 
Institutes, he is in great demand. 
Under the administration of President 
Cleveland, his name was presented with 
the highest Pacific Coast endorsements 
for appointment as United States Com- 

missioner (jf Education. He is a Free 
Mason, a member of the Olympic 
Athletic Club and Chairman of the 
Committee on Rules and Administra- 
tion of the Board of Tru.stees of the 
Free Public Library. 

The Horace Mann School has eigh- 
teen classes and an enrollment of 
nine hundred pupils. Special in.struc- 
tion is given in physical culture, each 
pupil having an hour a week for 
I)racticcwith light Indian clubs, wands 
or wooden dumb bells. The policy 
of the school is to prepare pupils to 
make their livings and to induce them 
to become moral citizens and patriots. 
Miss IMary E. Morrison and Miss 
Carrie E. Beckwith are vice-principals 
of the Ploracc Mann. 

The John Swett Grammar School, 
McAllister street, between Franklin 
and Gough streets, has eighteen classes 
and an enrollmeut during the past 
year of over one thousand one hun- 
dred. Its average daily attendance 
is very high. There are no hobbies 
in this school and its methods of in- 
struction are uniform and modem. 
All studies are presented objectively 
and drawing is used as an auxilian,- in 
the teaching of mathematics, science 
and language. The programme is the 
same in all classes and each subject 
receives due attention. The school 
is noted for the excellence of its lan- 
guage work which has a high place in 
the daily programme. 

In each class room, may be seen a 
cabinet of ores, woods, insects, etc. 
The windows are occupied by flower- 
pots, filled with growing plants which 
give a healthful freshness to the atmos- 
phere wliile the walls of the rooms are 
adorned with pictures, many of them 
designed and drawn by the pupils. In 
language, concrete not abstract subjects 
are treated and they are illustrated 
with drawings . Narratives and de- 
scriptions are recognized as the leading 
features of composition. 

Albert L^'ser, the principal, has 
been a teacher in the San Francisco 
School Department since 1S6S, and for 
the past seven years has been principal 



of the John Swett Grammar School 
which was named in honor of the 
Superintendent and veteran educator. 
In 1877, Mr. I^yser founded W\^ Pacific 
School Journal which he edited for ten 
years. He was graduated from the 
State Normal School in 1866, and be- 
gan his educational career as principal 
of the Los Gatos School in January, 
1 867 . In June of the succeeding year, 
he was a teacher in San Francisco and 
at a later date became the principal of 
the South San Francisco School, 
whence he was promoted to his present 
position. IMr. Lyser is a linguist who 
speaks F'rench and German fluently, 
a versatile magazine writer, a popular 
educational lecturer and a classical 

The Denman Grammar School, 
with its fifteen classes and an average 
enrollment of over eight hundred 
pupils, is for girls exchisively. Its 
location is in the substantial brick 
building at the corner of Bush and 
Taylor streets, and it takes its name 
from James Denman, the pioneer edu- 
cator. Special pains are taken in the 
teaching of penmanship, drawing, Del 
Sarte exercises and similar accomplish- 
ments, in which cultured girls ought 
to excel. The graduates this past 
year numbered about one hundred 
girls, twenty-eight of whom received 
the Denman medals. 

A. L. Mann, the principal, is a 
native of Ma.ssachusetts. Immediatel\- 
after graduating from the Middlebury 
College, Vermont, he came to Califor- 
nia, and in 1863, 1)ecame \-ice-princi- 
pal of the Marysville Grammar School. 
Since that time, he has been principal 
of the East Oakland Grammar vSchool, 
and in January, 1866, he entered the 
Boys' High School of vSan Franci.sco, 
and for nearly twenty years was at the 
head of its Classical Department. In 
1878 and '79, he was City Superin- 
tendent of Schools. When Mr. Den- 
man resigned in iSSS, Mr. Maim was 
elected to succeed him as principal of 
the Denman vSchool, which ])lacL' \w lias 
held ever since. He is one of lIiu lj>)ard 
of Trustees of the Free Public Librar\- 

and is well known as a contributor to 
educational magazines and as a lecturer 
on school topics. The vice-principal 
of the Denman is Mrs. E. M. Baum- 

The Mission Grammar School 
located in Mission street, between 
Fifteenth and Sixteenth streets, with 
its fourteen classes and seven hundred 
pupils, is a representative school. 
The teachers are all wide awake and 
follow objective methods. 

The principal, Mrs. N. R. Craven, 
is a Normal School graduate, and a 
conscientious student of advanced 
methods. She pos.sesses rare, execu- 
tive ability and bears a deservedly 
high reputation in educational circles. 
By her teachers she is well liked and 
respected. Formerh- she was an 
active member of the City Board of 
Examination, in which capacity she 
did good .service to her associate lady 
teachers. Mrs. Craven was, for four 
years, principal of the L,e Conte Pri- 
mary School, and for the past ten 
years has presided efficiently over the 
Mission Grammar. She is a liberal- 
minded, diplomatic lady, and in everj- 
sense of the word, a worthy represen- 
tative of our San Francisco teachers. 
Miss Nellie F. Sullivan, the vice-prin- 
cipal, possesses exceptional talent in 
music, an accomplishment in which 
the students of the school excel. 

The eighteen teachers of the Frank- 
lin Grammar vSchool in Eighth .street, 
near Bryant, are expected to use, .so 
far as j^ossible, the creative method. 
This method involves first, the object 
illustrative of the idea ; second, its 
perception ; third, its conception, and 
fourth, its original expression. It 
may be applied to all the subjects 
taught in language, mathematics, 
.science and morals, and gives the best 
results of the teaching ; viz., 
original thought and original ex- 

James G. Kennedy, the principal 
of the Franklin, is an experienced and 
successful schoolman and one of the 
best exponents of advanced methods 
in the San hVancisco School Depart- 



ment. He is forty-niue years of age, 
a native of Illinois, and in 1852, came 
across the plains to California, with 
an ox team, like his predecessor, 
Klisha Brooks. An undergraduate of 
Santa Clara College, he has taught at 
various times in all grades from the 
receiving class to the senior class of 
the High School inclusive. The 
schools of San Jose and Santa Clara 
County attained a high degree of 
proficiency under his able administra- 
tion as Superintendent. Since he 
entered the San Francisco School 
Department, Mr. Kennedy has been 
an active and enthusiastic advocate of 
the "New Education." As Head 
Inspecting Teacher, during the ad- 
ministration of Superintendent Ander- 
son, he was instrumental in raising 
the scholastic standard of the San 
Francisco schools, into which he 
introduced many new and improved 
methods of teaching. Mr. Kennedy 
planned, organized and conducted 
successfully, the Cogswell Polytechnic 
College, from which he voluntarily 
resigned to enter the Franklin. His 
vice-principals are vSelden Sturges and 
Miss Mac Donald. 

The Broadway Grammar School, 
in common with the Denman and the 
Rincon, is a girls' school. It has 
fifteen classes and an enrollment of 
eight hundred. In its character it is 
very cosmopolitan and makes a spe- 
cialty of teaching foreigners to speak 
and write Englisla. 

Miss Jean Parker, the principal, has 
been in the service of the vSchool De- 
partment since 1 866 continuously. 
She is the only lady who has ever 
officiated as vice-principal of a boys' 
grammar school, she formerly having 
held that position in the Washington. 
During the administration of Superin- 
tendent Anderson, she .served on the 
City Board of Examination. She has 
held her present ]:)Osition for the past 
twelve years and is recognized as an 
educator of rare a])ility and modern 
ideas. Miss A. T. Campbell is the vice- 
principal and Mi.sses Hasvvell, Ship- 
man, Dohert>-, Hitchcock, Gold.smith, 

McCorkell, Hart, Regan, Wade, 
Beardslcy, Bradbury, Campbell, 
Heath and Mrs. Kelly are the teachers. 

The Clement Grammar School has 
an average enrollment of nine hundred 
pupils, divided into sixteen classes. 
It is essentially a Californian school, 
with Californian teachers and Cali- 
fornian ideas. 

Miss Mary E. Callahan, the prin- 
cipal, is a graduate of the San 
Francisco Normal Department of the 
Girls' High School and a native 
daughter. Immediately after gradu- 
ating, she entered the Clement 
School, named in honor of the 
Ex - Director Joseph Clement, and 
for the past five years has been its 
principal. Her vice-principal is Miss 
S. H. Earle and nearly all of the 
assistants are ladies who were either 
born or educated in California. Fol- 
lowing is a list of their names : Miss 
Kelly, Miss McFarland, Miss Bigelow, 
Miss Fisher, Miss Eewis, Miss ]\Iande- 
ville. Miss Simms, IVIrs. Owen, Miss 
Crowley, Miss Corbell, Miss Barry, 
Miss Julia Eewis, Miss Goldsmith, 
Miss Reynolds and Miss Eittle. 

The South Cosmopolitan Grammar 
School, in Eddy street, has about 
eight hundred pupils studying Ger- 
man and one hundred studying 
French. There are twenty classes 
and an average enrollment of one 

Adolpli, the principal, re- 
ceived a university education in Ger- 
many. He studied philology, ancient 
and modern, and having taught for 
some years in Australia, came to San 
Franci.sco, and, after .serving two 
years as an assi.stant in the Boys' 
High School, was appointed to the 
position which he now holds, in De- 
cember, 187 1. Mr. E. M. Shuck and 
Miss K. F. McColgan are the vice- 
principals under Professor 

I-'reiich and German are also 
taught at the North Cosmopolitan 
Grammar School, in Filbert street. 
It has twelve classes. Miss A. M. 
Stincen is the principal and A. 
J. Clark, vice-principal. The Hum- 

Blacksmith Shop of the Cogswell School 



boldt Primary School, in Bush street, 
Miss M. A. Castlehun, principal ; and 
the Cooper Primar}' School, in Green- 
wich street, Mrs. C. R. Pechin prin- 
cipal, serA'e as feeders for the South 
Cosmopolitan and the North Cosmo- 
politan, respectiv'ely. 

The primary schools, while ranking 
lowest in point of scholarship, are 
still among the most important in the 
system, since in them little children 
receive their earliest and most vivid 
impressions and the services of the 
best teachers are required. A distinc- 
tive feature of the Department is the 
Chinese Primary School of two classes, 
at 916 Clay street, presided over by 
Miss Rose Thayer. Following are 
brief, descriptive sketches of a few 
representative schools. 

The lyincoln Primary School, lo- 
cated in the rear of the Lincoln Gram- 
mar School, in Fifth street, has 
eighteen classes and an average en- 
rollment of nine hundred pupils. 

Miss Agnes M. Manning, the prin- 
cipal, began teaching in Chicago. 
In January, 1865, she came to San 
Francisco and was immediately made 
principal of the Fairmount School. 
She has presided successfully over her 
present school since January, 1869. 
Miss Manning is a lady of literary and 
artistic tastes and culture. She 
belongs to the Century Club and the 
Pacific Coast Woman's Press Asso- 
ciation. Following is a list of her 
assistants, with whom she is deser- 
vedly popular : Miss Roper, Miss 
Provost, Miss L,yncli, Mrs. Shaw, 
Miss Morse, Miss Schendel, Miss 
Hunt, Mrs. Ilackett, Miss McCarthy, 
Mrs. Hough, Miss Kraus, Miss 
Smith, Miss Molloy, Miss Fredericks, 
Miss Bendit, Hitchens, Mrs. 
Melrose and Miss Wright. 

The Whittier Primary School, Har- 
rison street, near Fourth, has twenty 
classes and an average enrollment of 
one thousand girls and boys. It is a 
progressive school and is under excel- 
lent discipline. 

Miss Emma Stincen, the principal, 
is a graduate of the State Normal 

School. Immediately after graduating 
she entered the Whittier as an assistant 
teacher, and a short time later became 
its principal. Her assistants are 
Misses Sprague, P'rontin and Shep- 
heard, Mrs. Simon, Misses Hinds, 
Hiester, Cove, Maccord, Kean, 
Maloney, L,ewis, Kinney, Walsh, 
Dolan, Ahern, Burk, Garrity, 
McGorey, Lorigan and West. 

The Emerson Primary School aims 
at thoroughness in all branches of 
instruction and pays special attention 
to calisthenics in the yard, the fire 
drill and singing, pupils being trained 
to sing in a low, sweet tone of voice. 
The seven hundred and fifty pupils 
enrolled are divided into thirteen 
classes, in charge of Misses Shaw, 
Hill, Dennis, Anderson, Watson, 
Hussey, Bannan, Meyer, Hobart, 
Fairweather, Earle, Bates and Cotrel. 

Miss Sallie A. Rightmire, the prin- 
cipal, is a native of California, having 
been born in Sacramento. She is a 
graduate of the State Normal School, 
and was elected a teacher in the San 
Francisco School Department in 1870. 
For ten years, she was an assistant in 
the Lincoln Grammar School, and has 
held her position as principal of the 
Emerson since 1880. She is now 
also a member of the City Board of 
Examination. Miss Rightmire is a 
popular and progressive lad}^, and her 
school ranks with the best in the 

Prior to the establishment of the 
Lincoln Evening School, in 1868, 
tuition was required from 3'oung men 
ov'er eighteen j-ears of age. ' 'The result 
of organizing a free, graded. Evening 
School," says Superintendent Swett, 
in a recent report to the Board of Edu- 
cation, ' ' was an increase of the school 
in six months from one class to sixteen 
classes. Book-keeping and drawing 
were soon introduced and since that 
time the I^incoln ICvening School 
has always been filled with pupils." 
The total enrollment in the evening 
.schools is two thousand two hundred 
and twenty-two and the average 
nightly attendance, one thousand six 

Carpenter Shop of the Cogswell School 



hundred and seventeen. The course 
of study is simihir to that of the day 
schools, the L,incohi and the Wash- 
ington Schools being regularl}^ graded 
with grades running from the first to 
the eighth inclusive. 

The lyincoln Kvening vSchool, with 
thirty classes, has a total enrollment 
of one thousand two hundred and 
ninetj'-five of both sexes. There are 
classes in Spanish, also in architec- 
tural and mechanical drawing and five 
ungraded, adult classes, composed 
of men of foreign birth, who are 
anxious to learn to speak and write 

A. H. MacDonald, the principal, 
was edvicated in Nova Scotia, his 
native country. Coming to this state 
in 1S55 he learned the business of 
civil engineering. His marriage was 
the cause of his abandoning this voca- 
tion. He was a high school principal 
in Placerville and subsequently a 
grammar school principal for nearly 

eleven years in Sacramento, during 
which time he was on the City Board 
of Examination, also the State Board 
of Examination. He came to this 
city twelve years ago, and after teach- 
ing for a time in the Lincoln Evening 
School, he was appointed by Super- 
intendent J. W. Taylor, in 1882, as 
Deputy Superintendent of Schools. 
For the past seven years, he has ably 
presided over the destinies of the 
Eincoln Evening School. Lawrence 
Taaffe is his vice-principal. 

The establishment in July, 1891, of 
a Commercial Evening School, with a of study comprising book-keep- 
ing, penmanship, stenography and 
typewriting, has greatly enlarged the 
scope and usefulness of the system. 
The school has an enrollment of some 
three hundred and fifty students. 
Isidore Eeszynsky, the principal, is 
an expert accountant, who formerly 
was principal of the Commercial (Day) 




IT was the day before Christmas. 
The snow had come early, and New 

York was vainly fi^diling' a mighty 
blizzard that had, without waniini;^, 
come down from Manitol)a and the 
glaciers of Alaska. How it blew and 
raged ! The air was fdled with 
javelins of ice ; snow)' wraiths, that 
consorted in twos, threes and dozens, 
swept by in fantastic shapes ; now 
forming a veil of white, now a wall of 
snow suspended in mid-air ; again 
breaking up, rent apart by the wind 
to join forces and hurl themselves 
against the devoted house. I cotild 
hear the wind far up the street, com- 
ing on with a w^eird, moaning soimd, 
gathering strength, shrieking underthe 
eaves, forcing snowdakes in at every 
crevice, roaring down the chimney, 
playing havoc with the sparks, buf- 
fetted back by the flames, to go madly 
on in its wild course. As the day 
^rew apace, the storm increased, 
the snow piled high, and the rasping 
noise of car wheels grew fainter antl 
fainter. The telegraph wires were as 
big as cables ; the trees had lost all 
form, and New York was snowed 

On such a day I sat in the Lotus Club, 
despondent. Ill health had followed 
me, and in despair I was conning 
guides of Bahama, the liermudas, :un\ 
the islands of the Spanish main when 
a friend dropped in and there hap- 
pened one of those simple things that 
often change a man's entire career. 
To me it turned out more than this. 
"Just the man I want to see," he 

said. "]\Irs.V , " naming a wealthy 

patron of art, ' ' has asked me to hunt 
up an artist to go to California and 
make some studies of the scenery at 
Monterey, which is said to be one of 
the most picturesque places on the 

"I can find you one," I replied. 
" When do you want him to start?" 

"At once," was the answer. 

" I am ready," I .said, much to my 
friend's astonishment. An hour later I 
left the lyOtus Club and waded through 
the snow to my studio, and two days 
later, when the snow-plow had 
cleared the roads, I .started for 
California. The blizzard and others 
that had gone before had covered 
every State, and for five or six days 
we plowed through snow, seeing the 
famous agricultural regions frozen 
dead in the grasp of an Arctic winter. 

One night a fellow traveler informed 
me that I was about making one of the 
most remarkable changes of my life — 
that of passing from winter to summer 
in a few hours, and he told the truth. 
I went to bed in a snowstorm in the 
Sierras, and as I looked out in the 
morning, we were rushing down on 
to the Pacific Slope, and flowers were 
looking in the window. The efiect of 
this transformation was singular, and 
as we left the mountains farther and 
farther behind, and plunged through 
orchards, with trees green, as in 
spring, where wild flowers cov- 
ered the ground and made the 
earth a crazy quilt of color. I was 
more than astonished. I had heard 
of California and its wealth of winter 
verdure, but this sudden burst of 
glory was more than I had dreamed 
of. The half had not been told. I 
tarried in San I-'ranci-sco to see its 
wonders, the Golden Gate, China- 
town, as real as China itself, the 
evidences of thrift on every hand in 
the metropolis of the West, and one 
morning took the train on the Coast 
Division of the Southern Pacific road 
for Monterey, that lies on the ba}- of 
that name one hundred miles or so 
down the coast. 




One can scarcely describe, without 
experiencing it, the sensations of a 
man who one week ago was in the 
heart of an Arctic blizzard, and w^ho 
now was rushing down the California 
Coast, between banks of flowers. The 
trip, a favorite one for fashionable 
San Franciscans, takes j^ou through 
some of the most famous ranches of 
the Golden State. Here is Palo Alto, 
with its fine trees, and along to the 

turning to the sea, catching the rich 
saline odor as it comes strongly in. 
Soon the scene changes ; the mountains 
are apparently left behind and sand 
dunes appear, stretching along shore, 
beaten into curious shapes by the 
wind. Here wild flowers are in full 
possession. Acres of lupines of a 
delicate lilac extend away as far 
as the eye can reach, presenting a 
solid mass of color of inexpressible 

' The famous El Monte, the Hotel of the Forest, that his made this charming- spot well known wherever the English 

tongue is spoken " 

west mountains rising gradually 
in gentle slopes, bringing out the 
picturesque buildings of the great 
University of vStanford in strong relief. 
Town after town is pas.sed, fields of 
grain, orchards, vineyards galore, the 
Coast Range ever in .sight ; now rising 
in rugged peaks, now broken b}- deep 
canons, or capped with stately red- 
woods of gigantic proportions. Down 
the Santa Clara Valley we go, finally 

l)eauty. Now it is broken ; the 
lupine has met the forces of the 
golden poppy, and is demoralized. 
The field is cosmopolitan ; groups 
of larkspurs, of rich yellow 
poppies — the flowers which close at 
night, shooting stars, daisies, butter- 
cups, cream cups and many others 
make up this brilliant host that car- 
pets the road to Monterey. Stronger 
grows the breeze, sweeter the odor, 


Here was the finest collection of desert cacti in the c<Hintr\' blooming and jrrowintr side by side with the 

flowers of the mountain and vallev " 



and finally we are landed in what 
appears a private park, and are a 
moment later in the famous Kl jNIonte, 
the Hotel of the Forest, that has 
made this charming spot well known 

found not alone all earthly delights, 
but the best of all boons, renewed 
health. Monterey and its justly 
famous hotel, can best be appreciated 
by comparing it to some of the great 

The Club House iiniij die- Pines 

wherever the English tongue is 

This was my liomc for the winter. 
My studio was its park of miles of 
forest and acres of laud ; and here I 

comitry places of England, which 
ha\e l)een in the same family for gen- 
erations. Monterey is a magnificent 
park abounding in scenery of every 
possible description. The spot first 



attracted the attention of Don Sebas- 
tian Vizcaino, the adventurer, in 1602, 
^ho sailed into the Ix-autiful l)ay, 
landed, and attracted by its beauty, 
took possession in the name of llie 
King', callin.s^ it in honor of Gaspar 
tie Zunij^a Conde de Monte Rey, who 
was at the time viceroy of Mexico. 

ancient pines have seen some strange 

The first mass ever heard in Cali- 
fornia was celebrated where I stood, 
and perchance the was raised 
Ijeneath these very trees. The only 
listeners were the Indians, who then 
thronged the shores, and after the 

A View of the Lake 

It was difficult to imagine, as I 
strolled through the old Spanish town, 
that it was a center of life and gaiety 
nearly two hundred >ears liefore the 
signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence ; yet such is the fact, and its 
old adobes, fast falling to decay, its 

departure of Vizcaino. Monterey 
lapsed into its former simplicitj-, and 
the white man became but a memory. 
For one hundred and sixty-eight years 
nothing was heard of it. Then 
Father JuniperoSerra, the president of 
the Franciscan missionaries, recalling 


A\A Ml IM^,) Al MONlliRliY 

[\\c iK-soi ipliv>ns o[ llu jiLui' In \'\.- 
catuo ami his nii.u. iKtii uinuil to louu*l 
a mission on tlu- siml. This w .is 
jU'oomplisluil in i;7^\ si\ namis 
bctoullu- ^i«MUi\i; ol iho IVolaratiou 
of lmU'|K'Uvlrni.-c. Thr mission ol 
San ^.\irlosiK' MonUit.\ wasllu" ivsnlt, 
niul III I ,'■; I , ii w as u'luoN I'll (o *^\ii tiu^lo 
\"alK-\-, aiul known as tlu' Mission 
v'~^an c\ii los dc ^'atiiK-lo l>v llu- ouka 
ol llu- MaiAjiiis do Croix. Ikao 
I'^ltlu-is InniiK-io aiul *.'u-sih'' wimv 
Iniiii^l. aiul as I wamloivil lInon);Ii 
atul alnuil iho oKl IniiKlini; atul 
ski\v"hcil its ornniMiii;^ w.ills, 1 oonUl 
ahnosl lu'.ii llu- iiii-UhIn ot llu'oliimos 
ns llu\\' oalU'il Iho lailhUil in the ila>s 
v;ono 1\N . The sk\- wis clear ami the 
i;onlU' hroo/.e tVoni tlu- .>^oa tanm\l iii\ 
laoo. .\ li.Mul olnn;.; lo tlu- nionUloi im; 
wall anil _v;latu\Hl at mo wilh womloi 
inj; o>'o ; a mookinv; hiril, poiohoJ 
his;h on llu- tool", sanj; blithoh an 
antliom ol' piai-^-Jo; those wore iho 
iM»l\' inhahil.inls. 'Pho oKl mission 
was ilosoitoil .1 ruin .m ohjoot ol 
ovuiosily to llu- slnillor ot' the nino- 
toonth oontnr\ , a momot\ tiom the 
rich stoio ot" the pasi . 

'Pho oKl town luul a iu-\oi ondini; 
«.-h.inn tor nu-, not alone tor its 
artistic I'caturcs. Here were the dc- 
.scendauts of the oUl v^panish ca\aliers 
\vlu> I'vHUulcil the towns still li\ itn; 
hero, lor Monterey is at least two 
thiuls Mexicans, and Mack eyes and 
swatthy complexions n\eet one at 
every turn. 'Phoui;h the Mexicans 
are still in the niajority, they are 
not tlie owners ot" the .soil : the\ 
bei;ati to lose prestiv;e when Com- 
mander jiM\es, seized Moutere> in iS.^j, 
ai\d Sloat Un^k po.ssession in iv^46. 
In these early days Monterev was a 
busy place, the center ol" an important 
trade, which it i;raduall\ lost when 
the Capital was removed. W ihe 
tvnvn lost iu a .^cn.^e it 
has >;aiiK\l as a tashion.ible report. 
Its rare beauties tluit delii;hted \'i/.- 
eaiuo still exist, ailded to by modern 
art. embellished by nuHleru t.iste. The 
same cvh^I winds Cvmuc in trom the .>^e.i. 
and make its summer days a delight, 

.Mid thosi- ot \\ iiilci ,1 suggestion i>f .111 
e.ii llil\' p.uadise. .\s these charms of 
cliin.ite and location attracted the 
.itlenlioii ot the lollowers ot l-ving 
riiilip, it is not to 1h- w ondereil that 
llu-> ha\e bc».-n .ippicci.itcil by the 
people of to da\ ; ,iiul so we timl this 
.incicnl iloni.iin nuiged into .i re.s(.>rt 
tor the l.isliion o[ California and 
recogtii/ed as tlu- Newport o{' the 
western coast. 

M\' studio in llu-.'^c jannaiA d.i\ s in tlu- p. Ilk .ii>out tlu- l\l 
Moiiti-, w ho.^c giant pines are linng 
Willi moss that mo\es listlessly in the 
wind. Such .1 winter studio was 
never conceived betote ; the roof, the 
blue sky ; the siiles. thesutging piues, 
lluough which I c. night vistas of luonnl.iiiis, telling o[ the ^^.m 
I.nci.i i.ingc aiul be\ond ; the ait was 
udoU-iit with the odor oi {lowers, 
lu-.u \ with pcil'nme. while the melody 
of a host ol songsters mv orehes- 
ti.i and inspiration d.iy .ittet day. 

Montetey il.'-ielf is in a j>.u k that 
includes many sipi.iic miles, luilced 
I lode.seveuteeu miles wilhont le.uiug 
a lo.ul as tuie as Ocean Avenue. Long 
br.mch, aiul strolled for weeks and 
months through the forests in that 
eventful winter without leaving the 
groruids. const, mih- tnuling new 
be.iuties. The hotel conceived by 
.m .ulist. And might be the country 
pi. ICC of .in baiglish gentleman. It 
sl.uuls in a pine ai\d oak t'orest, the 
trees of which have been let\ xuulis- 
turbed, the gtoiuids alone moditied .-^o 
thit the editit^v with its 
and t.unbling artistic parts staiuls in a 
garden of one luuidred and thirty 
acres. Imagine a similar acreage in 
the Adirondacks., where the trtws are 
l.irgest. where nature is at its best, 
laid out with all the art that good 
t.iste can suggest and some idea of 
this spot cm be obt.iined. My studio 
changed with the whim of the 
moment. Now my ea.^el was pitched 
among the big pines, whose munniir 
and song .seemed to tell of the old d.iys 
i^h.ive you ever listened to it ? ) and it 
seemed to me that these pines of Mon- 


An Approflch to tji* Hoirl of the Fwe»i 

Vol. 11— 20 



terey sang a sweeter song than any 
that I had heard before. I could hear 
it begin far away — a soft murmur, as 
if the needles were attuned to some 
mystic music. As the wind rose 
the sounds grew louder, until the air 
rang with the melody. 

These music-making trees, and 
especially the live oaks, were a 
study in themselves ; ages old, they 
had assumed strange shapes, each ap- 
pearing to possess an individuality of 
its own. Some threw out weird arms, 
as if in supplication, from which 
hung fantastic festoons of moss. 
Others were distorted, their gnarled 
roots and limbs telling of strange 
struggles for life in the past. Here 
a Dore might have obtained his in- 
spiration, as the live oaks, especially, 
were Dantean in shape and form, if I 
may use the simile. In sitting among 
them I could not but feel that in some 
unaccountable way the live oaks were 
possessed of thoughts, hopes and de- 
sires — that they were lost souls, con- 
demned to take these shapes, and 
thus fawned and crouched before the 
gaze of man. Noble in conception, 
intended for giants, .some seemed 
cursed and dwarfed. They crept 
along the ground as if not daring to 
lift their arms to high Heaven. Their 
branches assumed weird forms, ap- 
parentl}^ felled to the ground by winds 
in their growth. In strange contrast 
were the pines, that reared their ma- 
jestic .shapes high in air, commanding 
representatives of their tribe. 

With such material, it need not be 
wondered that the landscape gardener 
produced remarkable results in and 
about this hotel of the forest. One 
day in I'ebruary I had my studio 
among the roses, with a variety of 
flowers l)lo()ming around me. A mov^e 
of a few yards and my environment 
was essentially that of the great 
Arizona desert that but for the odor 
of flowers in the air was true to the 
life, as here was the finest collection 
of desert cacti in the c()unlr>- bloom- 
ing and growing side l^y side with the 
flowers of the mountain and valley. 

Within this one hundred acres one 
could find almost every known plant, 
as the delicate tropical ferns, orchids 
and moss were in the hothouse near 
at hand, an elaborate and complete 
establishment. Rich blue-grass lawns, 
a maze to bewilder the stroller, with 
tennis courts and playgrounds to bring 
back the dreamer to the nineteenth 
centur^^ were all here. Did I wish a 
bit of water view, the Laguna del Rey, 
covering fifteen acres, gleamed through 
the trees from my rose-ambushed 
studio, from the surface of which rose 
a clear stream from the fountain jet. 
A club-house of exquisite design is 
seen through the trees, affording mate- 
rial comforts, where California wines 
may be sipped and compared with the 
vintages of old Spain and France. 

Of the famous El Monte itself it 
can only be said that it represents 
the sum of all that the century 
has produced in hotel science, and 
forms a well-adjusted part of its 
picturesque environment. Winter 
and summer it is thronged with 
guests from all over the world. 
While the Kast is buried in snow and 
ice, throngs of refugees are basking 
in the sunlight of Monterej^, and as 
summer comes, fashionable San Fran- 
cisco appears upon the scene and the 
.season is as brilliant as anj- of the 
Eastern resorts. I was particularly im- 
pres.sed with what an English tourist 
termed the " staying qualities " of the 
place. It was impossible to exhaust 
its beauties and delights. I found 
them growing upon me. and in my 
strolls .some new attraction was stum- 
])led upon e\'ery day. 

The town of ISIonterey faces the 
bay of that n;ime and is, perhaps, 
four miles from the ocean ; and 
from the Park of El Monte to it 
and away to the south stretches 
a drive of eighteen miles, that for 
variety has never been equaled in 
any land, and has acquired a reputa- 
tion that gives it rank among the 
big things of California. I.eaving El 
Monte it takes you to the shore of the 
bay, where vistas of lake and bay are 



seen ; now through the old town of 
broken down adobes, passing the 
mound that tells of Fremont's ancient 
fort, over fields of flowers cheek by 
jowl with Chinese squid dwellers and 
their picturesque houses, and finally 
we plunge into a pine forest. Kvery- 
where among the trees are artistic 
homes — houses dropped down in the 
forest, embowered with flowers — a rest- 
ful place where teachers, the Chatau- 
quans and thousands from the great 

was from a primitive tent to the per- 
fect houses, fine church, hotel and 
other conveniences that now find place 
here ; and in the summer mouths its 
two or three square miles give rest, 
health and vigor to six or seven thou- 
sand people of refined and cultivated 
tastes who are face to face with 
Nature at her best. Here the Women's 
Christian Temperance Union, the State 
Teachers' Association, the vState Sun- 
day School Convention, the Cliatau(]ua 

Among the Pines 

cities of the West congregate every 
summer to rest and breathe in the air 
that is tinctured with the salt of the 
ocean and the balsam of the pine . The 
little settlement is known as Pacific 
Grove — well named, as the fortunate 
dweller here can, in a few minutes, 
bury himself in a pine forest or rest 
upon the polished rocks that face the 
blue Pacific. 

Pacific Grove originated in a Meth- 
odist camp me^.ting, and its evolution 

As.sembly and many other societies 
hold forth ; and it is here that 
Timothy Hopkins, a wealthy San 
Franciscan, has founded a fine biolog- 
ical laboratory and station, donating 
fifty thousand dollars for the purpose, 
which is to be under the charge of 
Professor Gilbert of Stanford Univer- 
sity, and a part of that institution. 

Pacific Grove is on the borders of the 
great park which the Southern Pacific 
Company has made here, and leaving 



the principal street and turning to the 
south, we are at once in this charming 
woodland and might, so far as any 
suspicion of the ocean is concerned 
be five hundred miles awa^^ There 
is a sensation of perfect rest in these 
groves and wild-wood tangles. The 
road, a model, winds awa}-, finding 
seemingly by its own intuition, the 
choicest views and vistas restful to the 
eye and senses. Here are all the 
characteristic California plants and 
trees strange to eastern eyes, rare 
wild flowers springing up through 
the dried pine needles in February. 
The plumed quail eyes you from 
its shelter, while the dove, mock- 
ing bird and robin give melody to the 
air. Deep into the woods we plunge 
masses of wild growth appearing on 
every side ; huge trees that have gone 
down, entangled with vines, overgrown 
with moss, hoary with age. It might 
be the heart of the Adirondacks and 
the fawn whose big eyes stare at us 
from the thicket might be born to the 
northern woods. Down the slopes 
we go, now crossing a bridge and 
facing a stretch of green that fills a 
canon that reaches back into the 
forest. Here the esch.scholt/.ia covers 
the ground a brilliant yellow ; beyond 
the lilac lupines hold their sway, and 
suddenly, without warning, a white 
drifting river of sand is seen, a mur- 
mur 1)reaks upon the ear and the 
limitless Pacific opens up with its 
waste of blue. 

Now a pebbled half-moon l)eacli 
reaches away, ending in a ])()int of 
rocks, the road skirting the shore 
upon a little bluff. Upon the latter 
in the centuries past, have stood the 
homes of native tribes. The earth is 
bhick and made uj) of the concomitants 
of the kitchen midden ; bits of gleam- 
ing abalone shine in the sun-light, and 
layers of pearly shells make up the 
earth — thrown there by the ancients. 
A black-eyed ground squirrel l)urrow- 
ing in the has tlirnwn u]) a bone, 
and near by is a stone implement, sug- 
gestive that the rodent has made its 
home in an ancient grave or at least a 

region of archaeological interest. For 
miles along shore I traced these 
ancient dwellers ])y the gleaming, 
tell-tale abalones. 

The rocks are worn and broken 
into caverns, caves, arches and pil- 
lars. Here an isolated rock is dotted 
with seals and huge .sea lions, the 
stupid shag colors it a rusty brown 
with its countless numbers, while 
white-winged gulls stand out from the 
sombre congregation in bold relief. 

The flora here would delight the 
most phlegmatic lover of nature. At 
the very water's edge, and nowhere 
else, grew a wonderful aster-like flower 
common enough perhaps, yet new to me 
and striking from its position. Not a 
hundred yards away deep glens, 
green cafions and shady bowers offered 
retreats for such as these, yet this 
bright flower grew only in this one 
spot upon the very edge fronting the 
sea, dropping its lavender petals upon 
the polished pebbles and showered Vjy 
the spray of every storm. 

The stroller is attracted at once by 
the singular trees that give name to 
Cypress Point — trees that are indige- 
nous to the locality and which are alone 
worthy a visit to Monterey. If the 
live oaks of Fl Monte Park were 
remarkable, what can be said of these 
grotes(|ue shapes that defy description? 
At first glance it might be thought that 
they were but creatures of the imagin- 
ation so strangely are they formed. 
The limbs are bent, twisted, contorted 
into every possible shape, weird in 
themselves, l)ut the crowning mar\^el is 
the foliage, which seems arranged in 
horizontal lasers to present the least 
surface to the wind. Imagine a num- 
ber of Japanese umbrellas, one above 
theother. ])road and flat and scmuc idea 
can l)e obtained of the leaf arrange- 
ment of this tree, the puzzle of botan- 
i.sts, the sphinx of Monterey. 

From Cypress Point the road turns 
to the east, and Carnielo Bay the 
old mission comes in sight ; here the 
road climbs the cliffs that breast the 
.sea wdth a bold and iireciiiitous front ; 
rocky points, covered with pines, car- 




peted with flowers, reach into the baj^ 
and far away over the water rise the 
mountains of the Coast Range. The 
return of this marvelous creation in 
road making takes us b}- Chinese Cove 
and its little settlement, then through 
the heart of this wild park of seven 
thousand acres, and so back to the 
Hotel of the Forest, which controls the 
domain and reserves it for its guests. 

Weeks, aye, months, can be spent 
here without exhausting this paradise 
that each day has some new offering 
to the stroller ; and to the pleasure- 
seeker, the invalid or the votary of 
fashion, it is equally ideal. 

The w^eather at the El IMonte 
was never cool in winter, its max- 
imum temperature for January, say, 
being about sixty-seven degrees, 
tlie minimum sixty degrees. For 
August, the maximum of the same its smnmer season. 

year was seventy - seven degrees, 
the minimum fift}- degrees, which 
means that here one finds that desid- 
eratum, an ahnost entire lack of sudden 
change between the seasons. Storms 
of any kind are unknown in summer 
day after day of perfect sunshine, fol- 
lowing each other, without intense heat 
— conditions which make Monterey an 
ideal resort either for health or pleas- 
ure. My trip to Monterey, intended 
for a few w'inter months, extended 
itself from winter to summer. The 
latter came unannounced. I took the 
word of authorities that winter was 
over, there were possibly a few more 
flowers ; the roses took on a richer hue, 
the song of the meadow lark was per- 
haps more melodious, and by these 
tokens I knew that wdnter had passed 
and the Hotel of the Forest had begun 

" The crowning marvel is Ihe folia>;e which seems arranged in horizontal layers." 




HERE were four of us, 
all dwellers in town 
but country bred, and 
our dust-laden lungs, 
and ej'es wear\' from 
monotony of bricks 
and stones and mor- 
tar, yearned for the 
free, fresh mountain air, the tender 
greens of upland and l)ottom land, the 
sweet, shy, wild flowers and ferns and 
the note of that subtle essence of the 
spring in our v'eins set us all wild for a 
change of scene, air, and mode of life 
generally. Who is there that does not 
feel that sense of unrest in the spring ? 
It is the nomad in us all ; we have it 
in common with the wild fowl, that, 
at the first hint of spring spread their 
wings and sail far away north to the 
great lakes and marshes in the far 
northwest. Any Indian agent in 
the country can tell how difficult it 
is to keep his savage charges in check 
in the spring. As soon as the snow 
is oiT the prairies and the first tender 
green is visible in the grassland they, 
too. want to go, not anywhere in par- 
ticular, but just ,^<? because they must 
move. They arc as irresponsible as 
the blackbirds, or the wild geese that 

go honking northward at a rate that 
no express train can hope to keep 
up with. 

Auy\vay, the nomadic instinct 
was ripe in us. We compared notes 
one evening after dinner and decided 
'~ to take a coaching trip through 
L,ake County. We Lake for 
the reason that, besides having such 
wealth of varied beauties of moun- 
tain and valley, lake and stream, it is 
close to town, easy of access and one is 
not obliged to waste one-half his 
too short holiday in getting to where 
the pleasure begins and back. Indeed, 
the run from San Francisco by rail, 
either via Tiburon or Oakland, is ujt 
the pleasant part of a Lake 
County trip. The route we elected to 
take was via Tiburon, and after 
mutual admonitions to one another to 
carry the least possible amount of lug- 
gage we parted, to meet next morning 
at the Tiburon ferry at 7:40. 

A perfect May morning, the sun- 
shine a very flood of brilliancy, bring- 
ing varying tones of green to the 
waters of the bay. The shipping in 
the harbor lent life to the .scene, and 
away to the west lay the Golden Gate. between the heads a full-rigged 
ship, ever}' shred of canvas spread, 
was making the verj' utmost of the 
west wind to make the port without a 
tug. The Marin shore rose green to 
the very summits of the foothills, while 
Tamalpais reared its great bulk of 
rock, scored and fissured by glacial 
contact of centuries before over all. 
Never does the Bay of San Francisco 
impress one with such sense of grandest 
beauty, as at .such a time ; the morn- 
ing air is so much clearer than at 
other times of the day, that distance 
is almost annihilated and the view is 
illimitable. The islands are green, 
from water's edge to top of clifi", with 




here and there masses of brightest 
orange, where the California poppy 
glows gold 'gainst the green carpet 
of grass. There are 
other wild flowers iu 
bloom, rioting all over 
the country side in a 
perfect frenz}^ of color. 


A Country Post Office 

but the poppy pales them all into 
insignificance with its wealth of gold. 
At Tiburon we find our train await- 
ing us, and in a few minutes are off 
for Pieta, where we change from rail 

to coach-and-six. Our imagination 
is fired with tales of mountain trails 
traversed in perfect safety under 
the skilled guidance of drivers who 
have spent their lives iu the mountains 
and know every inch of road, and 
whose horses are broken so thoroughly 
that they obey a word or touch of the 
bit as a well-trained soldier does a 
command. Perfect safety, combined 
with just the spice of excitement 
necessary to all luunan enjoyment are 

We rush through the Sonoma 
Valle>' at a rate of speed all too great 
to do anything like justice to the 
lovely countr}'- all about us. San 
Rafael lies embowered in trees and 
flowers, the embodiment of suburban 
beaut}^ and here and there are 
other lovely towns aptly named, as 
Hillarita and Cloverdale. The latter 
town was once the stage station of the 
road to Highland Springs and Lake- 
port, but now the road is shortened 
and improved in gradient so as to 

. .a^-Ttii/^fctfu.,-,. 

•-<^.«^.5.. ,r^^^ ~''-:-^V'. 


'II 'I 


M^- ''■'•-'■- 

Scene on I'ift.i R-^.iJ 

^■zt Wr ,^ ^-"-^^ 

Lakeport from the Steamer 



reduce danger of accidents to a mini- 
niunj, and Pieta is the diverging 

Pieta is yet but the ghost of a town, 
there being but a station house and 
hotel there. The liotel stands just 
across from the station, a pretty, 
tastefully painted building of wood, 
with a wide veranda across the front, 
from which there are magnificent 
views to be had of the surrounding 
mountains. After a capital luncheon, 
we are sitting smoking on the piazza, 
when the rush and rattle of wheels, 
jingle of harness metals and clatter 

promised our first glimpse of Clear 

The recent rains have made the 
grasses, ferns and wild flowers to 
grow in profusion tliat is unknown 
later in the season. The air is filled 
with the soft incense of damp earth 
and growing plant life most grateful 
to lungs, which for months have 
breathed dust of city .streets. Here in 
the very heart of nature's fastnesses 
the air is so pure, so .soft, so sweet, so 
full of life-giving ozone that one won- 
ders at existence in cities being even 
bearable. But now we near a point 

J /^K 



r\ t 

of hoofs proclaim the approach of where the road making a turn back on 
the coach. With 
a shout and re- 
sounding crack of 
his long - lashed 
whip, the driver, 
"Doc" Curtis, 
swings his team 
up to the .steps 
of the veranda 
with a skill that 
would turn a 
member of the 
Tally -Ho club 
green with envy. 

We are in our seats ni 
a moment, the luggage ui 
the boot, and off we go 
down through the grav- 
elly river bottom, through 
the stream and up the 
bank on other side, and 
there, begin one of the most grandly 
picturesque drives to be had in all 

The camera man and the man who 
writes were on the box, and at the 
.start were rather inclined to be garni - 

"^ Va*v. 

it.self to reach a 
higher level, 
brings us face to 
face with the val- 
ley- we have just 
left. Away be- 
low us winds the 
rushing, brawl- 
ing river through 
the bottom lands, 
from here a cord 
of silver stretched 
across a green 
velvet ground. 
Far away to the 
limits of vision 
stretch the hills 
now green a s 
green can be in 
all their braver>' 
of spring, but 
soon to be dressed 
in tawney golden browns l)y the sum- 
mer sun's fierce heat. 

The road winds around and about 
the sides of the mountains, now along 
a short level at the bottom of .some can- 
on the sides of which ai'e covered 

■\ < ^ 

A Hunter s Home 

lous, but the grandeur of the surround- 
ings impressed even our world-hardened thick with growth of pine and oak 

brains into silent wonder and in a .sense 

There had been an aljundance ot 
rain yet here was a mountain road 
after only twenty-four hours of dry- 
ing weather as hard as macadam and 

small but sturd3^ The earth a rich 
l)lack loam carpeted thick with ferns 
and mosses, with here and there the 
delicate maiden hair hiding shyly be- 
hind her sturdier sisters. The high 
walls close set together permitting 

smooth as a city street, winding about only sparse rays of sunshine to filter 
and gradually approaching nearer and down lliroiigh the thick-spreading 
nearer the summit where we are foliage keeps the canon cool and daik, 



and here lurk the mountain quail out 
of the glare on the hill-side. 

Highland Srrinfjs 

An hour or so 
from Pieta we come 
in sight of the great 
^ graj^ wall of rock 
w h i c h everyone 
who has ever been over the road will 
remember. It is some two hundred 
feet long by one hundred and fifty 
high, and at regular intervals apart 
are pillar-like buttresses reaching from 
base to summit of carved stone work, 
from the point of view on the road it 
resembles the side elevation of some 
great building minus the windows. 

At the divide between the water 
sheds we had our first view of Clear 

As the honses stopped for 
a moment the camera man 
sighted his kodak and 
snapped it on the loveliest 

view of the road. Away in 
the distance lay the lake set 

amid encircling hills of 

greenest hue, itself as blue 

as turquoise, and beyond the 

lower -lying ones were a 

range of snow-capped moun- 
tains rearing their ct)ld pale 

cre-sts to the blue of the 

upper ether, we gazed and 

gazed for all too short a time 

and then began the drive 

down the valley to Highland 

Springs, through a much 

less rugged country more sylvan and 
jileasant to drive through. 

Highland .Springs Hotel, with its 
numerous adjacent cottages, lies on a 
pretty stream which here makes its way 
through a wide valley, the rich 
bolt(jni lands of which are covered 
deep Willi lush grass and grain crops. 
It was \\<-)\\ alx)ut four o'clock and 
we decidecl to remain here over night. 
The evening was delightful, the air of 
a balmy softness, heavy with the per- 
fume of spring and alive with the 
pleasant murnnir of insect life mingled 
with the guttural chorus of the frogs. 
We were billeted in a pretty little 
cottage, the verandah of which (jver- 
looked the beautiful valley. There 
we sat reveling in the beauty of our 
surroundings and the .sweet .spring 
air as only those who have spent long 
tedious months in musty city lodg- 
ings and ofiices can, until long after 
the sitn had set and the crescent moon 
lay atop the distant hills. 

We were up bright and early next 
morning to find the east aglow with 
promise of another perfect day, .stand- 
ing under the oaks shading the spring 
house we watched the fruition of 
the promise in a gorgeous sunrise 
and went into breakfast with an 
appetite sharpened by great draughts 
of ozone-laden air to do ju.stice to the 


Scece at Soda Bay 



freshly cauglit Irout, .stniwberrics with 
the dew on them, cream and Ijutlcr 
with the true grass flavor. 

Very soon after breakfast we were 
off, this time in a canopy-top coach and 
four-in-hand. We passed through the 
beautiful valley with its great stretches 
of champaign country in all its park- 
like beauty of gently-rolling grass 
land thickly studded here and there 
with great moss-covered oaks, many of 
them festooned with a \-ery beautiful 
silvery gray moss which hangs in 
delicate smoke-like wreaths from their 
branches. These trees with their gray 
bark covered in patclies with a thick 
green moss, their peculiar foliage of 
delicate form, wax-like texture and 
colored a most vivid green hung with 
this beautiful Spanish moss arc a pic- 
ture in themselves. There are trees of 
much greater size, and perhaps the 
New Kngland elm is more graceful ; 
but all in all there cannot be anywhere 
a more uniquely beautiful tree than 
our Californian oak, that parasite, (for 
with all its beauty and sentiment of 
association that is what it is) tiie mistle- 
toe, has made its home with many of 
them, and is slowly but surely sapping 
the lifeblood of these ancient fellows 
whose trunks nuisthave been of good- 
ly growth even when Drake sailed 
through the Golden Gate. 

The wide valley is rapidly being 
l)rought under cultivation, and every- 
where one sees j^oung orchards and 
vineyards, where but a short time ago 
chimese was the only crop, nearly all 
the way from Kelseyville to Soda I3ay, 
Clear Lake is in sight with its back- 
ground of mountains rising terrace-like, 
one range of peaks above another, until 
the shimmering white of the verj- 
loftiest walls in the view. Every now 
and then we stop to kodak some bit 
of land or water scape, that we may 
take it back with us to serve as a 
memento of this never-to-be-forgotten 
morning. Clear Ivake is the largest 
of the Lake County group of lakes, 
being some thirty' miles long by twelve 
in width. Soda Bay, at the .southerly 
cnd of it, takes its name from the trreat 

number of .soda springs that here gush 
up from the bottom of the lake and 
alongshore and seethe and foam, when 
they come into contact with the air at 
the top. Here the kodaker and the 
scribbler enjoyed a delightful bath in 
the largest spring of all, which boils 
from a rocky basin at the end of a point 
of land running out into tlie lake. The 
force of the water rushing from its 
luulerground and underwater source is 
.so great that it almost tosses a man 
about as a fountain jet keeps a ball 
in ])la\-. The water is plea.santly 
warm and leaves one in a de- 
lightfully restful condition. The 
surroundings at Soda Bay are ver\- 
beautiful. The views of lake, moun- 
tain and rolling, timbered country 
lend a charming variety' to the outlook. 
From here we retraced our route a 
short distance, and at Kel-seyville 
branch off to Lakeport. Lakeport. 
the county seat of Lake Comity, is a 
charmingly situated town of some two 
thousand people. Here we are to 
remain until the stagecoach from Pieta 
brings over the mails, passengers and 
express matter. We are most ho.spi- 
tably entertained at the Lakeview 
Hotel, and after luncheon sally out to 
do the town. It is vSaturday, and the 
people from the surrounding country 
are in town in goodly numbers, and 
business seems brisk. There are 
many well-stocked stores, two banks, 
a fine and public square, 
.several churches, and with all the 
facilities given by rapid mail and 
express service, long-distance tele- 
phone and telegraph, there is ever>- 
convenience one has in the city to 
tempt one to make his sunmier 
home here. The hotels, the Lake- 
view and Mound cottages are beauti- 
fully situated, commanding grand 
views of the lake and mountains, and 
are ideal places for a summer resi- 

At five o'clock, we leave Lakeport 
on the commodious well appointed 
steamer 0'/>' 0/ Lakeport, for Bartlett 
Landing, on the other side of the lake, 
where, after a delightful sail of little 



less than an hour, we take another 
four-in-hand, canopj'-top coach over 
the Bartlctt Springs and Clear Lake 
Stage Company's road to Bartlett 
Springs. This line runs through the 
most grandly beautiful country we 
have yet seen. As we wind about and 
about, climbing the hillside, we catch 
ever-changing views of the lake and 
the valleys below. The .sun is paint- 
ing his most gorgeous colors on sky 
and lake alike, and the west reflects a 
very blaze of glory. We sit silent, 
awed b}^ the unutterable grandeur of 

every possible accommodation, and the 
courteous manager makes us at home 
in an instant. After an exquisite sup- 
per, of which fresh caught mountain 
trout form the piece de resistance, we 
are .soon sleeping as only tired coachers 
.sleep after a long day in the fresh 
mountain air. 

Sunday morning we spend quietly 
wandering about in the valley, and in 
the afternoon are driven in still another 
four-in-hand over several miles of the 
road leading into Bartlett Springs from 
Sites which belongs to the Bartlett 

View from Bartlett Road 

the .scene, until at length the .summit 
is reached and the whole lake and its 
encircling mountains, with all the 
v^alleys and caiions, lie .spread Ix'fore 
us on the one side, and on tlie other is 
the Bartlett Valley, walled in l^y 
mountains, dark, gloomy and forbid- 
ding, with the fast-thickening .shades 
of tlie darkening night. Our driver 
chirrups to his horses, and away we go 
at a rattling clip down the trail, mak- 
ing the distance to Bartlett Springs in 
one-half or less the time it requires to 
come up from the landing. 

At Bartlett we find a hotel with 

Springs vStage Company. There has 
been rain during the night, and the 
clouds still lie low on the mountains, 
and the effects of light and shade are 
startling in their weird beauty. The 
road winds to and fro across the \alley, 
and every now and then we ford and 
reford the rushing mountain torrent, 
which is called Cache Creek, and is a 
famous trout .stream. We retiirn to 
Bartlett after a delightful drive, 
and again we are feasted on mountain 
trout, which one of the hotel guests 
liad caught that same afternoon, 
tlespite the rains of the night before, 


which hid brought the water up high 
in the creeks and made tlieni thick 

and nuiddy. 

Next niorn- 

ing we are 

i called at four 

o'clock and 

The Bartleft Sprinjj 

ger. As we look, he vanishes and we 
rub our eyes, so unreal has been the 
impression. And now comes the sun 
flooding all the world with glory 
Every blade of grass and leaf of tree 
takes on added beauty. The cold 
grays of the valley and canons and 
nKHUitain slopes warm into rich 
purples and golden haze lies across 
the more distant views. 

When we reach the summit there 
are views of such tran.scendant beauty 
that one dare not attempt to paint 
them. The valley behind and be- 
low us and in front still ancjther great 
\alley, and there the mountains slope 
to the lake, and then the lake itself, 
■~7~" in middle distance, and still beyond 
it more mountains. Konockti rears his 
crest highest of all and looks down in 
silent scorn of his le.sser brethren. 
We rattle down the grade. Harring- 
ton's sure hand holds the ribbons and 
he, swings his team around sharp 
curves with the practiced ease of the 
man who knows. All too soon, that 
glorious dash down the mountains 
through that exhilarating air is ended, 
and again we take the steamer to 
recross the lake to Lakeport. 

Here we find another team and can- 
op)' top awaiting us and another drive 
through valley is begun. The great 
charm of these Lake Countv Vallevs 





at five we leave Bartlett Springs 
for the lauding. The sky was cloud- 
less and such another sunrise as we 
saw that morning as we wound up 
the mountain road I can never hope 
to see again. All about us lay those 
great, rugged, frowning of 
granite covered at their base with kind- 
ly nature's cloak of grass, 
wild flowers and ferns. 
Here and there thick fast- 
nesses of chimese with 
green glades between in 
which the jackrabbits are 
leaping merrily at play or 
quietly nibl)ling t h e i r 
breakfasts, as the sounds 
of wheels and hoofs come 
to their sharp ears, they "^ 
sit up with ears erect, as 
still as stone, and then with 
a spring are in safety in a 
"jitTy"; suddenly some one cries. 
" look! " pointing to a grassy headland ." --. .^ _^.^ 

jutting out across the valley, and there on the Road to Witter Sp^inJrs'*^.S^:W^*^^!^ 
all eyes turn to see standing like a ""'--X '"'" 

bronze statue a noble buck, with head is their utter dissimi- V 

up, and distended nostrils, sniffing dan- larity. There are uo :■ 




two of them enough alike to be at 
all monotonous. Every moment some 
new charm comes close upon the last ; 
as we approach lyowcr Lake we 
pass a rancherie where the Indians 
are catching and drying catfish and 
carp. The lake is full of them and 
they are piled up on the tops of their 
wickiups to dry and go to eke out the 
gentle aborigines meager fare. It is a 
picturesque scene enough, but one 
can't get up much sentiment for a 
people who eat catfish and carp. 
Here the man who knows and " ISIaje" 
Whitton who is driving us, indulge 
in a few reminiscent fish stories 
such as tales of fords rendered 
impassable by great masses of fish 
becoming gorged in them and the 
shores of streams being left so covered 
with the dead ones of them after a 
spring freshet that the farmers were 
obliged to turn out and plow them 
under so horrible was the odor from 
the putrefying mass. 

The valley here is wide and the 
ranches are well kept, and evidently 
the owners are prospering. Orchards 
and vineyards are being set out and soon 
this whole section of I^ake County 
will be one great garden spot for the 
bottom lands are practically inex- 
haustible. The whole country is one 
great carpet of green, and wild flowers 
abound. The oaks are out in fullest 
foliage and we notice one old beauty, 
the leaves of whicli are of a l)right 
yellow, 'and at the distance we are 
from it, we take it for an acacia, but 
it turns out much to our surprise, to 
be an oak. The valley narrows 
again now and we begin another 
climb to Witter Springs. The grade 
is a very easy one though, and the 
views of Clear Lake and " Uncle Sam" 
as the highest peak of Mount Konockti 
is called, are superb. Witter vSprings 
are reached about noon and here we 
lunch. One is always hungry in this 
country apparently, we have l)een 
up since four o'clock and lia\e had 
two breakfasts, but are eating again 
with undiminished aj^petitesat no(.)n. 
There is a pleasantly situated, well 

conducted hotel and several pretty 
cottages here. Such views are to 
be had nowhere else, as from Wit- 
ters it commands the whole of Clear 
Lake, Konockti and the Bartlett 
Range. After luncheon we retrace 
our route again to the road to the 
Blue Lakes. Just before the lakes 
are reached we come to another water- 
ing place known as Saratoga, a very 
gem of a place it is, too, standing 
in a little cove in the mountains, 
that wall it in all about and one has 
an instinctive sense of peace and rest- 
fulness come to him as he sits on the 


'--; ■a«,4... 

At Saratojja 

wide veranda of the hotel and looks 
out upon the blue distances of the 
hills. There is an intense (juiet here, 
broken only l)y the winds that surge 
and sigh gently through the .swaying 
branches of the oaks, and seem to 
whisper all kinds of pleasant invita- 
tions to one to come with them and 
stray free and careless through the 
mountains, fish and shoot and tramp, 
leave the hard, cold, .selfish world, 
with its .sordid care and worry and 
selfishness, to those who choose to 

stay in it and , but here " l\Iaje " 

l)reaks in on ni\ reverie with an 



injunction to get al)oarcl, which I 
obey though not with much alacrity 
and we are on the road for lilue Lakes 

The road leads now through tliickcts 
of young timber, clad in the tenderest 
shades of green, to one hand, is a bit 
of tule land now overflowed in some 
places from the heavy rains of the last 
few weeks. The tules stand rank and 
thick in the rich, black, wet earth. 
Brilliant-winged, and breasted birds 
sway gracefully to and fro on them as 
the wind sweeps by ; a great blue 
heron stands on one leg at the edge of 
a pool pretending to be asleep ; there 
is a heavy drone of insect life in the 
air, and the dead, heavy heat of high 
noon is over all. The sun beats down 
pitilessly into the valley, and there is 
silence in the coach. Suddenly we 
round a curve, and there is a long- 
drawn ah ! from every man of us, for 
there below us lie the Blue Lakes, two 
great turquoises set in emerald. Oh ! 
the beauty of it ! There are no Swiss 
or Italian lakes, bluer or with greener 
hills or brighter skies about or above. 
We drive slowl>' along, absorbed in the 
beauty of it all. Such impressions 
come but once. The countr^^ side is at 
its loveliest. Nature has done her 
utmost, and is at rest, as if wrapt in 
admiration of her own handiwork, as 

*»!»», -^f;X*•;« 

*•" - 7 

Laurel De!l 

Vol. II— 21 

Scene at Blue Lakes 

an artist might stand before some fin- 
ished picture or statue of his own 

We come (all too soon) to Laurel 
Dell, a Swiss cottage standing on a 
grassy flat on the lower lake, with 
other less pretentious cottages about 
it. The very courteous landlord 
shows all about his lovely home, 
and here one might indeed find 
rest from carking care. The big 
world seems ver>- remote from such 
quiet as this, but we are still to 
drive to the head of the upper lake 
that aftenioou, so have to leave this 
little Eden, much against our inclina- 

tions. The road cur\'es along 

the shore bf the lakes, and a short 
distance above Laurel Dell we 
come to another resort, just at 
the point where the upper of the 
Blue Lakes flows into the lower, 
a hotel and several pretty cottages 
known as the ' ' Blue Lakes Ho- 
tel." Here the valW's bottom 
is widest, and the lawn-like ex- 
panse of grass laud is timbered 
with clumps of oak, gnarled and 
moss-covered. We drive slowly 
along the road to the head of the lake 



where is still another resort known as 
Le Trianon, a ver}^ prettil}^ situated 
hotel, returning to the Blue I^akes 
Hotel for dinner and to spend the 

After an early dinner we take a 
skiff, and sculling far out into the 
lake, ship the oars and let our craft 
drift at its own sweet will. The sun 
is dipping behind the western hills and 
the shadows are creeping down into 
the valleys. The lake has lost its color 
and now lies black as ink with here 
and there a star reflected on its bosom, 
the silence is unbroken save for the 
splashing of the tiny wavelets against 
the sides of the skiff as we drift and 
the occasional leaping of a fish. And 
now the short twilight is ended and 
the blackness of night is over all, the 
mountains loom dim, dark, mysterious, 
all about the lake lies in shoreless im- 
mensity, to our imagination a very 
ocean and we the only creatures in all 
this solitude. But now a hail from 


I^SVf^ i^-^'' jWi^-*^ 







At Blue Lakes 


near at hand inquires in terse vernacu- 
lar ' ' where are you drifting to ? " and 
we awake from our dreaming to find our 
skiff about to foul another in which a 
j^oung man and his sweetheart are 
moongazing. With many apologies we 
betake ourselves to the sculls and are 
soon at the landing and very shortly 
abed and asleep. 

Another early start lies before us 
and the first of dawn finds us 
ready for breakfast. Before it is ready 
though we make our way up a canon 
near by to view a very beautiful and 
picturesque fall that comes leaping 
down the mountain side to the lake. 

The walk sets an edge on appetite 
and we hasten back to a perfectly ap- 
pointed breakfast table and the cry of 
all aboard as the coach swings up to the 
piazza comes too soon to be welcome, 
but time is precious to a well-conducted 
stage line and we are forced to take 
our places and in a moment are mov- 
ing swdftly along the smooth lakeside 
road which curves along the whole 
length of the shore here, over on the 
other side the mountains come sheer 
down to the water and there is no 
room for a road of any kind save a hill 
trail, consequently the other shore is 
uninhabited save for one family whose 
house is very picturesquely situated 
on the hillside. 

With many murmurs of 
we leave the blue 
lakes behind and now enter 
another valley through which 
we drive at an easy trot 
gradually ascending until we 
come to the divide where an 
arm of the Russian River 
has its source and it ac- 
companies us now all the 
way into Ukiah. Our all 
too short outing is draw- 
ing to an end and we are 
all saddened by the knowl- 
edge that we are saying 
farewell to the mountains 
and lakes, the forests and 
streams, the sweet fresh 
air and above all that 
sense of real freedom thai; 





^;, V N 





comes to one only when he has turned 
his back on the world and all its sordid 
cares and money grubbing and throws 
himself into nature's arms content to 
be just a free animal again with no 
thought for the morrow. 

But there is beauty all about us, 
fresh and sweet as air can be is the 
morning breeze, the grass as green and 
the flowers as brilliant as ever, but 
alas each tuni of the wheels takes us 
nearer to the city and to work, and 
despite our forced gayety there is a 
ring of regret in each one's voice 
which finds an echo in every heart. 
The valley widens all the time and 
again wc are in the midst of grain and 
grass fields with orchards, vineyards 
and hop yards interspersed and at 
length come in sight of Ukiah and 
soon pull up at the door of our hotel, 
the Curtis House, and our drive is at 
an end. 

Ukiah is a prett>- little cit}' of some 
two thousand people, well built and 
with every appearance of solid pros- 
perity. It is the terminal point of the 
San Francisco and North Pacific Rail- 
road, and from here stage lines run to 
all points in Lake Count}-. Messrs. 
Miller & Conner operating the line 
over which we have just driven. We 
are introduced to " Uncle " Jim Miller 
and the wonderful six pound watch 
which Wells, Fargo & Co. presented 

him with as a recognition in a small 
way for his bravery in bringing the 

Jim Miller, Pioneer Stnt'e Driver, and his Six Pound 

treasure box through in safety, when, 
as one of their drivers, he was ordered 
at the muzzle of a double-barrelled 
shot gun to throw it out. 

The Curtis House at which we 
lunched commands a magnificent view 
of the surrounding mountains and as 
we sat after luncheon waiting for the 
carriage to take us to the station we 
silently made our adiaix to the moun- 
tains, lakes and forests we had spent 
.such supremely contented days among 
and thanked heaven that they are 
always there for us to go back to 
when the world of men becomes un- 


Street Scene in L'kiah 



In this Avhite tent, 
Far from the throng who worship in Thj^ name, 
With eyes upHfted to Thy firmament, 

Studded with points of flame, 

And the curved disc of gold 
But faintly seen above the shafts which rise, 
Staunch redwood pillars, upright, grand and old, 

Seeming to touch .the skies : 

On the sweet sabbath night. 
We kneel, O Father ! sending up to Thee 
From this green altar, century-worn, yet bright 

With golden broidery, 

Incense of praise. 
This vast cathedral through a thousand >'ears 
Has held the echoes through each changing phase 

Of the swift-moving spheres. 

The strangely woven light, 
Caught in the tangles of the loftiest tree, 
Or shimmering in the glow of yon blue height, 

Reflects but Heaven and Thee. 

Tlie voices of the air 
Are flung full -freighted from the hills afar. 
How glorious are the messages they bear, 

Leaping from star to star ! 

Our hearts are glad ; 
Thy organs peal with ever grand accord ; 
With garments of rejoicing wc are glad ; 

Praise ye the Lord ! 

The anthem's swell ; 
The little insect hidden in the sod ; 
The thrilling rapture of the bird songs tell 

How good is God. 

The cr3\stal stream 
Sends out its murmuring music to the night, 
And on its changeful ripples falls the gleam 

Of heavenly light. 

No human voice 
Touches the silence with the wand of speech. 
We kneel, baptized with gladness ; we rejoice, 

That thus Thy throne we reach. 

Alone ! Alone with God ! 
Beatitude beyond the ken of thought ! 
The chrism of Thy love is poured abroad. 

Our hearts, o'erwrought 

With greatful ecstasy. 
Send out their joy on every throbbing chord. 
Responses from their depths reach up to Thee. 

Praise ye the Lord ! 


CALIFORNIA has one attraction that has 
advertised it more, and possibly drawn 
more tourists within its borders than any 
other feature. This is the Yosemitc — the 
great natural wonder of the high Sierras. 
The care of the Yosemitc and its preserva- 
tion from vandalism is a sacred trust, and it 
is a matter of congratulation that under the 
administration of Governor Markham 
especial attention has been given to this 
state park, and that it is being carefully 
watched and preserved. The Yosemitc is 
in the direct hands of a Board of Commis- 
sioners to whose good judgment and taste 
is left the general management, and what- 
ever may have been the shortcomings in 
the past, it is safe to say that the park is 
now in good hands, and the people may 
rest assured that whatever is done will be 
done for the best. Recently Governor 
Markham made the tour of the park with a 
distinguished Californian, Prof. T. S. C. 
Lowe, the well-known scientist, and it is now 
announced that he is a commissioner, having 
received the appointment while CJi route. 
A better selection could not have been 
made, as it is a guarantee that the affairs of 
the Yoscmite are in good hands. Trof. 
Lowe is one of the most enterprising men in 
the State ; is in touch with all the great 
movements for state improvement, and in 
his own section, Pasadena, is at the head of 
a number of large enterprises, one being the 
Mt. Wilson railroad, that is to reach the top 
of the Sierras, back of Pasadena, and be the 
pioneer mountain road in California. 
Prof. Lowe is :i man of taste, judgment and 
remarkable ability, and will take the per- 
sonal interest in the park that a man of 
larger means can do. The appointment is 

one in which the people may well congrat- 
ulate themselves. 


San Francisco is a singular example of 
a city growing in spite of itself. There is 
or has been lacking that spirit of enterprise 
that is found in the great cities of the East, 
yet Sau Francisco moves on, reaching out 
year by year, covering more territory, 
showing that it has a reserve force that but 
needs development to produce great results. 
What Chicago is to the inter-continental 
region, San Francisco is to the Pacific Slope 
of North America, and will in coming years 
be a city of vast proportions. In point of 
fact, it is far below Avhat it should be 
to-day. With the finest harbor on the coast, 
railroad facilities possessed by no other city 
on the coast, a climate that produces a vig- 
orous and manly race, the city should be the 
peer of any in the land. It will not be many 
years before San Francisco will reach from 
the bay to the ocean, and the sandhills will 
be lost in the covering of fine residences. 
Parks or breathing places will become an 
important feature and should be secured at 
present, while land is cheap. The attitude of 
the cit}' to the present park should be one 
of indulgence. It should be beautified in 
every possible way, provided with a fine 
zoological garden, and fitted up in a man- 
ner commensurate with the wealth and 
dignity of the city. The art gallen,- and 
schools of technolog}- have been too long in 
taking shape. To-day this city should have 
a well-equipped museum of fine arts. While 
the fine museum at the Academy of Sciences 
should be overflowing with specimens and 
collections, the donations of grateful citi- 
zens. There is a suspicion that the city is 
phlegmatic, is behind the times, and this 




should be nipped in the bud. Nature has 
done ever>^thing for this location. There 
is the wealth of the Indies in the pockets of 
the people, which should be diverted into 
channels that will produce good results to 
the greatest number of people. 

Public attention is being called to the 
activity in Japanese immigration. Several 
years ago, Japanese were rare in America 
and the possession of a good Japanese cook 
or attendant was considered especially for- 
tunate. To-day the little men are a drug on 
the market, and what is to all intents and 
purposes a .steady and constantly increasing 
immigration is in progress. What effects 
this will have remains to be seen, but that 
it will be detrimental to our interests, if 
carried to a great extent, there can be no 

The Japanese are, however, not so offen- 
sive to the average Califoruian as the 
Chinese, The latter rarely spends a cent 
that remains in America. His earnings go 
to the Flowery Kingdom, His clothes, 
food, drink, opium, in fact, everything is 
imported. He docs not become American- 
ized, and will not. On the contrary the 
Japanese adopt American customs, patronize 
our tailors and buy our food. They also 
bring their wives here, send their children 
to our schools and would in all probability 
become as good citizens as many aliens that 
find a home here. While this may be true, 
our interests demand that a watch be kept 
on the immigration, and if an attempt is 
being made to pour indigent Japanese into 
America to take the place of the decreasing 
Chinese, then the government should 
demand a halt. 

of these has its resorts, its nooks and 
corners of some kind. In the present issue, 
the Yosemite is described but one of hun- 
dreds of valleys that afford delight 
and pleasure to thousands. Hundreds of 
springs, lakes and streams are to be had, 
lofty mountains, ever snow-capped, \vith 
living glaciers on their slopes, inviting the 
Alpine climber, while along shore we find 
localities that afford the finest fishing in the 
land. To the north are the great glaciers 
and the strange lands of Alaska, teeming 
with game, all these but suggestions that 
San Francisco is the center of a land espec- 
ially bountiful in the good things of nature 
available during the summer vacation. 

TilH summer-time is on, the schools are 
closing, and business men are crowding sea 
and mountain side in search of recreation 
that will produce new blood and health for 
the struggle during the remainder of the 
year. This calls attention to the remark- 
able resources of California in the way of 
health and pleasure resorts. California 
has the largest line of seacoast and moun- 
tain range of any state, and every league 


For its size and population it is said that 
no city in the world accomplishes so much 
for charity and for the education and eleva- 
tion of the poor as the city of San Francisco. 
The kindergarten in its various forms 
flourishes here, and thousands of children 
are taken from the street and given a start 
in life. The school is the training school 
for the future citizen. He is made or 
vmmade by it, and too much attention can- 
not be given to the question. In one of the 
kindergarten schools the pupils are almost 
entirely made up of what might be termed 
the human refuse of the streets, waifs 
picked up here and there and brought into 
the school, where they are taught and pre- 
pared for the public schools of higher grade. 
In almost every instance these children are 
of foreign birth and parentage, and the 
importance of having them trained by 
American teachers and imbued with Amer- 
ican ideas from the very start can be 
realized. The kindergartens are supported 
by the philanthropic citizens of San Fran- 
cisco, and a nobler charity than this does 
not exist. Another movement that is at- 
tracting the attention of our thinking people 
is the Boys' Brigade, which deserves the 
support of all people who have the means 
and inclination to give. This movement is 
destined to be one of the most important 
that has appeared for years, as it takes young 
men from the paths they are following and 
makes brave, honorable and good men of 
them. Lend it a helping hand. 


CALIFORNIA, with its varied cMmates, 
its warm winters and never-ending sea- 
son of flowers, naturally attracts artists 
and men and women of literary tastes. 
Year by year the army of litterateurs is re- 
ceiving additions to its ranks, and in the 
near future California will become one of 
the great literary centers of the country, 
the winter home of many celebrated men 
and women. California claims Bret Ilarte, 
Mark Twain, Henry George — now among 
its absentees. Joaquin Miller lives near 

John Vance Cheney is a vSan Francisco 
librarian. Ambrose Eierce lives within 
reaching distance, as does Gertrude Ather- 
ton, whose stories and novels delight many. 
W. C. Morrow, the versatile story-teller is a 
resident of San I'rancisco. Charlotte Per- 
kins Stetson, Robert Duncan Milne. Arthur 
McEwen, George Hamlin Fitch, Helen 
Gregorj'-I'lesher, Peter Robinson; Theodore 
H. Hittcll, and a score more are names well 
and favorably known to the reading public, 
wherever the English tongue is spoken. 
Over at Martinez lives John Muir, one of the 
most delightful of California writers who 
is seen too rarely in public print. Charles 
Howard Shinn, Miss Shinn, Edward L. 
Townsend, Julia Shafter, Mrs. Arthur Jules 
Goodman, are all well known names, while 
there are are a score of others that might be 
mentioned, who are forming the literary 
army that is giving California of the North 
fame and honor. In the South the writers 
are also gathering in force. In the San 
Gabriel Valley we have W. H. Channing, 
son of Ellery Channing, and his gifted 
daughter, Grace Ellery Channing. Here 
Jeanne C. Carr has made one of the 
most beautiful homes in the State. Doro- 
thea Lummis, whose bright saj-ings are 
familiar, lives in Los Angeles, which also is 
the home of Mrs. Fremont, General Lionel A. 
Sheldon, author and writer,lives in Pasadena, 
a neighbor to Caspar T. Hopkins, a contrib- 
utor to the literary press of the day, and 
there are many more, suggestive that Cali- 
fornia is well to the fore in the world of 

Columbus' Books are appearing in the 
field in remarkable numbers, indeed, this is 
a Columbian year. One of the best we have 
seen is the story of the discover^' of the New 
World by Columbus, by I'rederick Saunders 
of the Astor Library. Thos. Whittaker 
publisher. Here we have in a nutshell the 
entire story in brief. It is a busy man's 
book, a work which supplies the facts, and 
leaves the reader room to put in his own 
theories, a subtle compliment to his intelli- 
gence. The subject of anti-Columbian ex- 
plorers is given in six interesting chapters. 
I\Ir. Saunders style may be judged from the 

"Less is sometimes known of our great men 
whose names have become historic than of 
the majority of persons whose claim to our 
regard is of less account. This is more 
remarkable, since the realm of biographical 
literature was never so widespread as at the 
present time. It .seems as if the quota of 
knowledge about our representative men 
was to be in the inverse ratio of their 
greatness : as in the instances of Homer, 
Shakespeare, and the hero of this brief 
sketch, Columbus, although not of the 
order of representative bards, was yet a 
colossus among navigators, and endowed 
with a force of character and intrepidity of 
purpose that defied the perils before which 
others succumbed. He achieved his work 
amidst betrayal and treachery-, and a long 
succession of adverse circumstances. 

The historical character of such a man 
affords to the student a fertile theme of 
thoughtful consideration. It is, therefore, 
to be regretted, that, although there have 
been so many eminent writers who have 
sought to portray his remarkable life storj', 
j'et, owing to the fact of the paucity of doc- 
umentary records, we possess but varying 
glimpses of his life, rather than a complete 
portraiture of his personality. Not only 
are there blank intervals in his career, but 
even the time and place of his nativity are 
j-et in doubt ; the best sustained record is, 
however, that Columbus was bom at Genoa, 
about 1436, or, according to some writers, 




The annals of biography, may be said, 
indeed, scarcely to present a parallel in- 
stance of a character so complex and 
anomalous — if we are to accept all the con- 
flicting statements of his various biographers 
— as that of the renowned discoverer. Cer- 
tain it is that there have been few, if any, 
whose life record has been so chequered 
and pathetic, yet so illustrious in its results, 
and whose career is invested with such 
stirring and romantic interest as his. 

Columbus, it has been said, stood midway 
between the mediaeval and modern ages ; 
even his adventurous voyage over a dark 
and perilous ocean seems symbolic of the 
fact ; for gloom and disa.ster overshadowed 
his course until he gained the Western shore 
where they vanished, and all became trans- 
figured with the radiant light." 

In his new comedy of the wildwood, 
"The Foresters," Tennyson shows no 
diminution in vigor or in sureness of touch ; 
and as compared with his earlier attempts in 
dramatic form it will rank high. Through- 
out "The Foresters" we feel the warm 
pulse of a life that is free and noble and 
even in its rudeness touched with the grace 
of courtly manners. It is fuller of move- 
ment than are most of his productions and 
we are carried on to the end with almost 
nothii.g to hinder our enjoyment of the 
flowing action of the piece. 

The songs that arc put into the mouths of 
man and maid are such dainty bits of work- 
manship as Tennyson alone can give us. 
Nothing could be brighter or more in keep- 
ing than Marian's " Love flew in at the 
window," in the first scene of the first act, 
and the rugged earnestness of soul that 
lurks in the Anglo-Saxon race, its serious 
dreaming and its thoughtfulness find 
wonderfully sweet expression in Little 
John's : — 

" To sleep ! to sleep ! the long bright day is done, 
And darkness rises from the fallen sun. 
To sleep ! to sleep ! etc." 

So it does also in Robin Hood's soliloquy 
in the first scene of the second act. lie 
says, — 

" So to meditate 
Upon my greater nearness to the birthday 
Of the after-life, when all the .sheeted dead 
Are shaken from their stillness in the grave 
By the last trumpet." 

But it must be said that before he ends this 
soliloquy our poet makes him say what he 
should not ; it is this, 

" Our vice-king John, 
True king of vice — true play on words — " 

But in all the comedy there is no other 
expression that seems so unreal, so nearly 
affected as does this. In the passage between 
Marian and Robin Hood in the first scene of 
the second act there is a fire and passion 
that for a moment only, as the moonlight 
falls upon her, lets Robin be awed to the 
saying of such Avords as these : — 

"O look ! before the shadows of these dark oaks 
Thou scemest a saintly splendor out from Heaven, 
Clothed with the mystic silver of her moon." 

The atmosphere of the greenwood that 
stirs in the piece as do the summer winds 
among the branches, piping and merry, is 
best seen in these words of Marian to her 
maid : — 

" If my man-Robin were but a bird-Robin, 
How happily would we lilt among the leaves 
'I<ovc,!ove,love, love!' — what merry madness — listen!" 

But she speaks thus can also say this to 
the sheriff of Nottingham who with his 
gold tries to win her for his wife : — 

" But while 
I breathe Heaven's air and Heaven looks down on me, 
And smiles at my best meanings, I remain 
Mistress of mine own self and mine own soul." 

And so she is true to her outlaw lover and 
reigns queen of the wildwood, till King 
Richard comes to his own again, and Robin 
Hood is once more Earl of Huntingdon. 

Max O'Rell has recently lectured in 
California, where he was received heartily, 
and his latest book ' ' English Pharisees and 
French Crocodiles," from the press of 
Cassell & Co., will be read with especial 
interest, as it appears to be addressed to 
Americans, especially, and unlike some 
alien writers and critics, he hits us and hits 
us hard, but with the best of good humor. 
Tile style of the book is that of O'Rell. No 
more need be .said, and will furnish mental 
food, thought and amusement for the 

The Century Dictionary is, so far 
as it affects general education, the most 
important event of the j'ear, and in glanc- 
ing over its pages, which sparkle with the 
things one wishes to know, it is almost im- 
possible to find a fault. There is every- 
thing to commend, and no library is 
complete without it, and no literary man 
can aff"ord to have it far from reach. 

Few writers in this country have such a 
hold upon the reading jiublic as Joel Chan- 
dler Harris, the author of " Uncle Remus," 
and his latest book on the plantation will be 
read with great interest. 


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GRANIA The story of an Island 

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CHARLES DARWIN: His Life and Work 

By Charles Frederick Holder, LL. D. 




" The les.son of the life and work of the late Charle.s 
Darwin, as related by Charles Frederick Holder, is so 
wholesome that parents will do well to brinfj it to the 
attention of their children. The story is related in a 
very readable style and serves as an admirable por- 
traft of one of the gentlest and best of men."— /%?/«- 
delphia Press. 

"To the j-oung, yet uninstructed in any phase of 
the subject, a book like this is peculiarly aclniirable." 
— Brooklyn, N. Y. Times. 

" Mr. Holder has woven the incidents of hi.'^ ( Dar- 
win's) life into a fresh and vigorous narative that will 
be none the less interesting to older readers because 
it is also addressed to the j'oung." — Courier Journal, 
Louisville, Ky. 

"... Mr. Holder's volume is calculated to meet a 
definite need and it .should prove welcome, especially 
to the young. . . . "—A'eza Vork Tribune. 

" The author has the rare art of making interesting 
any .subject which he touches. Hence, with so rich a 
theme as this he has produced a storj- that is very 
readable. — Sati Francisco Chronicle. 

" Charles Lamb has somewhere said that men 
should be modest for their friends as well as for them- 
selves. It is this vicarious modesty which makes the 
charm of Holder's life of Darwin. It is as modest as 
Darwin would have liked to have it modest. It shows 
not only appreciation of his strength, but a kinship 
with' him in its unostentation. Its eulogy is iniin- 
tentional and unobtrusive." — New York Commercial 
A dvertiser . 

" The volume is exceedingly interesting in style and 
matter, and from the pen of one amply competent to 
make it so." — Boston Transcript. 

"The book fills a valuable place in literature." — 
Pasadena Star. 

"This life of Darwin will be hailed with delight. 
. . . The work throughout is excellent. "^lA""'/;// oy" 

" Mr. Holder possesses the art of making what 
would be a dry book in other hands than his, enter- 
taining as well as instructive." — l.ilciarv Neii's. 

"|Mr. Holder has rendered great service to younger 
readers thisby volume . . . has done his work well 
. . . one of the best volumes of tlie series." — Herald, 

"A fine contribution to the literature which has 
grown up about the name of the famous scientist." — 
Rochester Herald, April 20. 

" It is an admirable vohtme. . . . The skill shown 
in blending the personal flavor with the scientific 
career, and making each illustrate the other, is verj- 
great." — Chicago Times, May 2. 

" Charmingly told and liberally illustrated." — Cin- 
cinnati Times-Star, April 30. 

" The early bent, the growing and strengthening 
characteristics, the physical sufferings and the ripened 
serenity of the man are beautifully and feelingly re- 
lated." — Times, Kansas City, May n. 

"An admirable work . . . There are other lives 
of Darwin, notably, one by his son ; but there is none 
which tells what one wishes to know about him 
so compactly and satisfactorily as this." — Indianapolis 
Journal, May iS. 

" A valuable popular biography of a great and pro- 
found student of nature." — Brooklyn Eagle, April 20. 

" Of the many biographies and sketches 01 the life 
of Darwin that have appeared within a few years, 
the one here under notice promises to be in many re- 
spects the most satisfactory." — S. F. Bulletin, May 9. 

" The work is one of intense interest throughout." 
— San Diego Sun, May 4. 

" The work Mr. Holder has done could hardly have 
been improved and his book will surely find the place 
it deserves in the favor of those who read the best 
books of Science." — Hartford, Conn. Post. 

" Mr. Holder has certainly given us a volume which 
all will read with profit and pleasure. . . . The 
volume is delightfully illustrated." — Church Union, 
New York. 

" The author has done well in summarizing the life 
and work of the great naturalist in such a way as to 
make it attractive and instructive to the general 
reader." — American, Nashville, Tenn. 


LOUIS AGASSIZ: His Life and Work 





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Tlie PDlflal Liie ipaice GompaDy oi |lew M 

RICHARD A. McCURDY, President 

i o 

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The Mutual Life Insurance Company of New 
York is the only one of the many Eastern Life 
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On the 31st of December, 1691 the Gpand Total of 

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Here are the Items;: 

Paid for Death Claims - - - $119,374,893. 18 

" " Matured Endowments - 29,469.432 60 

" Annuities - . - . 1,187,560 44 

" Surrenders - - - 86,471.837 06 

" IMvideuds " " ' _l 86,944,135.75 

Total - - - . $323,447,85903 

iff " ""^^^ While nearly One Hundred and Forty-nine millions 

"; JkB^ were paid for beath Claims and Endowments, it will 

be seen tliat nearly Kifhty-seven Millions were received 
by tlie Policy-hiilders in tlie shape of dividends or 
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The natural question following the perusal of these figures will be, "What did the Company receive from its 
Policy-holders? " 

It has received for premiums from organization until December 31, 1S91, ^418,'-"34,67'1.(>5: up to the same date the 
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that date, but up to the beginning of the present year the stewardship of the Mutual Liie can be accurately gauged: 

It Received from Policy-holders $l1,s.s;{|,t'.7^.(>5 

It Paid Policy-holders ;!-j;!,l 17,859.0:? 

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MUTUAL, T.TFK CONSOLS— The Consol Policy recently announced by the Mutual Life Insurance 
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401 California St., San Francisco 

Vs. A ■'f ».. h ^/f-ts. 1 ^«4^. & yf^ 



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Published Monthly 

The Californian Publishing Co. 

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Manacck and Secretary. 





The California Hotel, 
















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Home Ivnowledgfe 

is all astray about scrofula. Pale, thin, delicate, children are apt to 
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Our knowledge of scrofula is becoming clearer. Ten years ago we 
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Scott's Emulsion of cod-liver oil, at any ilriif; store, |1. 

Vol. 2. 

No. 3. 













Crank Okvsicks IN' Action. ..... 



Ilhislratecl by coiirttsy of the P.-isadcna Loan Association. 

HOPE: Poem ....... 


iMiIIy i!lustrritt'<l 1>y full pajje and oIIilt cuts, liy Tlior, 
Dalilgrcn, Harris, Dalmcr, ttc. 


Illusti-.-itcd liy Dcnslow. 


I'ullj' illustrated from photographs by Taber. 



JIM BARKER: Poem ..... 


FRAU 1,125 EI<: A Story 

Illustrattd by Denslow from sketches by Constance Snow. 

I,I2J: A Story 

Illustrated bv Dcnslnw. 



.\rc,rsTK Wky 

■ 3S5 

Hon. Nestor \. YorNG 



J.\Mi;s Carson Kexnell 

. ^»8 

John \V. Wood 


Ricn.\RU II. McDonald, Jr. 

. 365 


. 3S2 M. Reed 

• tSi 

Major W. A. Elderkin, l". S. 



.\ Lady's Jovrxal . 


Ji;an Porter Rudd 

• 596 

Adele Gleason 


(Pasadena) ...... Charles Frederick Holder 

Illustrated from jihotds by Crandall, Jarvis and Mill. 



Inilly ilhistratedby I.atour, Dahlgren and from photographs. 


Illustrated by Dahlgren. 

J. S. Brainard 
Rkv. Frank Dixon 

I.ArRA Bride Powers 


Re-election of a President— The (Growth of I'rban Population— T)ie Growth ol California. 




Copyright iSgi, by 
The Caljfofniau Publishing Co. 

Eutered at San Francisco postoffice 
as sccuud-class ma:l matter. 











The Californian. 


Many of the articles in the previous issues of TuK Califokxiax have attracted wide- 
spread attention and comment. Some of them are as follows. Back numbers can be 
obtained at twenty-five cents apiece : 

Cross-Country Riding in California F. F. Rowland, M. D 

California Weather Lieut. John Finley 

The Olive in California Hon. P'lhvood Cooper. . . . 

Climates of Southern California P. C. Remondino, ISI. D.. , 

Among the Highbinders Rev. F. J. Masters, D. D. . 

The Forests of California Hon. Abbot Kinney, For- 
estry Chairman 

Chinese Woman Slavery in America M. G. C. Edholni 

A California Colony M. Hayward 

The Problem of Cheap Transportation W. L. Merry 

At the Drv Tortugas Durinsr the War 

Nicaragua Canal W. L. Merry 

The Hairy Men of Japan H. E. G. Flescher 

The Labor Question on the Pacific Coast John Bonner 

Presbyterianism in California Rev. Robert MacKenzie. . 

The Orange in California M. C. PVederick 

The Mound Builders W. K. Moorehead 

In the Redwood Forests vS. D. Gra}- 

The Press of San Francisco James P. Cramer 

The National Guard of California Gen. C. C. Allen 

vSome American Glaciers Chas. R. Ames 

Some American Glaciers Chas. R. Ames 

Opium and Its Votaries Rev. F. J. Masters, D. D . . 

How the Opium Den Pictures Were Taken 

In Palm Valley Geo. Hamilton Field 

Art in Japanese vSwords H. E. vS. Flescher 

Lake Tahoe Anna C. Murphy 

Review of the Fur-vSeal Controvers}^. Lieut. Cantwell 

Shall We Educate Our Politicians? Caspar T. Hopkins 

Political vStrategy Ex-Gov. Lionel A.Sheldon 

In the Vosemite C. T. Gordon 

The Restoration of Pompeii ... J. J. Peatfield 

A Southern California Mountain Railway Olaf Ellison 

The Schools of San Francisco F. H. Hackett 

Through Lake County on a vSix-in-Hand Geo. C. Brooke 


The comments of the press on recent issues of Thk Califokxi.vx are interesting. A 
few are as follows : 































I, No. 2 
I, No. 2 
I, No. 2 
I, No. 2 
I, No. 2 

I, No. 3 
I, No. 3 
I , No. 3 
I, No. 3 

I, No. 5 
I, No. 5 
I , No. 5 
I , No. 5 
1 , No. 5 
I, No. 5 
I, No. 5 
I, No. 6 
I. No. 6 

1 , No. 6 

2, No. I 
I, No. 6 
I , No. 6 

1, No. 6 

2, No. I 
2, No. I 
2, No. I 
2, No. I 
2, No. I 

2, No. 2 

2, No. 2 

2, No. 2 

2, No. 2 

2, No. 2 

'■ The publishers of this majj;aziiie liavc merited a 
preat deal of praise, and their endeavors clearly 
illustrate that a magazine that is edited on the Pacific 
Coast can be made sufficiently interesting to attract 
readers on the Atlantic Coast as well.'' — Bos/on 
Hnald, June J^th. 

Thk Califohma MA(iAZlNE for June is evidence of 
the growth of wealth, population and artistic tastes 
of the Pacific Slope. * * The table of contents shows 
a varied and rich assortment of first-class reading, 
and a glance through the pages of the magazine 
discloses illustrations that are unexcelled in any 
publication." — Detroit Neics, May 29th. 

Thanks will be due TlIK Califoknian if the jMiblic 
comes to know the Pacific Coast as well as it does the 
.'\tlanlic shores. — Public I.ettfccr, Pliiladelphia, Pa., 
June 2(1. 

At a single stride, THE Califoknian has stepped 
into the front rank of illustrated magazines.— The 
jVatioiial Prcsbyteiian, Indianapolis. 

The Californian is one of the best written, best 
illustrated and most interesting magazines we know 
of — .S". r. Gazette. 

"The magazine fills a much needed place on 
the coast, and we predict a great success. — Golden 

" If the most fastidious of magazine readers wants 
anything better than the June ( '.Al.ll'tntNI.VN", we 
cannot help saying that he or she nuist look for 
something at llie jiresent dav unattainable. * * As 
a family' magazine, we believe THE CALIFOKNIAN 
.stands linsurpas.sed."— y<'?<'/.s// I'oiee, ,St. I.ouis. 

The Californian Illustrated Macjazine, 










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Cor. Kirst and Spring Sts. 

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Miscellaneous • 

^''*Sj The Library of flnjerian Literature 

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The Californian 

Vol. II. 

AUGUvST, 1M92. 

No. 3. 



IT is doubtful whether, in an era of 
I establislied aud protected loan ex- 
hibitions, such feuds as that of 
Orsini and Colonna would have been 
entireh^ practicable. (Uielf saucers 
end by upholding Gliibellin cups ; 
York and lyancaster meet in a trophy ; 
Bourbon vases rest loyall}' in the 
chimney shelves of Orleans. 

Even Juliet, in the costume com- 
mittee of Verona, neglecting neither 
side of the Adige in her search for 
headgear and gold embroidery, would 
have gone fearlessly through the 
Montague doorway, begging to in- 
spect the ancestral armoircs; while 
Romeo, representing armor and metal 
work, might have eventually been 
found studying, without a mask, the 
Capulet sword-blades and dagger - 
hilts, and so Mercutio's wound been 
spared us and his plague on both 
their houses uninvoked. 

Taking into account that length 
of daj's which makes up life, as 
distinguished from youth, collecting 
may perhaps rank with the grandest 
passions of mankind. 

Tne power of attraction undoubt- 
edly exerted by exhibitions of such 
collecting may be explainable by 
science as the stored-up magnetism of 
successive ownerships, if magnetism, 
like electricity can be so stored. 
They are per\-aded by a subtle per- 
sonality, which, even to the first 
comer in the early morning, makes of 
them a salon aud not a museum. 

Vol. 11—22 335 


tions of 

Both living and dead .selves may Ihem.selves in bronze ; memo- 
ries and associations not entered in 
the catalogue hang themselves on the 
line with ])ictures, mount upon tlie 
pedestals of statues, and make inter- 
leaved editions of loaned books. 
About collected pipes and etchings 
still lingers the aroma of cigars and 
discussions which went out together ; 
laces and combs, girdles and bracelets, 
still bear Barbara Allen's refusal and 
Dorothy Q.'s con.sent. During the 
Philadelphia Kxhibition, New York 
inausfurated the idea of loan collec- 
modern paintings, supple- 
to it — an exhibition so 
and fine that visitors have 
the fair, supplementary' to loans. 

Again, later, and growing out of 
the associations of 1S76, .she collected 
at the Academy of Design and Metro- 
politan Museum what the Nation 
designated as "works of art and 
curiosity," all these exhibitions meet- 
ing with enthusiastic as well as criti- 
cal recognition. 

Following the fashion of one cos- 
mopolis, might it not prove advan- 
tageous for other states to institute a 
series of such loan exhibitions as 
might illustrate individual state 
history or tradition, making such 
exhibits precede the World's Fair at 
Chicago instead of following it ? 

Whatever of good result such in- 
vestigation accompli.-^hed could he 



submitted in part or as a whole to the 
Commissioners for possible acceptance, 
and anythin,^ of real value would 
inevita])ly meet recognition. To be 
very ambitious, what could be more 
interesting than such state loan col- 
lections, themselves in turn, sifted, 
collected and at the service of student 
and historian, with only one life to 
live and the records of forty- four 
varieties of Americans to crowd 
into it ? 

Still, to be aml)itious, covild those 
states in particular, which in any 
measure represent or have repre- 
sented the New England, New France 

pure and simple of objects of art and 
international curiosity-, may in time 
become established and the Mona 
lyisa meet the totem-poles of Alaska 
at some designated center of courtesy. 

In such a concerted plan, California, 
more than an^^ other state in the 
Union, would figure still as part of 
the ' ' Augmentation of the Spanish 
Indies." In fact, what is this great 
fair itself but the salute courteous of 
even New France and New England 
to old Espaiaa, and that Isabella, 
whose very scattered jewels are per- 
haps in many an American riviere ? 

The Californian Illustrated 

liS^t^ vp 


Relics from the Presidio. 

Collection of Antonio l'". Coronel. 

and New vSpain, whose unforeseen 
combination resulted in nothing short 
of a New World, unite in such a Loan 
Exhibition, would there not result a 
thousand charming coincidences of 
costume, legislation, manufacture and 
modes of thought ? Documents, rec- 
ords, laws, maps, portraits and 
miniatures, arms, rings, seals and 
swords would make the state archives 
for six months national ones. 

Besides, in an International Fair, 
direct appeal might be made to Eon- 
don, Paris and Madrid, with many 
chances of success. It is even possible 
that International Eoaii Ivxhibitions, 

Magazine has kindly consulted the 
Pasadena Eoan Association in 
Advisory Committee are Jessie Benton 
Fremont, the Very Reverend Father 
Adam and Don Antonio Carinel — 
concerning such a possil)le World's 
Fair Eoan Ivxhibition, and suggests it 
as at best a i)rofitable subject for dis- 
cussion. Asking also of what such an 
exhibit should consist. 

The reph' is ; "If anything which 
could add a historic interest to any 
one of the one hundred and ninety- 
three great groups into which Mr. 
de Young tells us tlie thirteen depart- 
nunts of the Fair are dixided, and 



supplement mining, architecture, 
machinery, floriculture, viticulture, 
.shii)l)uil(ling, transportation and the 
rest, regarded as distributix'e exhiljits, 
a collective exhibit of Mission Indian 
Work, such as is suggested by Tiiic 
CaijI'Orxiax, might be made — this 
association thinks — if the co-oi)eration 
of the Spanish eknienl in tlie State, 
that of the Franciscans of Santa Bar- 

the powerful alliance of national 
archaeology and disputed questions be 
referred to the curator himself. 

Desultory examples are given in 
this paper of some of the arts and 
manufactures in which the mission 
Indians excelled, and in a succeeding 
one, a more carefully prepared enu- 
meration of them will be furnished ; 
this bare and unillustrated enumera- 

Objects from tlie Mission. 

bara and of the Commissioners 
themselves, could l)e .secured. 

Mr. Otis T. Mason, representing 
the vSmithsonian Institution, desires 
' ' to show in Chicago the homes of 
all our aboriginal tribes either in 
drawings, models or photographs." 
A collective exhibit of mission 
Indian work, if it were worthily 
made, might thus be able to secure 

tion being one to surprise any one not 
a student of mission histon*. 

Governor Portola, coming up with 
Pad/ 1' Serra and the first exj>;dition 
by land, beheld in 1768, it is probable 
with -some emotion, the Capifana, San 
Carlos ami the attending San Antonio, 
of the expedition by sea. lying at 
anchor in the "beautiful and famous 
port of San Diego." The salutes 



which were exchanged announced the 
Spanish occupation of CaHfornia. 
The cannon represented in the initial 
engraving is that which gave Portoki's 
first sahite and the powder magazine 
was part of the lading of the Sa)i 
Caj'los. and nia>- ha\-e been stowed 
away b}^ the hands of Jose de Galvez 

These two staunch old companoos, 
with the noble compaTiia of church 

guns and iiiilrailleuse might stop and 
examine curiously this cannon "San 
Diego," which, after serving the 
Saint of Alcala, was carried on mule- 
back to again fire allegiance to Carlos 
III in the founding of the Mission 
San Gabriel ; wdiich renewed such 
allegiance in a salvo for the new 
Pueblo of Los Angeles, and yet with 
all its l)rave a.ssociations, could almost 
be put into a modern Gladstone bag. 

Wooden Stirrup (cstribo) carved by Mission Indians. From Carmelo, 
In the possession of nou. Abl)ol Khincy. 

bells, which still remains to us, make 
a fit beginning for even state historical 
collecting, and supplemented l)y the 
Toledo blades (figuring in Spanish as 
Espadas Tolcdanas) lances and Jiiaihc- 
/f5 of the old prcsidial Castillos as well 
as the peaceful weights and measures 
of the mi-ssion, point to a definite 
beginning in such work. 

The great Kru])p or his descendants 
who could, perhaps, pass by Gatling 

All this might interest where greater 
pieces of iron failed in attracting 

Let us not be deterred in possible 
exhibition l)y fear of competition with 
Mexico, in only lines wherein 
California could hope to excite interest 
and prove individuality. The charm 
of its occupation as recorded by the 
journal -kee])ing governors and the 
writing frays, who accompanied each 



land expedition and stood at the prow 
of every exploring vessel, was the 
charm which makes Robinson Crnsoe 
delightful when the annals of vSj'haris 
fail. Flora and fauna, mountain and 
seashore were taxed in manners 
deliciously original. What high pon- 
tifical mass could thrill the celeljranl 
like that first service at Vellicata, with 
lighted powder for, and the 
anti]:)honal of cannon anrl 
musketry in i)lace of the organ tones ? 
lyater, .strange ber- 
ries were burned 
for, rude 
censors s w u n g 
heavenward and 
half Druidical al- 
tars and bell towers 
reverently made of 
the ancient oaks. 
It is this differen- 
tiation and this 
poverty w h i c h 
makes history and 
individualizes peo- 
ples. Here at first, 
every friar was an 
Alexander Selkirk 
and his mission a 
separate Juan Fer- 

A distributive 
exhibit of this old 
historical material, 
like that .suggested 
aliove, made with 
that nicct)' and ap- 
preciation of de- 
tail which marks 
the modern stage- 
.setting of a revival historical play, 
could scared}' fail to be of interest and 
relevancy, and the collective exhibit of 
aboriginal work and workmanship fit 
into its own niche at an avowedly 
industrial fair. 

The INIi-Ssion church, reprc-^enting 
in its construction a host of trades 
and incipient arts, the carved wooden 
stiiTup, said to be that of Padre 
Junipcro Serra, the carcfull\- restored 
old pulpit, the engraved drinking-cup. 
the Indian sonajas the primitive 

Restored Indian I'ulpit. San Gabriel Arcinpel. 

Stone implements about the oldest 
neophyte of San Gabriel Arcangel, 
suggest the material for such a repre- 

The stirruj) may be, according to 
one's point of view, only a piece of 
white oak carving or an epitome of 
history. WIkj was it, .seeing the 
worn old slipper of Pierre Corneille, 
said of Louis (^uatorze — protecting 
literature from the height of his 
*alons rouges — ''Louis, ce Soulier 

me g&te tout ton 
regue ?" This old 
cstribo, rescued 
from Carmel, and 
car\'ed by Indian 
devotees contrasts 
well with the slip- 
per cjf Corneille 
and in a manner 
glorifies the entire 
reign of King 
Carlos III while 
ranking with the 
cannon of Portola. 
'>I fear courteous 
" Padre Joachin," 
who so kindly as- 
cends into his pul- 
pit and })uts on for 
us the very oldest 
stole in his robing- 
room, feels and 
knows that we are 
difficult, and no 
better satisfied 
w i t h restoration 
than with ruin it- 
self. Restoration 
is. at best, but 
in sequoia, of nia- 
stonework once 

sorry, and that 
sonry and rude 
crowned by earthen tiles, sorrier than 
most. In my possession is a sketch 
from memory of the brilliant old 
frescoing of the neophytes of San 
Gabriel Arcangel, which must be 
hidilen under its pre.-^ent dazzling 
white walls, frescoing which still 
exists, glowing in fragments of Byzan- 
tine patterns at San Juan Capistrano 
and untouched Pala in the colors of 
another centur>- and civilization. 



We cannot associate with this pulpit 
the face of Father vSanchez or Presi- 
dent Lasnen, Serra himself or Fray 
Jose Maria de Zalridea, preaching in 
the Indian tongue to an Indian con- 
gregation. That, hanging high amid 
the ruins of San L,uis Rey, guarded 
only by the statue of the king or the 
painted one-half falling in the walls 
of La Purissima is a memory, indeed. 

Carving in horn as well as stone and 
wood was common in the missions, 
an example being furnished in the 
drinking-cup, still in Don Antonio's 
possession and not regarded by him 
as of particular merit, such being in 
ev^ery^-day at the padres' tables or 
carried in the uwcliila of the traveller 
who drank from them to the health of 
Carlos or Fernando, Seiior Natural 
of the Two Californias. As to method 
of making, the ox-horn was first .soft- 
ened by .soaking, then shaped over a 
piece of w^ood fitted into it while the 
horn was still pliable, and the design 
engraved with a buein (Sp. bueil) 
most commonly made by the Indian 
arti.san out of a common nail. We 
know that Turner preferred, as an 
etching needle, the prong of an old 
steel fork, and it adds even to Michael 
Angelo's originality that he often 
made his own tools before commencing 
his statues. The bottom of such a 
drinking-cup was sometimes made of 
beaten silver and the cup it.self l)anded 
and rimmed with the .same metal, 
Don Antonio learned himself the 
silversmith's trade of an Indian 
neophyte of San Antonio dc Padua, 
in whom he declares he found a master 

Two nations of dancers came to- 
gether in this remote fusion of civiliza- 
tions which forms our early State 
hi.story. The .same race characteri.stic 
in the Spaniard .so marked that it 
defied old vSpanish legi.slation against 
the h^andango. and the fulminations of 
the clergy of New »Spain in Los 
Angeles against the Kuropean waltz, 
appeared as untamably in the Indian 
and prevented his acceptance of the 
new belief. 

To the readers of Padre lioscana 
will always occur the .scornful logic of 
the old Capitanejo of San Luis Rey 
when listening to a .sermon addressed 
to the Indians on the efiicac}' of the 
sign of the cross made upon their fore- 
heads and the invocation of the names 
of INIar}- and the newly-preached "If it were done by dancing 
before Chinigchinich " was the old 
chief's staunch reply to the circular 
vanquech though listening in the 
cruciform church — -"it would not be 
incredible, but that it can be done by 
the sign of the cross, I cannot believe. ' ' 
Belief did begin even for a most .scep- 
tical, wdien this mj^ was .set for 
them, to music and the credo it.self 

Absolutely fa.scinating are the tra- 
ditions of these dancing and singing 
Indians reduced to choristers and 
church musicians under the batons of 
the Fathers ; ma.steringthe Gregorian 
Chant, it.self pure as their own voices 
and once as rude — for the Exultet of 
Holy Week has ab.solutely no assign- 
able date — forming the big semi- 
breves with red or Colorado brought 
from the mountains, or marching 
thirty of them wdth Jose el Cantor at 
their head in the procession headed 
by President Seiian and twenty padres 
which welcomed Governor Sola to 

There were among them nati\-e 
Amatis and Stradivarii, who made 
church violins and viols of native pine 
and cedar, inlaid and wrought upon, 
while others evolved drums and cym- 
bals and the children in the mission 
quadrangles watched the blacksmith 
fashion rude triangles for the Mass. 

If some painter would .spend one 
year, say this year, upon a nuisic- 
sul)jcct taken from the traditions and 
history of times ; the cuadro of 
San perhaps, with old Padre Duran bareheaded and en- 
wra]H, beating time against one of the 
pillars of the corridor while the thirty 
native nuisicians practised for tlie 
Mass on as man\- different instruments 
I b(.lie\'e Madame Judic \v<nild buy it. 



Under the gentile tci^inie nothing 
but physical exhaustion justified a 
cessation of the dancing before Chhiijr- 
chinich and a return to the tonic. 
Travelers, even now, occasionally see 
an old Indian thus dancing in ex- 
hausting and solitary ecstasy, while 
the young men of the tribe look and 
laugh, and jx-rhaps discuss theosophy. 

Advanced veranda furnishing in 
southern California might be said to 
consist of a stone metalc and a feather 
duster. This combination of arch- 
aeology and good housekeeping must 
occasionally puzzle the traveler, as it 
surely would the historic old 
woman who ground the food of 
perhaps four generations upon 
the same hollow stone without 
one dream of its singular ad- 
vancement, and may yet lead to 
strange theories in case of a race- 

A World's Fair without a t},p:- 
cal old woman would not repre- 
sent one state with either historic 
or archaeological accuracy, but 
old women, like accredited Ama- 
zons and grifTnis of the era of 
Liota and Queen Calafia, are not 
as attainal)le as in "the other 
days" which preceded our own. 
Traditional I^ilila herself, present 
at the founding of San Luis 
01)ispo in 1772, is hardly more 
discredited than the Laura and 
Benjamin a of ten 5^ears ago. What 
Mnemosynes these ancient women 
might have been had thought 
registering been invented! Span- 
ning time, roughly speaking, by the 
century and a third, three such mem- 
ories would reach back to Columbus. 
Last of her kind, Jacinta Serrano was 
not -laid away in the INIi-ssion grave- 
yard without forming a dignified 
figure in the Kullurkampf of the nine- 
teenth century. 

Brought suddenly out of her tule 
jacal by an enterprising member of the 
primary committee, local tradition 
says in a coupe, sent dov^n on the 
shortest possible notice, .she must have 
undersfone emotions cu roitfc for the 

library building little short of those 
attending translation (jr the apotheosis, 
but no trace of awakened emotion 
.showed upon her face. 

La Perouse, fresh from his frigate 
Boussolc, and the attendant Astrolabe 
on a scientific of the world and 
affording the ^'ery first example of 
brench fashion in our New Spain, 
passed, in 17S6, through the plaza of 
Monterey lined v/itli Indians of both 
sexes, on his way to celebrate 
before the altar <jf Carmelo. * lie says 
" their faces showed no surprise and 
left roor.i to doubt if we should Ixr the 

Cup of Ox-hom. engraved by Indian Neophyte 
In the collection of .•\ntonio F. Coronel. 

subject of their conversation for the 
rest of the day." 

T!:e padws must have exhausted, 
if not their patience, at the 
dictionar>'s " \'ocabular>- of Common 
Christian Xames." in introducing 
Christianity among and designating 
separately, converts who not infre- 
quently came in by the rancluria with 
the capi'.an or capitancjo at its head. 
Jacinta, named, perhaps, for that 
St. H>acinth who preached to all 
barbarians from Scotland to China, 
and would therefore gladly have 



ascended the old Indian-carved pulpit 
of San Gabriel Arcangel, entered very 
quietly upon her duties in the 
Hispano-Mexicau Department of the 
Pasadena Loan Exhibition of 18S9, 
which was a genuine, if incomplete, 
revival of New Spain. Patiently and 
with a touching deference to author- 
ity which explained the wonders 
by the Franciscans and brought back 
the mission regime, she wore her 
corila or basket (still preserved by the 
padrond) at those infrequent moments 
when it was not taken out of her 
hands by visitors, or posed for the 
photographer, or illustrated the pre- 
liminaries of piyiole and atole making, 
or sold strands of colored glass beads 
given by the padre long ago, before 
"secularization," and which, by a 
curious irony, must still be synony- 
mous for the Indian with the higher 
civilization. Over her head was a 
decorative frieze of tules, representing 
to her, perhaps, an apotheosis of that 
familiar building material, correspond- 
ing in strangeness with her own. 
Leading down to her position on the 
bare floor was a stairway draped 
solidly with the Indian blankets of 
collectors, and up and down this 
stairway passed the cosmopolitan 
procession of health and pleasure 
seekers which constitutes the world 
which here s' amuse. Behind her 
the maker of cascarones plied her 
trade of rudely decorating egg-shells, 
and the fashioner of drawn-work drew 
her threads for patterns older even 
than the memory of Jacinto or Lilila 
herself, v/hile tier upon tier of baskets 
excited exultation or despair in owner 
or collector. Through a Navajo 
potticre she caught an occasional 
glimpse of Captain Chittenden, of the 
Alaskan Department, bewilderingly 
personating Indian warriors in tribal 
costumes, which varied with the 
changing days. Beyond lier smoked 
the Russian samovars, about which 
was gathered the fashion of and in 
the town, the most popular of ])acli- 
elors repaying social deljts ; the Ilerr 
Professor of Harvard discussing the 

great telescope among the yuccas of 
Mt. Wilson ; Mr. Holder in perhaps 
the werdelust of Gcethe, even then 
formulating TiiE Californian and 
its illustrations, meanwhile offering 
caviar and lemon to Jessie Benton 

Above Jacinta, the acacia decora- 
tions of the Oriental Department 
blent once more with the yellows in 
Eastern rugs and shawls — the same 
acacias under which the weavers 
wrought them, and which have sug- 
gested their coloring from immemorial 
times. Past her came the leader of 
the Hungarian orchestra, to receive 
the favor of red, white and green 
roses, which represented both Buda 
Pesth and Mejico, while Don Arturo 
Bandini, nephew of Concepcion de 
Arguello, and descendant of the 
Alvarado of the triste noche, in all the 
bravery of full Spanish costume, re- 
ceived day after day and illustrated 
with fine unconsciousness the element 
of caste. 

In the collecting of types the artist 
stationed at the Plaza of Eos Angeles 
may show, without moving his um- 
brella, a portfolio which shall repre- 
sent Europe, Asia, Africa, North and 
South America as the result of rapid 
sketching, while material for the 
camera is absolutely unending. As 
you drive into the suburbs, Susana, 
under the Mexican floripiindio, may 
be separated from the Chinese gar- 
dener cutting bamboo for his mistress' 
tallest vases by only a vacant lot of 
wild lilies and blue-eyed grass. 

It is a matter of tradition that Mr. 
Ruskiu expressed aversion to coming 
to a country destitute of either ruins 
or castles ; it is a matter of notoriety 
that IMademoi.selle de la Ramce pro- 
fessed pity for a people devoid of 
peasantry, yet ten 5'ears ago it would 
not have required a ver}^ courageous 
hostess to invite l)oth into her carriage 
with, say San Diego or Buenaventura 
as a starting point and Santa Barbara 
or Monterey as an objective stopping- 
place. The arches ("f San Juan Capis- 
trano or San Luis Rey would have 



met recognition from the Sir John (jf 
criticism — for the hYanciscan missions 
were also fortified castles, rude but 
built for genuine defense — while 
glimpses en route of the- double- peas- 
antry of Mexico and China \v(n:ld 
have assured us an almost monarchical 
position with difhcult niadcnwisclle. 
lyUciano runs up the outer stairway 
of the vSan Oabriel, it being a sjjray of 
wild to])acco growing by the empty 
niche built by the neophytes upon 
whose forehead the padres had made 
the sign of the cross ; you watch the 
gardener, in the blue blouse Millet 

Rio de los Temblores ?" " Could we 
still find Indian women to make jelly 
from tlie tunas of Father Jose ^Iaria 
de Zah'idea's old mission hedge ?" 

" Would they \xsq. panocha or sugar 
if we could ?" 

" Dili they make and can they still 
make pomegranate wine at vSan Juan ?" 

" Could we find a geimine Indian 
alabado and a native nuisician to get 
it upon music i)aper, red notes pre- 

" Do you suppose they buried the 
bass-viols and other church instru- 
ments with the mission bells ?" 

Indian Sonajas or Rattles, used in the worship of Chinigcbinich. 
Collection of Antonio K. Coronel. 

would have loved to paint, lift the 
pilgrim gourd to his lips under the 
big hat, "mow;" a viuchachita like 
Susana darts out from a pomegranate 
hedge, sets a smaller mnchacha with 
painful violence upon a turf oi filaria 
and sings for you a song like that 
which Mr. Fraence heard in old vSpain 
itself. By what }2ise will the com- 
isionados persuade all this representa- 
tive picturesqueness to the F'air ? 

" Do you believe the eight l)ells of 
San Luis Key were buried by the 
neophytes? \Vhich, ah which, SeTior 
Don, was the real and not the reputed 

" What coloring did the Indians 
use in their frescoing and what re- 
mains of it exist at Pala ?" 

All tliese questions are a.'^ked and 
answered in the of the interpre- 
ter or, not to be di.sagreeable and 
mysterious, in the sala of Don 
Antonio Coronel. 

It is literally, however, through the 
ser\-ices of Dona Mariana, the house 
of the inteqireter, as many a ques- 
tioner into the can testify. The 
name " Mariana." in large letters 
over the front doorway tells of its 
dedicatory character. \\'e are living 



in the sequoia "period," as opposed 
to the adobe ; so the house is, of course, 
of two high stories of white redwood, 
with attic and a basement which is 
a ground-floor of history-. Looking 
out of its front \yA.\ window you may 
still see from this casa grande the 
walls of the old house denuded of 
orange and lemon trees, climbing 
cactus and roses. The carreta, which 
used to stand before the open door- 
way, reminding me of the royal, if 
faineant, days of France has fallen to 
pieces ; only the two big sycamore 
wheels from the Verdugo Cafion, 
standing side by side in the museum, 
to show its construction to the visitors 
who come now in victoria or coupe. 
Transplanted ycrba bucna, bergamot, 
and sleep-compelling adormiders, how- 
ever, bloom along the cemented walks 
and an agave or maguey stretches up 
symbolically to the very eaves, com- 
mensurate with the new regime as it 
towered above the old. 

You are not only in the house of 
the interpreter but in the palpable 
dominion and atmosphere of Hernando 
Cortez. A series of strange old pic- 
tures form a Spanish line of possession 
along the walls. These pictures rep- 
resent Mariana, also in the role of 
interpreter, between Cortez and Mon- 
tezuma ; Mariana, almost the first of 
Indian neophytes whose technical 
difficulties when called iipon to ex- 
I)lain the Trinity and the transubstan- 
tiation are suggested by Mr. Prescott, 
and of whom we may be sure the 
Spaniard also demanded a translated 
diagnosis of that disease which could 
only be cured by Indian gold. Kx- 
am])les of plumaje, or featherwork, 
such maybe as Alvarado's caravel 
first took back to Charles V line the 
walls, alternating with portraits and 
cabinets of Guadalajara ware, while 
Don Antonio's sombrero, now reduced, 
under our civilization, to a mural 
decoration instead of a head-covering, 
hangs in the doorway, and his rcbozo 
is "draped" high over a modern 

The house may be said to be under 

the invocation of San Antonio de 
Padua as well as the dominion of 
Cortez. The opening door conceals for 
you, as coming guest, a tiny image of 
the .saint which, as a parting one, 3'ou 
may examine. As a remembrance of 
General Vallejo, a picture of the 
founding of Saint Antony's own mis- 
sion greets you from the wall, and 
the mountain of the .seraphic doctor 
shows white from the window to the 
north. To the right of the Virgin in 
the oratory upstairs, the great miracle- 
worker holds the Jesuito on his book, 
and here, night and day, when la 
grippe attacks the Don and local 
history together, burns the .supplica- 
tor}- candle of Mariana to this patron 

What question in .state history or 
local tradition will you have an.swered 
to-day ? 

Would you .see Don Antonio reha- 
bilitate the old Californian soldado de 
euero, who was Indian fighter, mission 
guard, defender of the Ca.stillo of the 
Presidio of San Diego, Santa Barbara, 
Monterey or San Franci.sco, or of the 
pueblos of Dos Angeles and San Jose ? 
The cotton jackets of the followers of 
Cortez in Mexico are succeeded in the 
mission chronicles by these cuirassiers 
of Carlos III, who spent so much of 
this mortal life in .seven layers of 
tainied Ijuckskin and were carried into 
the mission graveyards in the cord 
and cowl of St. Francis, cast off by 
padre and confessor. Seven such 
buckskins, tanned perhaps l)y as 
many Christian Indians for the 
caballeros' against the arrows 
of the Gentile ones, made 
leather jackets of hi.story. The .seven 
thicknesses of this acirass or corium 
were sewed by Indian ar))iou?res with 
buckskin strips fasliioned .something 
after the fashion, a chef s simile, 
of lardooiis, and the buckskin boots 
elaborately laced witli similar strips of 
greater size. The quilted collar of 
the cuirass, turned up above the ears, 
met the brim of the sombrero dura, 
the ribl)on of which was always black. 
On his arm this .same soldado slipped 



his round shield of seven beef hides 
soaked, scraped and sewed upon a 
frame with sncli leatliern tlircad as 
the times aflurded and such lieroic- 
sized needle as has been acceptable to 
savage and civilized man alike since 
the foundation C)f the world. This 
.shield bore the arms of his Majesty of 
Spain, embos.sed \)y the .same patient 
neophytes who finished saddle and 
bridle, .stirrup .shield and saddle-bag, 
mantilla dc silla and sheath for the 
viachele in the saddleries, giving in the 
mi.ssion courts, and of which later 

bow knot t(j the right of his chin ; 
make an absolute vi.sor of his eye- 
brows ; retreat into the long sleeves 
of the jacket t(j show the superflu<jus- 
ness of gloves ; all this, while Cortez 
and Mariana, Governor Micheltorena 
and Helen Hunt watch him fnjm the 
walls and h'ather Serra lost in the 
sweet rapture of a priest of the order, 
which was founded on the ecstasies of 
Saint Francis, smiles approval from 
his frame, or as Dona Mariana believes, 
returns to listen. I would like to 
know where Don Antonio is really 

Jacinta Serrano, Cahuilla Indian of San Gabriel Arc^nge!. 
Photographed at the Second Exhibition of the Pasadena Loan Association, ;SSo 

those of Santa Ines, ]''irgcn y Martyr 
stood in the lead. 

But to .see Don Antonio put on all 
these consecutive layers with a sepa- 
rate .shrug for each one as he adjusts 
it ; to watch him pull up the laced 
boots with a reminiscent shiver over a 
cactus thicket between Pala and San 
L,uis ; adjust the shield in a way 
which connects him with Mars and 
Peleus, Siegfried and the Telemonian 
Ajax ; fasten his lance to his arm with 
the correa of leather ; hack awa>- 
opposing chaparral with his un- 
sheathed machete ; tie the black ribbon 
of the sombrero duro in a double 


Is he starting for a fiesta at 
Monterey or one of the eseolta, as for 
the coming governor ? He hums the 
A/alaq-ana or the /ota Aragonesc. 
Suddenly the bell of the electric street 
railway announces a coming caller 
and Rugcrio, a San Fernando Indian, 
ver.sed in the lore and traditions of the 
rancheria, but wearing a Derby hat 
and a four-in haiul tie, is ushered in, 
and making the bow which acknowl- 
edges his presentation. 

Next to inveterate honesty and 
loyalty ranks, perhaps, unalienable 
gallantry in the Spanish composition 
of Don Antonio, a gallantrv aided and 



abetted by Dona Mariana, who laughs 
over his occasional discomfitures and 
thence slays her husband's slain with 
a wife's own prerogative. In the 
midst of the gravest events of State 
history, the Spanish comb, perlas, 
from the gulf, slippers with clicking 
heels, kerchiefs and mantillas com- 
plete as recollections with Toledo 
blades and Franciscan cords, the 

" When did the name San Francisco 
definitely succeed that of Yerba 
Buena ? Did the Gray Friars ever 
wear brown ? " 

His face falls and he stops walking 
up and down. He had hoped the 
question was : ' ' Did the old Califor- 
nian carr>^ his sweetheart to the 
fandango en avant or en croupe?'^ 
l)ut the disappointment is but tem- 

Don Antonio." Dona Mariana. Los Anpeles. 

Compania dc cucro and Indian neo- 
phytes. Temporary disappointment 
clouds his face at the (]uestions his 
interpreter puts faithfully in the con- 
versations a ttois. 

"What does .she ask, Mary? 
What would she know next ? " 

" Have the Channel Indians sun- 
worshippers like those of vSan 
Clemente ? ' ' 

porary. In twenty nervous words he 
is back again into history proper, 
with Portola and I'^agis, Serra and 
Crcspi, la niiijcr relegated en croupe. 

We run over each other's prejudices 
in an international way, which is the 
occasion of laughter, also a hois. 
Having been urged more than once 
for the hynni, " vSancta 
Maria," acci^nii.'uiicd l»v the guitar, 



Don Antonio at last consented, thouj^h 
with some confusion, explaininj^ after- 
wards that he doubted if the Virgin 
had ever before in the whole history 
of California been addressed to the 
music of that secular instrument, and 
evidently aware of the impiety of his 

Are you temporarily wearied with 
history ? What is there of ilower lore 
with which Doiia Mariana is not 
familiar — yerba santa and yerba 
buena, mariposas and yerba del oso, 
the pale l)lue convolvulus which she 
knows as the virgin's mantle, and 
the hollyhock as the flower of vSan 

Among the Aztecs there were cer- 
tain men who kept important events, 
genealogies, etc., in their memory, and 
recited them when called upon. Let 
us hope this race of men has survived 
even the Conquistadores, and is pre- 
serv'ed to us, through Mexico and 
Mexicans. Wearing yet with easy 
grace, when he chooses so to do, the 

old vSpanish costume, drawing the old 
ciiadro of the Mi.ssion Santa Inez, on 
the fl> -leaf of Atala ; dancing the 
coyote dance in a way which makes 
intelligible the legends of Xezahual- 
coyotl ; trying to recall an«/«^aa'<? and 
remember whether he learned it 
jjefore the at San An- 
tonio de Padua or in Old Mexico, at 
Culiacan ; l)ringing in the bear for a 
fiesta at San Luis Rey ; explaining 
the bull fights in the plaza of Los 
Angeles, where Pio Pico threw the 
cloak and the (oro came in from hills 
as brown as the Sierra Moreno of 
vSpain ; laughing with the laugh which 
has laughed Spain's chivalry away, 
and half-sighing for its return down 
the Americanized streets ; this is 
"Don Antonio," whose personality, 
could he l;e enticed into permeating 
these pages, would prove that no rep- 
resentation of the present state, how- 
ever opulent and magnificent, could 
be other than heightened by a revival 
of the past. 


The hopes of man are prophesies divine ; 

His fears, gaunt spectres that 

P'rom supenstitions old, and minds diseased. 

Brave .souls hope, only the weak despair, 

And (lie forgotten in the Giant's lair. 

All hopes are inspirations that ilo grow 

Within pure hearts, where heavenly splendors glow ; 

And hopes are truths that, with Heaven's light divine, 

Refulgent gleam far o'er the hoary heights of time. 

Upon the mountain top Hope stands with forms 

Invincible ; and there above all storms 

She chants her revelation, leading on 

Aspiring souls to destinies unknown. 

SanDieg\ Cal., 1S9S. 

NESTOR A. vorxa